Wednesday, September 14, 2011



Mary of The Cross, Mary McKillop, our officially sanctioned 'Saint' is not among the elect on her own, for she yet leads a throng of hundreds, thousands, maybe tens of thousands, of the unofficially acknowledged, for too long uncelebrated, too-often unrecognized, and maybe, even completely unnoticed or overlooked ...

"Christians of The Australian Clay"

+ + + + + An Australian Christian ALMANAC + + + + +

Alf Traeger as a young man
A faithful Christian, electronic tinkerer and scientific inventor, Hermann Alfred Traeger (2 August 1895 – 31 July 1980), gave the Outback, and the Royal Flying Doctor service, a way of fast contact via the innovative local sustainable technology of the Pedal-Powered Wireless which he invented. Traeger can hardly be said to have personally profited from his original 'discovery' for rather than patenting and marketing it for his own enrichment, like many of today's wireless internet multi-millionaire inventors, he self-sacrificingly applied the technology in the service of others. The Traeger Pedal wireless was a lifeline of communications, used both in Outback Australia, in Africa and the South Pacific. A district of Alice Springs is named to honour him.
Alf Traeger in later years.

“There is no saint without a past, no sinner without a future.” - Saint Augustine of Hippo,

Augustine of Hippo, though an African and not an Australian, nevertheless tells it fair dinkum. No one comes to saintliness without forgiveness and redemption, and no sinner is so depraved that given forgiveness and redemption they could not come to a saintly future. So, given his fair dinkum nature and courage, and his African colonial analogue of the Southland, I vote in Augustine of Hippo as an honorary Australian.

'William' BARAK born c. 1824 Brushy Creek, near Lilydale - died15 August 1903, Healesville, Victoria, was the last traditional 'ngurungaeta' elder of the Wurundjeri-willam people of the Yarra Valley. He led his people into a firm Christian faith through the influence, first of assistant Protector and Wesleyan, William Thomas, and later to his Scots friends, John and Mary Green of Healesville. Barak who could read and write, and would lead deputations to the Governor, believed strongly that his path went on to Christ's new heaven and new earth with a Yarra Valley brought into paradise.

This site is a work in progress with the ultimate aim of providing interactive
networking to harvest human interest details to write mini-biographies and
illustrate the lives of those significant Australian Christians
or Christian Australians, however great, however flawed, for the gift of their
particular grace, or charism, for what will ammout to
a Calendar of Australian ' SAINTS ' - although, not named as such,
but, in all their fallibility and humanity in the Australian context of cultural cringe,
especially in relation to divinity, to be called


SO - ONE inspiring 'SAINT' for each day of the year

- and so 365 or 366 people

Irene McCormack, (1938-1991) a Sister of St Joseph of the Sacred Heart - from Trayning, Western Australia.Went to Peru to work for the poor. She was assaulted, mocked, and so martyed by being murdered by Maoist terrorists in Peru.

Christians Of The Australian Clay

Christ's Mob in God’s Own Country:

(God Botherers here Downunder)

On Australia day 2004 a television guest on

the ABC Aussie Hero Quest show said:

"Well he couldn't be a saint because he was Australian."

YET - we have Christian martyrs who were born in Australia
- We have Christian martyrs in Australia who were born elsewhere

- we have outstanding acts of Christian service in Australia
- we have outstanding acts of Christian service by Australians out of Australia
- we have outstanding acts of Christian witness in Australia
- we have outstanding acts of Christian witness by Australians out of Australia -



+ Christ’s Cross-Bearers in Australia.

OZ SAINTS Australian Saints [or Bearers of Christ’s Cross in Australia }

· Exceptional Christians

· = worked with aboriginals

· + aboriginal

· people who made a Christian contribution, .

who shared the love of Christ for the poor, lost, stranger, the addicted
who defended the faith, or were apologists for Christ and his church
who took up the cross of Christ, or who turned the other cheek,
who called for repentence
who stood for justice, human rights of those made 'in the Image' of God
who were prophets in their time
· those who bore witness to Jesus Christ with their life in devoted service of the needy, the sick, the dying

· who were Christian mystics with a life of prayer, reflection and contemplation

Christians of the Australian Clay

~ a calendar year book of unofficial downunder saints


In a corporate world even secular corporations now make a “Mission Statement’. Whether knowing, or ignorant, this causal focus is a legacy of Christian Missions. It was once only Christians who wrote up their principles and visions were firmly based on the sense of purpose and cause which is endowed in the Great Commison of Jesus Christ himself. The cause is summarised as the love of God and our neighbour as ourself. The following great crowd of witnesses have seen this love, this God, as a cause in Australia. For all their flaws and weaknesses the people of the soil of Novae Hollandae touched them and they have touched in return. This touching was a work to a Terra Australis de Espiritu Santu.

The Southland of Holy Ghost, the enigma, country of the Ultima Thule, at the very uttermost parts of the earth, at ends of the planet. A land wrought on another side of the Old World’s perception. A land covered by mystery. This land’s story, its late finding by most of the world, its fabled existence, is one of paradox. It exists as a body of spiritual scriptures for its first peoples. It existed as an idea, the idea of balance, a counterweight in the mind of western northern-hemisphere men. Australia is a land that had to be different, wry, other. It is scripture still, just as it is that counterweight still. ‘Paradoxical’ describes the humour of a people who mock themselves, who laugh at this clay.

It is said that she is a young country, ‘the last of lands, but they lie, she is of the oldest lands. Her geological landscapes are withered, her ranges like old teeth worn down with age. Her very position on the globe stands traditional viewpoints on their head. Podal Assumption goes like a tailless kangaroo in the Antipodes. The noble skulls in the pride of old glory end up eaten out by flies. The irony of the mineral-rich place touches its workings towards a quality - a sort of spiritual steel.

Christians of the timid or overly pious sort are ‘wowsers’ here. Killjoys. Christians of the authoritarian sort are hard to pick from Herod, Pilate, Caiaphus or Governor Bligh. Yet Christ is here. Unsung faith gets no swan-song. But here, Jesus often knows the cattleshed, the stocktrough, a whip, rejection, a crown of thorns and the old rugged cross. Many people of the old faith have had to walk that journey again, this time on Australian terms, to find Christ in His Australian life and truth.

Here, the sign of the Eucalyptus rules, from east to west, north to south. The sign is of a hidden glory; for eucalyptus means: well-covered. For every single blossom on the Australian national trees is covered with a wooden lid. All public flowering has a lid kept on it until the very last thing. The glory of the tree is kept hidden until the very last moment. For this is the harsh environment. The tough country. Hard-bitten in its character. The sclerophyll scrub stretches from desert coast to coast. Prickly leaves, coarse string bark, ironbark, crunchy, sticky scrublands and tangled heaths. This is tough country, of hard won existence, and hard-held tenderness.

The character of life is like the echidna, spiny on the outer, soft inside. This is the land that spikes its too-tender children with the edge and points of its tall-poppy scissors. It brings everyone down to earth. The natives know that they have feet of clay, and so they remind each other that they are no better than all the rest. Only, sometimes, this amounts to cruelling: of love, of grace.

Yet in Australia the great sinner might be a secret saint. And the great saint might be revealed to be a secret sinner. And don’t those feet in clay love to find other feet among that semi-fluid matter. Grief becomes a lifelong moan, and repentance is a matter of disgrace, unless it is born with stoic indifference. Australia is scrub and sand, rock and raspiness. Ironbark, messmate, prickly moses, wire and sword grass.

One thing many a heathen in church-bypassing Australia does not often appreciate about Christianity is its central tenet of forgiveness. This is the key point of God’s star-sent message to mankind in Jesus Christ, who stood as ransom for anyone that will accept Him, and He said of those earthbound men rejecting him: “Father forgive them, for they don’t know what they do.’

The Christian life is lived within these tensions: earth and the heavens. Two pulls, like the springs on opposite ends of the playing mat make life a spiritual trampoline. The spirit is willing but the flesh is weak; God knows! Jesus Christ does not expect us to be good enough What he wants is us to want more than just to have our feet on good clay, he wants our hearts and minds, our spirits and souls, to rise above.

The spirit is willing but the flesh is weak. Nevertheless, the striving Christian knows a potency of spirit that brings them, on repentance, into such goodwill, such redemption that he or she comes into fellowship with God himself, despite those personal failures, the sins. The whole body of weak moments goes to nothing when laid into eternity before the King of Creation. His body was broken for that end. And so melds the clay into gold in the rainbow.

Christians of the Australian Clay belong to the allsorts bag. This book is broad church. Names, denominations, matter as much as places do, states of origin, or of habitation. The Kaluthumpian and the Biblebasher, the Vandiemonian and the Victorian, the Territorian and the Terra-Globalist are all there.

Places as far apart as Thredbo and Yuendumu are represented. Islands and the main.

It owes its inspirations to these examples among fallible humanity who have been gripped by Divinities in the Christian Way. They have done in some way as Jesus would, for His way goes on, They have walked out of the Scriptures with the Word whose story is still being told: As Rod Boucher, Australian songwriter put it in his album ‘Set Us On Fire”:

“Thank God for the Bible...Its full if mistakes:
People who know it, and go it... and blow it;
But God tells his story through them...
and God lives his story through us...”

Yes, it is breathtaking to bring it right home like that, but true, on our shore, and close to us. I believe each of these Australians tried to live for Christ in some way or other. These, of the shifted-sinners who belong in the communion of saints, are all dead and gone to their reward. We now are the ones at the coalface between the clay and the stars. How do we shape up for the upward challenge?

Let the spirit be willing, even if the flesh is weak. Indeed this is why we need the other members of Christ’s body. Where the heathen looks for the evidence of weakness of flesh to attempt to annul this spirit; I do the opposite. I seek to show how wonderful it is that Christ has been telling his Australian stories in re-fired vessels of clay.

"Out of Clay
We were Made
And its Going
All the Way" Gerry Holmes


IN selecting Christians of The Australian Clay

1. Martyr Priority, or any High-Souledness as to Christian self-giving : - in largesse, respect, dignity, catholicity, generosity

2. Orthodoxy of heart and mind - as in the 'Heart of Christ', Integrity as to Creed, witness to truth of the Creedal Faith

3. Coal-face Christianity, need-engaged Christian ministry, both Great Commission responsive and Good Samaritan responsive

4. Courage is valourised: Courageous Faith, Brave Christian Conviction, or intrepid missionary adventuring, Risk-taking life-Pilgrimage minded faith

5. First People’s priority, Australian Indigenous frontier seen as a First Christian Cause

6. Holiness, Sanctity, Goodness, Devotion to Call or to Ordination, displaying something of the 'Heart of Christ'. CROSS: witness to bearing a Cross or showing a Christian response to difficulty, persecution, personal pain or suffering

7. Spiritedness, Wit, Christlike Edge, Spark, Fire, Quickness of soul,

8. A significant Australian connection: eg. birth, ministry, residency, death

9. Diversity: broad church, Global, Cosmopolitan, Ecumenical

10. Dead: the person needs be deceased, in the communion of the saints



Christians Of The Australian Clay

See next posts

CALENDAR: Christians of the Australian Clay


CALENDAR of Christians Of The Australian Clay


1. - Bishop Theophylactos PAPATHANASOPOULOS 1958 - Melbourne (dob)

2. -

3. - James Gibson WARD, 1895 Mapoon, Qld, Moravian Missionary

4. -

5. -

6. –

7. –

8. –

9. – Anthony Martin FERNANDO - 1949 Illford, Essex

10. –

11. –

12. –

13. –

14. – John GREEN Jnr -1897 martyr, New Guinea

15. –

16. –

17. –

18. –

19. –

20. – Bernard Alfonso O'REILLY - 1957

21. –

22. – Dr. Graham Stuart STAINES & sons -1999 Orissa, India - Martyrs

23. –

24. –

25. – 'Sir JACK' William John JUNGWIRTH - 1981 Kew, Vic.

26. –

27. –

28. –

29. –

30. –

31. -


1. –
2. – Rev.'James' Lee MOY LING, 1911
3. –
4. –
5. – 'Len' Leonard Noel KENTISH 1943 Dobo, Aru Islands
6. –
7. – David UNAIPON - 1967 Tailem bend, SA
8. – Fr. Jeremiah Francis O'FLYNN - 1831 Pennsylvania, USA
9. –
10. – Annie LOCK - 1943 at Cleve, SA
11. –
12. –
13. – Ella SIMON- 1981 Taree, NSW
14. –
15. –
16. –'MARANOOKA or Mr Maloga' Daniel MATTHEWS -1902, Mannum, SA (dod 17)
17. – Fr Claude-Francois Joseph Louis RECEVEUR 1788 La Perouse NSW
18. –
19. –
20. – Bishop William Grant BROUGHTON - 1854 London, Eng.
21. –
22. – Sir David Fletcher JONES - 1977 Warrnambool, Vic
23. – "KAMOTO" George Hubert HOLLIS - 1955 Cape Town, South Africa
24. –
25. –
26. –
27. –
28. –
29. -


1. – 'Staunch' Ebenezer VICKERY - 1906 Leeds, Yorkshire (dob)
2. –
3. –
4. –
5. –
6. – 'Tolpuddle Martyr' George LOVELESS - 1874 London, Ontario, CA
7. –
8. –
9. –
10. – 'Willie WIMMERA' - 1852 @ Reading, England
11. –
12. –
13. –
14. – 'GAHGOOK’ Mr Joseph SHAW 1909 Healesville, vic.
15. – Bishop Mesac THOMAS - 1892 Goulburn, NSW
16. – Friedrich Wilhelm ALBRECHT -1984 Fullarton, SA
17. –
18. – Robert Cummin KATTER - 1990 Mount Isa, QLD
19. –
20. – "JIBANYAMA" James JAPANMA 1962 (March) Roper River (Ngukurr), NT
21. –
22. –
23. –
24. –
25. –
26. –
27. –
28. –
29. –
30. – 'Brethren preacher' Henry VARLEY, 1912 Brighton, Eng.
31. –


1. –
2. –
3. –
4. –
5. –
6. –
7. –
8. – 'TAMATE' James CHALMERS - 1901, martyr, Goaribari Island, Papua
9. –
10. –
11. –
12. –
13. – Anne Syrett GREEN - 1936 Kingswood, SA (dod 14th)
14. – BIRABAN aka 'Jon McGILL' 1848 Reid’s Mistake, Lake Macquarie, NSW
15. –'EFFIE' Ethel Russel VARLEY - 1966 Jos, Nigeria
16. –
17. – Bishop William Saumarez SMITH -1909 Darlinghurst, NSW (dod 18th)
18. – 'Bessie' Betsy LEE - 1950 Pasedena, California, USA
19. –
20. –
21. –
22. –
23. –
24. –
25. –
26. –
27. –
28. – Christina SMITH - 1893 Mt Gambier, SA
29. –
30. – Rev. Douglas Fowler PIKE 1929 Missionary Martyr, China (dofb)


1. –
2. –
3. –
4. –
5. –
6. –
7. –
8. –
9. –
10. – Johann RADECKI - 1955 Hurstville, NSW
11. – George Edward ARDILL -1945 Stanmore< NSW
12. – Sr Ignatius of Jesus - Gertrude ABBOTT - 1934 Surry Hills, NSW
13. –
14. –
15. –
16. –
17. –
18. –
19. –
20. –
21. – Sister Irene McCORMACK, martyr of Peru 1991
22. –
23. –
24. –
25. –
26. –
27. – "GARBARLA" Barnabas ROBERTS - 1974, Ngukurr, Roper River, NT
28. – Florence Selina Harriet YOUNG -1940, Killara, NSW
29. – Elizabeth Jane WARD - 1908 Watsons Bay, NSW
30. –
31. – Captain Hillel Fredrik LILJEBLAD - 1924 Rozelle, Sydney, NSW


1. –
2. – Pastor Bert MARR - 1970 Purfleet, NSW
3. – Martin à Beckett BOYD -1972 Rome, Italy
4. –
5. –
6. –
7. –
8. – Mother Ursula FRAYNE - 1885 - Fitzroy (dod 9th)
9. – Don Angelo Bartolomeo CONFALONIERI - 1848 Cobourg, NT
10. –
11. –
12. –
13. –
14. –
15. –
16. –
17. –
18. –
19. –
20. – CHEONG Cheok Hong - 1928 Croydon, Vic.
21. –
22. –
23. –
24. – Pastor Harry Norman FATNOWNA - 1967 Mackay QLD (dod 25th)
25. – William Augustine DUNCAN - 1885 Petersham, NSW
26. –
27. –
28. – 'Sculptor' Eduard Friedrich KOHLER - 1964 Perth, WA
29. –
30. –


1. – Sydney Colin BEAZLEY 1942 Sinking of the 'MONTEVIDEO MARU' off Luzon
2. –
3. –
4. –
5. –
6. –
7. – Christiane Susanne 'Augusta' ZADOW - 1896 Adelaide, SA
8. –'Fr. LEO' Christianus Leonardus Maria MAAS -1973 Fitzroy, Vic.
9. –
10. –
11. –
12. – Bishop Francis Xavier GSELL - 1960 Kensington, NSW
13. – Alex Derwent HOPE – 2000 Canberra
14. –
15. –
16. –
17. – 'Priest of Convicts' Fr William HALL -1866 Hobart Town, VDL
18. –
19. –
20. –
21. –
22. –
23. –
24. –
25. –
26. –
27. –
28. –
29. – Sir Samuel McCAUGHEY - 1919 North Yanko, NSW
30. – "Mr ETERNITY' Arthur Malcolm STACE 1967 Hammondville, Sydney
31. – Hermann Alfred TRAEGER - 1980 SA


1. – Annie GORDON & Nellie & Topsy SAUNDERS - 1895 Mission Martyrs, China
2. – John James VIRGO 1956 Parkstone, Dorset, Eng.
3. –
4. – "DUN GORG" Georgio 'Francesco' SCERRI - 1980 Melb.
5. – 'BERUK' - William BARAK - 1903
6. –
7. –'Rod' Samuel Rodolphe SCHENK -1969 Esperence, Western Australia
8. – Blessed Mary MacKILLOP - 1909 Nth Sydney, Feast Day.
9. –
10. –
11. –
12. –
13. –
14. – Fr James HAROLD -Convict Priest. 1830 Dublin, Eire (dofd 15th?)
15. – James Robertson BRUCE - 1902 China - Martyr -
16. – Fr Seraphim PHOCAS 1917 Brisbane-Sydney (dod 15th)
17. –
18. –
19. –
20. – John GREEN 1908 'Gracedale' Healesville, Vic.
21. – Kapiu Masi GAGAI - 1946 Thursday Island, QLD
22. – 'Artist' Conrad MARTENS - 1878 North Sydney, NSW (dod 21st)
23. –
24. –
25. –
26. – Valentin Andreevich ANTONIEFF - 1962 Toowong, QLD
27. – Widow Hester HORNBROOK - 1862 Ragged Schools, Melbourne
28. –
29. –
30. –
31. –


1. – Arthur Ernest STREETON Artist, Olinda, Mt Dandenong,
2. –
3. –
4. –
5. –
6. –
7. – Fr Georg Heinrich BACKHAUS - 1872 - Bendigo
8. –
9. –
10. –
11. – ‘MAKANAB’ Father Duncan McNAB - 1896 Melbourne
12. –
13. – Beulah Madeline LOWE - 2005 Belrose, NSW
14. – Dr Laura Margaret HOPE - 1952 North Adelaide, SA
15. –
16. –
17. –
18. –
19. – Sir George ARTHUR -1854 England
20. –
21. – "MERWULIDJI" Rev. Lazarus LAMILAMI 1977 Darwin, NT
22. –
23. – Pastor Cec GRANT - 2005 Albury, NSW
24. – Soo Hoo 'George' TEN - 1934 Sydney,
25. – Richard "Dick" PIETY - 1918 Moruya NSW (dod 24)
26. – "Bapa" Rev. James WATSON - 1946 Ashfield, NSW (dod 27th)
27. – Fr Thomas GIL O.S.B. 1943 Drysdale River Mission, (Kalumburu WA)
28. –
29. – Johann FLIERL 1947 Neuendettelsau, Germany (dod 30th)
30. – Dr John SINGLETON 1891 East Melb.


1. – Rev Dr. KIWI David John PENMAN - Fitzroy
2. –
3. – Dayal SINGH 1962 Lismore, NSW / John Albert LEACH 1929 Richmond
4. – Brother ANDREW (Father Ian TRAVERS-BALL) 2000 Fitzroy, Vic.
5. –
6. –
7. –
8. –
9. – Seaman's Chaplain Rev. Kerr JOHNSTON - 1887 Kew
10. – Lancelot Edward THRELKELD -1859 Sydney, NSW / Hilde Sarah KNORR - 2009 Vic.
11. –
12. –
13. – Lady Rose Sarah MOORE - 1971 Kalgoorlie
14. –
15. – James Phillip McAULEY - 1976 Lakemba
16. –
17. – Retta Margaret Jane Dixon-LONG - 1956 Normanhurst, NSW (dod 18th)
18. – Ernest Richard Bulmer GRIBBLE - 1957 Yarrabah
19. –
20. –
21. –
22. –
23. –
24. –
25. –
26. –'The Outlawed Pastor' Gotthard Daniel FRITZSCHE, 1863 Lobethal, SA
27. –
28. – Harold Roy COVENTRY - 1965 Mentone
29. – Robert HODDLE - 1881 Melbourne
30. –
31. –


1. –
2. –
3. – Gertrude Mary ZICHY-WOINARSKI - 1955 Mordialloc, Vic [dod 4th)
4. – William Small FLEMING - 1898 Mission Martyr, Kweichau, China
5. – Bishop Alain Marie Guynot De BOISMENU 1953 Kabuna, PNG
6. – 'CAPTAIN JOCK' Charles Mathers GEDDES - 1979 Arncliffe, NSW
7. – 'Convict Chaplain John' HARRIS - 1819 Hunstanworth, Durham (dod 6th)
8. –
9. –
10. – Lady Jacobena Victoria Alice ANGLISS - 1980
11. –
12. – Fr Brian Anthony STONEY, ex-s.j 2008 Sydney
13. –
14. –
15. –
16. –
17. – Convict Reverend Henry FULTON - 1840 Castlereigh, NSW
18. – Melkite Father Sylwanos MANSOUR - 1929 Brisbane, Qld
19. –
20. – John WILLIAMS of the South Seas, 1839 Martyr
21. –
22. –
23. – 'Mad Poet' Francis Charles WEBB - 1973 Rydalmere, NSW
24. –
25. –
26. –
27. –
28. – Dr Mary BOOTH - Sydney 1956 / Rev. Freidrich August HAGENAUER Lake Tyers
29. –
30. – Sister Elizabeth KENNY - Toowoomba 1952
31. –


1. – "MARMINATA" William THOMAS - 1867 Brunswick, Vic.
2. –
3. –
4. – 'The Redoubtable' Jimmy TYSON 1898, Felton, nr Cambooya, QLD
5. – "TJILPI" Dr Charles DUGUID - 1986 South Australia
6. –
7. –
8. –
9. –
10. – Edmund Besley Court KENNEDY 1848 Martyr, Escape River, QLD
11. –
12. –
13. –
14. – Robert CARTWRIGHT -1856 Goulburn, NSW
15. –
16. – Helga Josephine ZINNBAUER –1980 Adelaide, SA
17. –
18. –
19. –
20. –
21. –
22. –
23. –
24. –
25. – Fr.Jeremiah Francis O'FLYNN - 1831 Pennsylvania
26. –
27. – George BARRINGTON -1804 Parramatta, NSW. (Ex-Prince-of-Pickpockets)
28. – Salvo Captain John GORE - 1931 Mortdale, NSW
29. – Fr Rosendo SALVADO OSB - 1900 Rome, Italy
30. –
31. –


Christians Of The Australian Clay

A- B- C- D- Surname List


Christians Of The Australian Clay


1. Charles William ABEL

1+. John ADAMS (alias Alexander SMITH) & Thomas ADAMS


John Adams (mutineer)

Born : December 4, 1767 St. Johns, Hackney, Middlesex, England
Died: March 5, 1829 (aged 61) Pitcairn Island
Occupation: Sailor
Spouse: Teio, Vahineatua
Children: Dinah, Rachel, Hannah and George Adams

John Adams
(4 December 1767 – 5 March 1829)
was the last survivor of the Bounty mutineers who settled on Pitcairn Island in January 1790, the year after the mutiny. His real name was John Adams; He used the name Alexander Smith until he was discovered in 1808 by Captain Mayhew Folger of the ship Topaz. His children used the surname "Adams".

Further reading

Conway, Christiane (2005). Letters from the Isle of Man - The Bounty-Correspondence of Nessy and Peter Heywood. The Manx Experience. ISBN 1-873120-77-X.
[edit]External links

Texts on Wikisource:
"Adams, John (1760?-1829)". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.
"Adams, John (mutineer)". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.
"Adams, John (mutineer)". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920.

FROM: - Australian Dictionary of Evangelical Biography

ADAMS, John (1757-1829)
Raymond Nobbs

(formerly known as Alexander Smith)
(b. Stanford Hill, Middlesex 1757,
d. Pitcairn Island, 5 March 1829).
Occupation: Able seaman, mutineer and patriarch.

John Adams
took a prominent part in the mutiny and seizure of HMS Bounty on 28 April 1789 (his nickname was 'Reckless Jack') and along with others of the crew, their Tahitian women, and six island males as servants, settled on Pitcairn Island on 15 Jan 1790.

THOMAS ADAMS - great grandson of the above

FROM - Australian Dictionary of Evangelical Biography

ADAMS, Thomas (1879-1935)


Raymond Nobbs

(b. Norfolk Island, 1879; d. Norfolk Island, September 1935). Horticulturalist and Methodist pastor.

The elder son of Byron Adams of Pitcairn Island and his wife Edith (née McCoy) Thomas Adams m. Elsie Nobbs, granddaughter of George Hunn Nobbs (q.v.) but they had no issue. His father was one of the initial 37 members of the Norfolk Island Methodist Church which was founded in August 1884 following the arrival of the American missionary Alfred H. Phelps. 4


2+. Friedrich Wilhelm & Minna ALBRECHT

Friedrich Wilhelm ALBRECHT was the Lutheran Pastor & Minna ALBRECHT his wife, at Hermannsburg, Northern Territory. =
Friedrich Wilhelm & Minna ALBRECHT (Friedrich Wilhelm Albrecht, son of German Pole, Ferdinand Albrecht, was born on the 15th Oktober 1894 at Plawanice, near Chelm, County Lublin, then Russian Poland, (now in Lubeiskie, Poland)- The Albrechts arrived in Australia from the United States of America on the ship "AORANGI" at Port Jackson, Sydney, New South Wales on the 18th October 1927. Albrecht had previously been in the USA for just five months since emigrating out of Russian Poland by way of Deutschland. Upon disembarking in Sydney, the Albrechts made their way to South Australia and were resident at Light Pass, in the Barossa Valley for their first six months in Australia.

"A Polish-born German, Friedrich Wilhelm Albrecht arrived in Australia in late 1925, to take up the position of missionary at Hermannsburg in Central Australia, a position which had been vacant since Carl Strehlow's death in October 1922. By early 1926, Albrecht and his wife Minna were out at Hermannsburg, where the normally dry country was in the grip of severe drought. So began a missionary career which lasted officially - until the end of 1951 when Albrecht retired; but continued unofficially until his death in 1984. aged 89."


ex-Jesuit Father Ian TRAVERS-BALL, a son of Frederick Henry Travers-Ball & Annie Margaret Cecilia Miller,
Ian Travers-Ball was born in about 1928 at Brighton, Melbourne, Victoria.
He died 4 October 2000 at the 'Indian Sisters,' Gore Street, Fitzroy, Victoria.

Co-founder of the Brothers of the Missionaries of Charity, with Mother Teresa of Calcutta.
Houses of the Missionaries of Charity:the Missionaries of Charity write that 'In 1963 Mother Teresa founded the Missionaries of Charity Brothers. Two years later, Jesuit Father Ian Travers-Ball (Brother Andrew, M.C.) joined the Brothers in 1965 and became their first Superior. The Brothers were officially established as a diocesan congregation in 1967.' - but others declare the Brother Andrew was really the co-founder of the order along with Mother Teresa.

After many generous years of foundational giving in service Brother Andrew was evicted out of the very Order he founded based in Calcutta. He then fell into addiction, largely in Australia. Later, as a recovered alcoholic, he became a wonderful Back to Basics Spiritual Campaigner, Spiritual Director, and an Inspirational Speaker directing Spiritual retreatants towards the love of Christ.

He then wrote a regular newsletter of Spiritual pilgrimage. Books: 'What think you of Christ? : a life of Christ for non-Christians or for those who would know him better' 1962 St Paul Publications, Bombay, India.

"A most humble man, without any pretensions, Br Andrew was ordained as a Jesuit but chose to follow in the work of Mother Teresa of Calcutta by founding and leading the Missionary Brothers of Calcutta from which he retired in the 80's to concentrate on travelling throughout Australia to proclaim the Gospel of God's merciful love of the 'triers' and the down-and-outs' and the call of a Christian to unconditionally open his heart to his fellow man. His life exemplifies one of poverty, compassion and simplicity, and the appeal and richness of his personal anecdotes and wisdom demonstrate his commitment to a loving God." - blurb from Christian Teaching Recordings

Here are the titles of some of Brother Andrew's recorded Retreat Messages:
Our Wounds Qualify Us for God's Love;
Jesus Frees Us from Wearing Masks;
You Cannot Grow unless You Shed your Dead, Constricting Outer Skin;
Our Littleness is What Opens God's Heart;
The Lord is Gathering His Community;
Loving Mother Church / "Peter, Do You Love Me? ;
The Woman at the Well / Anger & How to Deal with It;
How to Discern God's Will / When There Is Nothing...;
The Lord Listens to the Cry of the Poor / The Kingdom is for the Derelicts;
Release Yourself from Negative Anger;
Jesus Meets Us at Our Low Points;
Prepare for a God of Surprises;
Simplicity is the Joy of Poverty / Suffering Seen through the Eyes of Faith;
We All Have a Need to Read Our Own Story;
The Enduring Heart of the Church;
The Honour of Chastity in Youth (Homily);
When All Hope Seems Lost;
The Heart of Our Faith is a Love Story...;
Being People of the Resurrection;
Nothing is Too Small to Receive Love (homily);
Our Spirit Finds Its Rest Only with God...

[see - Brother Andrew - Obituaries]

"Ian Travers-Ball, Br Andrew, has touched the lives of each of us in a special way, and how that, on this day that he leaves us, it is important that the witness of his whole life speak to each of us. I, too, have been largely moulded by Ian - by his humour, commonsense and idealism in our novitiate and by the advice given in brief meetings over many years as our paths crossed in India, Hong Kong and the Philippines...

In a kernel, Ian showed us all how to live simply and how to be truly simple. This was not something pious. He rejected all forms of showiness and with vehemence never allowed the mantle of guru to be placed on his shoulders. He was a sophisticated man, well versed in the ways of the world with his mother's charm and compassion and his father's eye for the fine things of life.

His simplicity was his transparency - he simply made God the main priority of his life. At 23 he fell in love with God and through bad days and good he never took his eyes off God. Ian did this so effortlessly that he has been able to cajole all of us to have a shot at doing the same, but always in our own way.

There are many hurdles to jump before one can become free enough, not to worry about oneself, what one will wear, how one will survive, how one can be completely free and available to God, and Ian didn't conceal his own hurdles from us, and how on the really big ones he had to take several run ups before he could get over them ? he shared his vulnerability with appealing candour and great Australian humour.

This is not to praise Ian, it is rather to encourage you and also myself. Ian shows us that we really can follow the Lord very closely, that it doesn't matter what career we follow in life we can be transparent in our priorities, simple in our lifestyle - we can be free to love God. Above all, in some way we all carry Ian's mantle - there is a real possibility that we can bring some of the Travers-Ball charm, humour and laid back style into our life stories. I suspect its already there - Ian's magnetism has always been contagious. Ian would laugh but for better or worse it depends on what we do with it, some of his holiness has surely rubbed off on all of us. Avanti, Brother Andrew, into God's future but please keep us all within your horizon."

Daven Day, SJ

Br Andrew of Calcutta & Melbourne

'At the Funeral Mass for Br Andrew on 6th Oct 2000 - sharing' by Br Geoff, MC. [see - Brother Andrew - Obituaries]

"I believe that one of the main inspirations that Br Andrew tried to share through his life and words was, to put it in a few words, that our poverty can be our greatest wealth - because it is in our poverty that God can find an empty space to come in and work in us and love us fully.

That poverty can have many forms. It can be in an external lifestyle that is as materially simple as circumstance permit. It can be in any form of human brokenness, tragedies, weaknesses, things we cannot control in our lives or even just little things that are not quite as we would like them to be. It can be a poverty that is freely chosen or, as is more open the case, it can be something that is given to us and can only be freely accepted...
The spirit of MC, (the Missionaries of Charity) as Mother (Teresa) expressed it, is a spirit of total surrender, loving trust and cheerfulness. Br Andrew will always be for the MC Brothers our best example of this spirit. We will always thank God for the great gift of Br Andrew to us as our Co-founder and I have a feeling that there is still much that we need to learn from him and from his life's message.

As I am here with you today, I am very conscious that we MC's share in the gift of Br Andrew as only one of four 'families' or phases of his life - his life as a Travers-Ball, his life as a Jesuit, his life as an MC and his life as a friend and inspiration to all those that God brought into his "small boat" as he at one time called it."

From: Jenny & John Barnes. Mill Park, Victoria. [see - Brother Andrew - Obituaries]

"Dear Friends of Br Andrew, - It is with a heavy heart that we write to you with the news of Br Andrew's death. However we rejoice that he has gone home to be united with Jesus, and we now have our very own saint in heaven to pray to. ....Brother gave a retreat in Sydney and was preparing to follow that with a trip to the Philippines. It was while he was in Sydney that he became ill. He struggled on to finish the retreat, as he said without much energy.

Back in Melbourne, he was not picking up and sought medical advice. It was confirmed that he had stomach cancer - and it was rapid. -

We received a note from Brother dated 31st August, to tell us he was feeling "seedy" and he had cancelled the Philippines trip.

Our next communication was a phone call on 22nd September. Brother asked if we were ready for a shock, then said "it's cancer and its rapid". He went on to say he had asked the Missionaries of Charity Sisters in Fitzroy, if he could come to them to die.

The sisters welcomed him with much love and considered it a great privilege to take care of him. He arrived at 101 Gore Street on 23rd September about 4.00pm, with his only worldly possessions in a small bag.

We went to see him that day and it was evident that he was very sick. Brother told us he was very peaceful about everything and his great joy was that he had come "home" to the M.C.'s to die. While we were there he looked around the room the sisters had prepared. The room was very basic and simple - on one wall a picture of Mother Teresa, on another wall a table with a small wooden tabernacle on it and a large picture of the Sacred Heart above it. Near his bed was a little sign written by the Sisters which read "A Heartfelt Welcome to our Dearest Br Andrew" As he looked around the room he said to us "Isn't it beautiful? I have everything." He died at 5.45am, 11 days later on 4th October.

How blessed we were to witness such a holy death! Each day he struggled, accepting everything, complaining about nothing, and finding beauty even in the things that could have been a bother. Occasionally he would ask someone to read a prayer for him. At other times he was heard whispering quiet prayers.

The doctor came and prescribed injections to control and manage the pain. One of the sisters was able to administer these injections as required. Brother was never alone; together with the sisters we kept a 24-hour vigil at his bedside."

REFERENCE: 1. Jenny & John Barnes - Brother Andrew - Obituaries - c/- J & J Barnes. Mill Park, Vic. Australia
2. Missionary of Charity Fathers website
3. Christian Teaching Recordings Website about 30 Brother Andrew Titles on Cassette: as listed. etc Etc.
4. Brother Andrew MC - 'What think you of Christ? : a life of Christ for non-Christians or for those who would know him better' Published 1962 St Paul Publications, Bombay, India
5. Brother Andrew MC 'What I Met Along The Way'

3+. = Bala Willie AMBRYN - Kanaka preacher, Yarrabah QLD
Bala Willie AMBRYN - Kanaka preacher, Yarrabah QLD -worked with Gribble.
Bala Willie AMBRYN, married to Say-Say AMBRYN A daughter of theirs died on Queensland on the 20th December 1885

REFERENCE : - 1. LOOS, Noel - White Christ Black Cross: the emergence of a Black church By Noel Loos

4. = Caprio or Carpis & Mrs ANABIA b. Phillipines, Beagle Bay, nr Broome, WA
Caprio & Mrs ANABIA: - In 1900 Caprio or Carpis ANABIA was married to Mary Edivigis SESKE iN Broome, Western Austalia.

"Only one Trappist monk was left, Father Nicholas Emo, had been carrying on his work as parish priest in Broome. Father Nicholas, from an influential Spanish family, was eager to spend his life with the Aboriginal people. He wrote that it was “the secret attraction I felt for this unfortunate race” (A.C.A.P. Letter to the Aborigines Protection Board with 27 signatures, August 1897). This was his intention upon entering Sept Fons as a novice in 1894. - Before long Father Nicholas established a small school for the Aboriginal children and a hostel for mixed race girls. He had obtained help from a Filipino, Caprio Anabia, and his mixed race wife. Father Nicholas carved a stone cross in the sandhill near his new school and, with the help of Filipinos, put up beside it a church and small presbytery." - Caprio or Carpis ANABIA died in Broom in 19110. His son or brother Loesakoe ANABIA died in the same place in 1911.

5.   Rev. Neville P. ANDERSEN Baptist / NZ/ MBI

6. George Fife ANGASS SA / George French ANGAS SA / John Howard ANGAS SA

7. William & Jacobine ANGLISS, Meat Producers, Philanthropists

Sir William Charles ANGLISS
Born: 20 January 1865 Dudley, Worcestershire, England
Died: 15 June 1957 Auburn, Boroondara, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Box Hill Cemetery

Lady Jacobena Victoria Alice nee Grutzner Angliss

Birth: May 1896 in Epping, Victoria, Australia
Death: 10 November 1980 in Windsor, Prahran, Victoria

8.   Jules François ARCHIBALD (1856–1919) Catholic layman, Editor - Editor of "The Bulletin" when it was the Bushman's Bible - aka John Feltham ARCHIBALD

Archibald, Jules François (1856–1919)

by Sylvia Lawson

This article was published in Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 3, (MUP), 1969

Jules François Archibald (1856-1919), journalist, was born on 14 January 1856 at Kildare, Geelong, Victoria, and baptized John Feltham, son of Joseph Archibald, sergeant of police, and his wife Charlotte Jane, née Madden. His father was enlightened, sober and sceptical, with a great love for classical literature. By contrast his mother was impulsive and sunny-natured; having lost her first baby, she loved her eldest living son with special intensity and must have vitally influenced his wit, mischief, and faith in human beings. When she died on 21 October 1860 the family was living at Warrnambool; an aunt and a grandmother cared for the children while Joseph Archibald served on the goldfields. Young Archibald went to both the local Roman Catholic and National schools; each left him a few but derisive memories of heavy-handed authority. For about a year he attended Henry Kemmis's Grammar School, where his horizons were widened generally and his literary ambition developed. At 14 he was apprenticed in the printery of Fairfax & Laurie, lessees of the Warrnambool Examiner; when they founded the Standard in 1872 he went with them. Cocky and over-confident at times, he could also be shy and diffident. When he decided to launch himself as a journalist, he was not brave enough to submit anything to his employers; instead he sent paragraphs of Warrnambool interest to the Hamilton Spectator and the Port Fairy Gazette. Thoroughly engrossed and excited by every aspect of press work, he spent little time at home, and less still after his father married Annie O'Mullane in 1873. Twice a week he delivered morning papers, worked all day at 'case', practised shorthand furiously in the evenings, and loitered late at night around the post office, waiting for the last press telegrams.

At 18 Archibald left for Melbourne, gaily confident that he would soon become editor of the Argus. Even with his double skill he could not get a job; after several weeks of disillusioning search he became, briefly and ignominiously, a stone-hand on Samuel Winter's Herald. He left it for a few weeks reporting on the lively weekly Echo, and then joined the Daily Telegraph as a court and parliamentary roundsman. It was a dreary, ill-paid job; but out of it he developed a deep and lasting concern for the talented and embattled journalist, struggling against under-employment and, more seriously, against the futility of what employment there was.

He very much wanted to get to the Argus, and submitted a long and careful article on the Melbourne Immigrants' Home, where he had reported committee meetings. A few days later, however, the Argus ran an article on the same subject by 'The Vagabond' ('Julian Thomas', Stanley James), a prolific freelance writer who, like many others Archibald knew in his Melbourne years, later contributed to the Bulletin. This particular disappointment combined with the meanness and righteousness of the Telegraph management, and the atmosphere of alcoholic defeat in its office, to make him feel at 20 that journalism was after all a dead end. In April 1876 he joined the Victorian Education Department as a clerk. For two years he led the free and solitary young man's life in the vivid, polyglot and swarming parts of Melbourne. He was especially responsive to all he collected informally on French life and culture. Rumour linked this enthusiasm with a young actress; it is more certain that he spent long hours talking with a Breton couple who ran the boarding-house where he lived at Emerald Hill. Whatever the special influence, John Feltham Archibald re-created himself as a Frenchman, Jules François, and revised his family history, making his mother, whose death had so gravely robbed him of an emotional world, both French and Jewish, and thus partly accounted for himself.

Soon after 'Black Wednesday', 8 January 1878, Archibald was dismissed. He found a clerkship with a Queensland engineering firm, John Walker & Co. of Maryborough, at £5 a week, went north happily, and wrote to friends and family that when he had raised the fare he would go to Edinburgh to study medicine. After some months he was sent on business to the Palmer goldfield, where a late rush had broken out in 1872. He travelled to Cooktown on a steamer crowded with diggers, and then up the Hodgkinson River to the now long-vanished settlement of Maytown. He worked hard, feeding quartz into Walker's crushing mill, and generally looking after its operations. He lived in a hut with miners and with them survived a food shortage, snakebite and an outbreak of fever. The adventure lasted probably only a few months, but it was vital in forming Archibald's main preoccupations. It was his one real experience of Australian frontier life, and his scattered recollections reveal an obvious delight with its human contacts: pub-keeper and pub-keeper's daughter, drunken bush parson, the vast variety of argumentative miners who spent their nights writing letters to newspapers, Aboriginals, Chinese, and civilized Frenchmen in the wilds. His time among them seems to have been more hilarious than heroic, but he carried away an enduring concern for the figure he called 'the lone hand': the solitary prospector in the bush, enduring, turning endurance into his own sort of comedy, surviving. This concept, later essential in the life of the Bulletin, could not have developed in Archibald if he had not been once, however briefly, 'the lone hand' himself.

Somewhere his plans for medicine got lost. After returning to Maryborough he left Walker's and drifted to Sydney, fetching up 'ill and tired', according to his own account, in the office of the Evening News. An older journalist, John Haynes, found him a clerk's job on the paper, where Archibald engineered his own elevation to the reporting staff.

The respective roles of Haynes and Archibald in the first beginnings of the Bulletin have been much debated. Haynes may have thought of it first or, more accurately, thought of a smart weekly paper linked to Roman Catholic interests; but Archibald was certainly involved closely with the project many weeks before the first publication. Increasingly excited by its possibilities, he spent a lot of time looking for support among journalists and artists, including William McLeod. It was therefore genuinely a joint venture, and Alfred George Stephens's version, that Archibald 'joined the paper as a sub-editor', is misleading. He and Haynes had about £140. They bought a small case of battered display type, put a deposit on a second-hand press, and rented the ramshackle Scandinavian Hall at 107 Castlereagh Street. Both men worked night and day, Haynes selling advertising, building up goodwill among newsboys and scattering advance publicity; Archibald gathering copy, writing and sub-editing with packing cases for desk and counter. They argued about their title: Haynes wanted 'The Tribune', Archibald 'The Lone Hand'; they settled for naming the paper after San Francisco's Bulletin.

The first issue was on the streets on 31 January 1880, and its three thousand copies soon sold out. It cost 4d.; its eight ill-printed pages were dominated by Archibald's detailed and impassioned account of the hanging of the Wantabadgery bushrangers, and by his cheerful editorial promise: 'with our first issue begins a new departure in journalism … The public eye rejects as uninteresting more than half of what is printed in the publications of the day. It is only the other half which will be found in the BULLETIN'. The main article and leaders showed intense concern for human as against legalistic justice, with vigorous lines of argument; the 'Dramatic and Musical Reviews' columns were full of impish wit; the multifarious 'Brief Mention' column began with an item which had all the young Archibald's mischief: 'JUDGE WINDEYER is studying the law'. The price came down to 3d.; the second issue of four thousand sold out. Progressive politicians, idealistic lawyers, reformist schoolteachers, unionists, anarchists, Marxists, down-at-heel freelance writers, dilettantes and drunken has-beens all rallied around: they contributed paragraphs, leaders and verse; they read proofs and some lent money, when they had it, to pay importunate paper merchants. Shipwreck threatened often in printing crises and libel suits. In January 1881 William Henry Traill contributed a leader on larrikinism at a public picnic ground; it was a minor matter, and the tone for the Bulletin was uncharacteristically Puritan. From this arose the Clontarf libel action. The plaintiffs won damages of a farthing, but in March 1882 Haynes and Archibald were gaoled for failure to pay the legal costs. Public subscription, organized by sympathetic politicians like George Dibbs and Daniel O'Connor, got them out in six weeks; they went back as employees of Traill, who had rescued the paper by taking over as proprietor and editor.

In the long run the Bulletin owed him much. As Archibald freely admitted, Traill was 'the first to mount a twelve-inch [30cm] gun on the Bulletin ramparts'. Traill hired the paper's most notable black and white artists, Livingstone Hopkins and Phil May. He developed its nationalist, anti-imperial and republican themes, and swung it from Haynes's free trade to a vigorous protectionism. Because of this, among other points of difference with Traill, Haynes left the enterprise for politics. The early Bulletin, however, was not simply a youthful lark which under Traill became abruptly conscious of its nationalist and democratic responsibilities. The seriousness was foreshadowed from the first; and into the early 1890s it grew not only more serious, but also funnier and funnier.

In 1883 Archibald, in one of his recurring fits of depression and ill health, left on his only trip to England. Soon after arrival his bank, the Oriental, failed; he lived precariously, sending the Bulletin mordant leaders on British poverty and class structure, with multitudinous pars about Australians in London and much derision for royalty, nobility and clergy. He longed unavailingly to become part of Fleet Street, and absorbed new sophistications from dissenting and humorous journals like Reynolds News and Edmund Yates's World. Always ready to fall in love, he found Rosa Frankenstein, daughter of a Jewish merchant; according to one story, she nursed him through an illness; and they became engaged. He made short trips to Paris and New York. All he saw intensified his anti-British feelings: his sense that Australia should cut her imperial ties; his urbanity and Francophilia. But the whole experience had evidently battered him; on the journey home he was, according to Tom Roberts, fellow-passenger in the Lusitania, fiercely incisive in his wit and cynical talk, concerned with essentials, utterly impatient of all he saw as cant.

Rosa followed him to Sydney. Their wholly unfortunate marriage began in a city Presbyterian church on 22 November 1885; the curious certificate gave his birthplace as France. She had sweetness and charm, but few inner resources, and over the years slipped downhill into complete alcoholism; some, probably too simply, thought the death of their infant son and only child was the main reason. Her life, which ended in 1911, went to waste. Archibald worried and grieved over her continually. He spent thousands on their house in Darling Point, but none of the clothes, presents, jewels and flowers he lavished on her could rescue her, or make more real a marriage in which he neither gave nor received companionship. In a sense, from 1886, Archibald had no personal life; the main stream of his energy and feeling ran into the Bulletin.

In April 1886 Traill sold out and followed Haynes into what Archibald called 'the clear and deadly limelight of politics'. Soon afterwards, in response to Archibald's pleas William McLeod came in again, no longer as an artist but as business manager; they ran the Bulletin in joint ownership with Archibald as editor. In the same year Archibald summoned James Edmond, an occasional contributor on financial and political matters. Archibald's work in the next sixteen years is not easy to define, for it merged seamlessly with that of others, particularly his two lieutenants, Edmond and A. G. Stephens. As chief leader and financial writer, and associate editor from 1890, Edmond took up Traill's protectionism and developed it through his growing 'Wild Cat' column and witty, erudite leaders, into a fiscal policy of great influence. The implication of the nationalist and republican themes, which to Archibald were matters of passionate emotion, were drawn by Edmond into what became his 'Policy for the Commonwealth'. He was the chief formulator of the Bulletin's response to unionism, strikes, depression and growth of the Labor Party. The hand of Archibald can be more clearly discerned in the Bulletin's long-sustained attack on the convict system and related boycott of the centennial celebrations of 1888, on capital punishment, on the law's abuses, on poverty, hypocrisy, un-Christian Christianity, inhuman piety and cant, all summarized in cartoon, paragraph and leader by 'the Fat Man', 'toadyism', 'grovel' and 'holy drivel'. For the Bulletin's rampant anti-Chinese campaign, and its whole White Australia policy, Archibald and Edmond must take joint responsibility. These were the aspects of an otherwise healthy nationalism which, through time, was to become destructively chauvinistic. The Bulletin is not exonerated when one notes that the attitudes were shared by virtually all Australian 'progressive' people of the time. There was, however, no confusion in the way the case was presented; it was set out in concrete economic terms, and racial discriminations were explicitly and energetically rejected (see especially Bulletin, 12 January 1889).

From 1890 Archibald had recognized the critical gifts of A. G. Stephens, whom he summoned in 1896 from London to be literary editor and deviser of the Red Page, the paper's chief outlet for creative writing and criticism. The achievements of Edmond and Stephens were their own, but also part of Archibald's; it was one aspect of his many-sided journalistic genius that he could see talent in obscure places. To Edmond and Stephens he gave the generous appreciation, freedom and, most important, the responsibility and control which far too many of Australia's gifted journalists have been denied. He drew people around him, not so much in informal social exchange as in to-the-point discussions at his office. It is fanciful to see him as the centre of a Bohemian group in those legendary nineties; when he did leave the office—and for years, they said, he practically slept there—it was to talk, wittily but briefly, with a few chosen friends in club or cafe. First in the Pitt Street office, where the Tank Stream regularly flooded the printing plant in the basement, and later in the paper's more permanent George Street home, they climbed the narrow stairs, passed many overcrowded boxes of rooms, and came to the cluttered box that was the editor's. It housed him, his overflowing desk, his resigned-looking secretary and several lock-up cabinets, their pigeon-holes bursting with stories, articles and poems. Some visitors had already been in print; others had been encouragingly rejected in 'Correspondence'. Some came with their first written work or drawings, often terrified of the actual encounter. The real Archibald was almost a national mystery; his avoidance of personal publicity was obsessional. He had determined, he later wrote romantically, to be 'the Shadow on the Blind'. The anxious visitor, however, did not find him terrible at all; though insatiably busy and impatient of interruption, with individuals he was gentle, open, and responsive. He cared that their pants were thinning and their boots leaked, that their wives and children had enough to eat and pay the rent. His personal kindness and tactful sub-editing helped Henry Lawson to find the easy, laconic and superbly succinct prose style of his best stories. In September 1892, when the writer was finding the 'struggle for a crust' especially rough, his editor gave him £5 in cash and a single ticket to Bourke. Lawson's responses to the outback included stories like 'The Union Buries Its Dead', 'Hungerford', and the Joe Wilson series; it was arguably Archibald's best cultural investment, not excepting the Archibald Prize.

Though much of the Bulletin's contribution to Australian literature came through Stephens, Lawson, Banjo Paterson, Louis Becke and many others who were really Archibald's writers, their transmission of outback life and of its battling-mateship ethos helped him to make the paper the unifying force it was. As New South Wales's population passed its first million, circulation reached eighty thousand, and it was read by many more. Not only local conservatives found it heretical and disloyal; The Times commented that it had 'educated bush Australia up to Federation' and was the most important, and most dangerous, influence on the bushman. By 1889 it was known as the Bushman's Bible. According to an old Kalgoorlie hand, its arrival on Wednesdays made 'Bully Day' more commonly observed as a day off than Sunday. One reason for this was the way the life of bush people was persistently rendered back to them, both in imaginative writing and in pars on incident in country town, mining settlement and shearing shed. These filled hundreds of column-inches under 'Aboriginalities', 'Pepper and Salt', 'Brief Mention', 'Political Points', and 'Society'. But much more space was given to city life, leading politicians and churchmen and many lesser figures, with yards of talk on public performers and entrepreneurs and flamboyant reformers; and with lifted eyebrow, indulgent glance or derisive grin, the Bulletin let its bush readers in on the interchange of Australian cities and also of London, Paris, New York and many points west and east. The item on the fracas between policeman and publican in Coolgardie was presented with the same ironic comedy, the same tolerant, unsurprisable worldliness which marked the pointed notes on the doings of dukes, archbishops and 'Her Gracious', of French and Russian revolutionaries. By abundant implication the Bulletin made it one world, and the bushman as free, and as significant, a citizen of that world as any city politician or dilettante 'doing the block' in Collins or George Streets. It both assured him of his own importance and broke down his isolation.

Archibald threw the paper open to all comers; he needed what they had to give, and their word-of-mouth publicity sent up circulation. Though it was often called the paper written by its readers, its special liveliness was imparted by his tireless sub-editing: 'I'm a soler and heeler of paragraphs', he said. It was a transforming process and in his hands a fine art. It gave the paper its scattering of urbane French phrases, but much more; above all the pervading vivacity, at once sophisticated and in close touch with life. Derision and dissent went side by side with compassion and positive humanist and democratic values. All this liveliness, and the purposeful urgency underlying leader, column and cartoon, carried the Bulletin further than any other Australian weekly in readership and influence. Other newspapers and journals of the time, though literate and vigorous in their fashions, made stilted reading by comparison.

The soling and heeling activity was Archibald's life, his obsession. He took only the briefest fishing holidays and on them he paced around restlessly, so it was said, looking for newspapers to blue-pencil. Then, so Henry Lawson recorded, 'he comes back looking ten years older, but completely recovers his old form after a week's work that would blind and turn the brain of another man'. But he wearied; his bouts of hypochondria and depression increased. The Bulletin's ferocious opposition to the Boer war, and to Australia's part in it, was almost his last stand. After 1900 his encouragement of young writers and artists seemed to them as great as ever, but neurotic ill health depleted his ability to work. He spent much time in private hospitals and on holidays, but nothing helped; he became pathologically restless and anxious. In 1902 he handed over the editorship to Edmond, then found himself desperately at a loss. With enthusiasm which seemed manic to his colleagues he began planning the off-shoot monthly magazine of which he had dreamt for years, inevitably to be named the Lone Hand. But not even the sifting of his hoarded gold-stories, articles and poems, long paid for and pigeon-holed-could save him. Vanity and exhibitionism, long channelized and absorbed into his own work, seemed to take revenge. Late in 1906 he went spectacularly and beautifully mad; he began ordering incredible quantities of wine for launching the Lone Hand, and writing three-figure cheques for contributing poets. McLeod knew something had to be done; but he did it cavalierly. Without first talking to his partner and associate of twenty years, he obtained Rosa's signature to the necessary papers and had him forcibly removed to Callan Park Asylum. Perhaps it was the best thing to do, but Archibald was profoundly hurt and humiliated, and never quite forgave McLeod. Others understood this; McLeod 'had to act', said A. G. Stephens, 'but he should have acted with heart and intelligence'. Archibald was discharged temporarily in February 1908, readmitted in November and finally discharged in 1910. In those years depression and mania alternated with periods of lucidity in which he filled several notebooks with reminiscent prose and occasional fiction. Some of these notes appeared when the Lone Hand, under Frank Fox's editorship, came out in May 1907.

Archibald made a complete recovery; and for over eight years he led the life of a civilized ageing gentleman: a trustee of the Art Gallery, dressing well, buying paintings, entertaining generously, happy to seem a benevolent bon viveur. In fact he ate and drank little, but kept a fine table and cellar and talked food and wine energetically.

In 1914, with some bitterness, he sold his interest in the Bulletin—now markedly more conservative. 'The Bulletin is a clever youth', he had said twenty years before. 'It will become a dull old man'. He made his will in 1916, apportioning an estate of nearly £90,000; he gave Sydney an impressive public fountain (which had to be executed by a French sculptor) and endowed an annual prize for portrait painting. He was not primarily concerned with encouraging young artists; what he wanted was an Australian pantheon, for he believed that portraiture captured character enduringly; and could not have known that portraiture per se was to occupy a very small place in the concerns of modern painting. More than half the estate, after the deaths of various particular beneficiaries, went to the Benevolent Fund of the Australian Journalists' Association 'for the relief of distressed Australian journalists'.

Archibald's life's end might easily have been an elegant fading-out; but he had his swan-song. In March 1919, hearing of the founding of Smith's Weekly by Joynton Smith, Claude McKay and Clyde Packer, he walked into their office and offered his help. For the next five months, frail and looking much older than 63, he advised the young, eagerly discussed the journalistic needs of post-war Sydney, and once more sought talent and sub-edited furiously with something like the old energy and elation. At intervals he entertained Smith's staff royally.

He thus had a season of renewal, and could still think of himself as a journalist, when he became ill in mid-August. He died at St Vincent's Hospital on 10 September 1919 and was buried in the Catholic section of the Waverley cemetery.

Select Bibliography

* C. M. H. Clark (ed), Select Documents in Australian History, vol 2 (Syd, 1955)

* H. Lawson, ‘A Sketch of Archibald’, in C. Mann (ed), The Stories of Henry Lawson, 3rd series (Syd, 1964), pp 410-14

* ‘The Genesis of "The Bulletin" (Being the Memoirs of J. F. Archibald’, Lone Hand, May 1907, pp 53-55, June 1907, pp 163-66 and July 1907, pp 265-69

* Archibald papers (State Library of New South Wales)

* Archibald family papers (State Library of Victoria).


ARNOLD, Ellen (1858 - 1931)

5 July 1858
Aston, Warwickshire, England
9 July 1931
Ataikola, East Bengal, India
Missionary and Teacher


Ellen Arnold was the first missionary to serve with an Australian Baptist missionary society.

Ellen Arnold migrated with her family to Adelaide, South Australia, in 1879. Her father was Alfred Arnold, a jeweller and Congregational lay preacher. Ellen joined the Flinders Street Baptist Church and trained at Adelaide Teachers' College in 1880. After a brief teaching stint, she applied to the South Australian Baptist Missionary Society and departed for Faridpur, India, in October 1882. She and her friend Marie Gilbert were the society's first Australian workers. Arnold returned to Australia to convalesce in 1884, but was back in Bengal by 1885 with four new female recruits for the society. She supervised medical, educational and building projects before shifting to Comilla in 1886 on behalf of the New South Wales Baptist Missionary Society. In 1892, Arnold moved to Pabna where she spent a good portion of her life preaching and setting up schools and dispensaries in the villages of Atailkola and Bera. She played an active part in forming the East Bengal Baptist Union. In 1919 she declined to accept the Kaiser-I-Hind medal for public service in India. After a brief return to Australia in 1930, Arnold returned to Ataikola where she continued her voluntary work until her death in 1931. 

Published resources

10 . =Governor George ARTHUR ?????? VDL/TAS

10. +Eddy ATKINSON

11. Elizabeth Phillips AUSTIN nee HARDING - (1821–1910)
Anglican Philanthropist - The Austin Hospital for Incurables, Heidleberg, Victoria [Elizabeth Phillips Austin (1821-1910), philanthropist,

Elizabeth Phillips AUSTIN,

Austin, Elizabeth Phillips (1821–1910)
by Paul H. De Serville

Elizabeth Phillips AUSTIN nee HARDING (1821–1910) Anglican Christian Philanthropist - The Austin Hospital for Incurables, (now the Austin Hospital) Heidleberg, Victoria

12. Fr Georg Heinrich BACKHAUS (1811–1882) Missionary in India, Catholic priest & Vicar-General of Bendigo, Vic.

Born: 15 February 1811 Paderborn, Westphalen, The Ruhr, Prussia
Death: 7 September 1882 Bendigo, Victoria, Australia

12+. James BACKHOUSE, Quaker TAS

13. Joseph BANKS – Botanist on Cook's 'Endeavour’

14. 'BERUK' - William BARAK - 15 August

+ Elder (Ngurungaeta) William BARAK, Brushy Creek, Yarra Valley, Healesville, Victoria.
'BERUK' or William BARAK, son of the Woiwurung Ngurungaeta (Elder) Bebijern, and a nephew of the famous Ngurungaeta (Elder) BilliBellary, who was known as Jaika Jaika. Barak was born by his own report, in 1813 at Brushy Creek, Mooroolbark, in the Yarra Valley, but quite prossibly in 1823, for he also says he was present as an eleven-year old at the meeting of those relatives and elders with John Batman in making the Treaty at the Merri Creek branch of the Yarra River in June 1835. Beruk, whose name meaning 'White grub in gum tree' was of the Wurundjeri Willum moitey of the clan.

Patricia Marcard writes: " He received a brief taste of education at Rev. G. Langhorne's mission school in 1837-39, and was possibly one of the more sober members of Captain Henry Dana's Native Police Force.... Barak worked for a small wage on the station farm and acquired a few horses. Further schooling and religious instruction were undertaken; he could read but not write.' That schooling was by Mr & Mrs John & Mary Green (see below) at Woori Yallock (Steeles Flat) and Acheron and then at Healesville (Coranderrk Station), and through their generous care and beneficent influence Barak chose to become a Christian in about 1863. He was was then baptized, confirmed, and begun to play a part as a very often graced leader in his communities.
Marcard continues: '(Barak) took a second wife Annie 'of the Lower Murray' (Lizzie died before 1863) in a publicized Presbyterian ceremony in 1865. The fate of his family was typical of the time; two infants died of gastro-enteritis, David and Annie of consumption. When he married Sarah (Kurnai) on 7 June 1890 he was the oldest man at Coranderrk and only full-blood survivor of his tribe.'

Wiencke writes "In his eightieth year, tires and ailing, William Barak announced that "When the wattles bloomed again he would die," and surely, come the 15th August 1903 he passed away as "all along the rivers and creeks the golden wattles were in full bloom.' Barak was buried in the Coranderrk Cemetery, by the Badger Creek, out of Healesville, where a monument to him now stands, erected by the wonderful Mrs Ann Bon and her supporters, a significant Australia cultural feature which once stood in the middle of the town of Healesville, but being subject to vandalism, was moved, and is now to be found in the little Aboriginal Cemetery at the end of Barak Lane, off the Woori Yallock Road, Healesville, Victoria.
Further Reference: 1. Shirley W. Wiencke 'When The Wattles Bloom Agian: -The Life and Times of William Barak, Last Chief of the Yarra Yarra Tribe. Published 1984 by Shirley W. Wiencke, Woori Yallock.
2. Diane E. Barwick 'Rebellion At Coranderrk' Editors: Laur E. Barwick & Richard E. Barwick. Published 1998 Aboriginal History Monograph 5., Aboriginal History Inc., Canberra.

15.  BARKER, Jane Sophia

Barker, Jane Sophia (1807 - 1876)

8 April 1807
9 March 1876
Randwick, New South Wales, Australia
Evangelist and Teacher


Jane Barker established St Catherine's Anglican boarding school for girls at Waverley, New South Wales.

Jane Barker was the wife of Bishop Frederic Barker. Growing up, she was greatly influenced by her father, Irishman John Harden, her mother, and her pious aunt Agnes Ranken. Jane ran the family home after her mother's death, and married Frederic Barker - then vicar of the Liverpool parish of Edge Hill - when she was in her mid-thirties. They arrived in Australia in 1855 following Barker's invitation to be second bishop for the See of Sydney. Jane travelled widely with her husband and established an Anglican boarding school for girls, St Catherine's, at Waverley. She served on various ladies' committees and taught at the Randwick Sunday School.
Sources used to compile this entry: Dickey, Brian (ed.), Australian Dictionary of Evangelical Biography, Evangelical History Association, Sydney, 1994; See also: 'In Memorium: Mrs Barker', The Melbourne Messenger, 13 April 1876.

15.A =Sister Pamela BARKER,

16. +Jimmie BARKER, Brewarrina, NSW

17. Sir Henry BARKLY , Governor of Victoria

17+a - David BARRATT or BARRETT -from Davenport, Tasmania - Missionary in China & Martyr -

~ Jason Harris writes "When the full force of the Boxer Rebellion hit, the violence was unrelenting. Before it was over, 188 missionaries had spilled their blood in cause of the gospel in China (Piggin, Spirit of a Nation, 73). Among them was David Barrett, a young Australian who had been in China for only three years when the rebellion began. On 30 August, as Barrett contemplated the reports of massacres all around him and the prospect of his own death which followed soon after, he wrote these words to a missionary friend:

Our blood may be as a true centre for the foundation of God’s kingdom, which will surely increase over this land. Extermination is but exaltation. God guide and bless us! “Fear not them which kill,” He says, “are ye not of much more value than many sparrows?” Peace, peace to you. We may meet in the glory in a few hours or days…. Let us be true till death.

Indeed “extermination [was] but exaltation” for these heroes of the faith. They are our heritage. Their lives testify that they saw a “better country,” and gave up everything that would hold them back from living for eternity. May we follow in their steps."

' Destitute, Afflicted, Tormented ' ~ Mr. David Barratt, one of the missionaries of the China Inland Mission connected with Yo-yang station, near Lu-ch'eng - fu, Shan - si, died of sickness and privation at T'ang-ch'eng. He was a bright, active Christian from Australia, full of enthusiasm for the work, earnest and eager in preaching the word of life. He had the opportunity to do this for only about two years before his death. He reached his station in December 1898. Mr. Alfred Woodroffe was Mr. Barratt's colleague in Yo-yang. He also died of privation and suffering amongst the mountains of Shan-si. He had only joined the Mission in 1897, and had been trained for three years by Dr. Guinness, at Harley and Cliff Colleges. By his death at the early age of twenty-eight a promising career was cut short.

18. = George BARRINGTON - 'Ex- Prince of Pickpockets' - AKA Irish George WALDRON, Dublin & London Pickpocket, Confidence Trickster, Criminal Socialite, Transported Convict, Reformed Man, Repentant Sinner, Pleader of Mercies, Religious Convert, Preacher of sermons on Sydney Sundays, Metamorphosed Christian, Defender of the Downtrodden, Superintendent of Convicts, Constable, Defense Lawyer, Author of the line: 'We left our country for our country's good. ,' Poet, Historian. Sydney Cove, NSW. Born 14 May 1755 Maynooth, Dublin, Ireland ~ died 27 December 1804 Parramatta, NSW. Transported September 1791 in the convict transport 'ACTIVE' to Sydney Cove. Sent to work at Toongabbie and given a ticket of leave for 'Irreproachable conduct'. Author of the classic: " A Voyage to Botany Bay " and other writings, including:

From distant climes, o'er wide-spread seas, we come,
Though not with much éclat or beat of drum,
True patriots all: for, be it understood:
We left our country for our country's good.

George Barrington, A History of New South Wales
'Life in the colony had a reforming effect upon the infamous London pickpocket. Judge-Advocate David Collins, Captain Watkin Tench, and Governor Hunter all commented upon Barrington's remarkable transformation. The Historical Records of Australia contains testimony to Barrington's thoughtful, sober and zealous demeanour. As Superintendent of Convicts at Parramatta, he apparently carried out his duties with commendable diligence. It was always the best plan to set a thief to catch a thief? Impressive though his colonial metamorphosis was, it has been eclipsed by his legendary notoriety in London... -George Barrington (1755? - 1804), by Sir William Beechey, c1785, courtesy of National Library of Australia.
The 'Prince of Pickpockets' reputation was fostered by an unfailing ability to produce elegant treatises in his own defence. This finely-honed skill never deserted him, even when he was forced to confront the most senior
judges at the Old Bailey. In celebrated court-room appearances, Barrington impressed with erudite oratory. Jurors and judges were astonished to find such a person in their midst, able to present such eloquent pleas for mercy and understanding. Barrington often outclassed his accusers and demonstrated an intimate knowledge of the law. Having argued on the weaknesses of the prosecution's case (often related to lack of tangible evidence) he regularly, though not always, eluded a verdict of 'guilty'. by Suzanne Rickard ANU

19. George BASS


21. =John BATMAN Parramatta NSW, Kingston TAS, Dutigalla Port Phillip,

22. Emilie Luise BÄYERTZ 

Baeyertz, Emilia Louise (1842 - 1926)

29 March 1842
29 April 1926
London, England
Evangelist and Missionary
Alternative Names
  • Aronson, Emilia (maiden name)


Emilia Baeyertz conducted evangelical missions throughout Australia (Victoria, South Australia and Queensland), New Zealand, Britain and North America.

The daughter of wealthy Jewish parents, Emilia left school at thirteen. When her first fiancé died, she suffered a breakdown and was sent to Australia with her brother to recover her health. Living with her sister in Melbourne, Emilia met Anglican bank manager Charles Baeyertz and married him in October 1865 without informing her family. With Charles, she settled in Colac and had two children. In 1871, Charles was killed in a gun accident and Emilia converted to Christianity shortly thereafter. She began jail and hospital visits, Sunday School teaching, and door to door evangelism in the Jewish community of Melbourne. She was an active member of the YWCA and undertook evangelical missions to Sandhurst (Bendigo) and Ballarat. From 1880 she was conducting missions throughout South Australia, and the Baptists reported over 100 conversions as a result. Emilia moved her campaign to Victoria, Queensland, New Zealand, and finally Britain and North America.
Sources used to compile this entry: Dickey, Brian (ed.), Australian Dictionary of Evangelical Biography, Evangelical History Association, Sydney, 1994.

Emilia Baeyertz conducted evangelical missions throughout Australia (Victoria, South Australia and Queensland), New Zealand, Britain and North America.

The daughter of wealthy Jewish parents, Emilia left school at thirteen. When her first fiancé died, she suffered a breakdown and was sent to Australia with her brother to recover her health. Living with her sister in Melbourne, Emilia met Anglican bank manager Charles Baeyertz and married him in October 1865 without informing her family. With Charles, she settled in Colac and had two children. In 1871, Charles was killed in a gun accident and Emilia converted to Christianity shortly thereafter. She began jail and hospital visits, Sunday School teaching, and door to door evangelism in the Jewish community of Melbourne. She was an active member of the YWCA and undertook evangelical missions to Sandhurst (Bendigo) and Ballarat. From 1880 she was conducting missions throughout South Australia, and the Baptists reported over 100 conversions as a result. Emilia moved her campaign to Victoria, Queensland, New Zealand, and finally Britain and North America.

* Evans, Robert - Emilia Baeyertz - Evangelist: Her Career in Australia and Great Britain - Church Heritage journal - Volume 15 Issue 2 (Sept 2007)
[ Robert Evans, Emilia Baeyertz - Evangelist: Her Career in Australia and Great Britain. Hazelbrook, N S W : Research in Evangelical Revivals, 2007, ISBN 9780975673324, AUD$25.00 from the author. ]

Review by Owen ROBERTS -
"Over the last few years, our UCRHS President, the Rev. Robert Evans, has embarked
upon the strange and unlikely business of printing, binding and publishing his own books. Strange, because most people who do not want to spend large sums having their books printed commercially do not venture into the book publishing business at all.
Unlikely, because hardly anyone who publishes his or her own books actually prints
the copies themselves, and binds them by hand. The books he has written relate to a subject for which there is not a high demand, and would therefore not attract the interest of any commercial book publisher. ...

The first of these books appeared last January, and is entitled Emilia Baeyertz - Evangelist. This lady was born in North Wales into an orthodox Jewish family in 1842. She came to Australia at age 21 for her health, and despite family antipathy, married a Christian man, had two children, was suddenly widowed and, like Saul on the Damascus Road, became a convert to Christianity. Through the mid- 1870s she slowly developed into a most effective evangelist, preaching in Tasmania, Victoria and South Australia. From 1890 onwards she spent nine months in New Zealand, two
years in North America, and then most of the remainder of her life preaching in Great Britain. (Her son, Charles Nalder Baeyertz later had a notable career in New Zealand as a teacher, journalist, editor and literary critic.) She returned to Australia for about twenty months in l904 and 1905, but then returned to England for the rest of her days and died there in 1926. The first section of the book provides an outline of what information is available about Emilia's life and ministry, a brief biography, a study of her attitude to the barriers which faced women preachers at that time, and an analysis of her spirituality, her preaching, her theology and of her role in Australian evangelism. The main part of the book, however, provides a reproduction of about 200 published reports on her missions right through her career, from various Australian and English denominational or evangelistic newspapers. Thus they give a great insight into the whole evangelistic ethos of the time, as well as into the evangelism of this particular lady. The reproduction of these primary documents provides a valuable resource for any historian working in this area of interest. Mrs Baeyertz was also an outstanding example of a Jewish person who contributed richly to Australian evangelical life, and who also used her Jewish background as a significant resource in the shaping of her message and of her craft. OWEN ROBERTS

From : Australian Dictionary of Evangelical Biography -

BAEYERTZ, Emilia Louise (1842 - ?)


John Walker

(b. England, 29 March 1842; d. unknown). Evangelist.

A sickly child of wealthy Jewish parents, Emilia left school at the age of 13. As a young woman she was engaged to be married but suffered a breakdown when her fiance died. Sent to Australia with her brother to recoup her health, she lived with her sister in Melbourne. She m. Charles Baeyertz a bank manager and Anglican 16 Oct 1865, without the knowledge of her family, who spurned her as a result.

Settling in Colac, Emilia had two children and became involved in the activities of the local Anglican church without ever converting to Christianity. Following the death of her husband in a gun accident in 1871, Emilia became a Christian and continued her association with the Church of England throughout her life. Once converted Emilia quickly became involved in jail and hospital visitation, Sunday School teaching, house to house evangelistic work and evangelism among Jews in Melbourne. By 1878 she was conducting successful meetings for the YWCA in Melbourne. Her reputation was made with missions in two gold-mining centres, Sandhurst and Ballarat, where crowds thronged to hear her simple homely anecdotal style of preaching which was combined with her careful avoidance of emotional excess and uncompromising presentation of sin and redemption.

Invited to SA in Sept 1880 by a group of Baptists, Mrs Baeyertz conducted missions in virtually every Baptist church in the colony during the following two years. The Baptists were delighted with her efforts and some churches reported over 100 conversions. Her efforts touched particularly the young and those already associated with church life and her meetings exclusively for men also reaped an evangelistic harvest.

Upon leaving SA Emilia conducted successful evangelistic campaigns in Victoria and Brisbane and in 1889 she journeyed to New Zealand where she spoke to large crowds in the major cities. Shifting her attention to North America she preached to large gatherings in Los Angeles, Hamilton, Toronto, Boston and Ottawa, often preaching under the auspices of the YWCA. Missions followed throughout Britain in 1892 where her work gained wide acceptance among evangelicals of different denominations.

Baeyertz continued her evangelistic work into the new century but never graduated to the ranks of evangelists such as R A Torrey with their extensive city wide campaigns.

* D Hilliard, Popular Revivalism in South Australia from the 1870.s to the 1920s (Adelaide, 1982);
* J Walker, ‘The Baptists in South Australia, 1863 to 1914’, BTh thesis, Flinders University, 1990;
* No name, From Darkness to Light. The life and work of Mrs Baeyertz, no date

Electronic Version © Southern Cross College, 2004


Sydney Colin BEAZLEY
Carpenter Missionary (1909-1942)-
Sydney Colin BEAZLEY, Carpenter Missionary, was born in 1909 at Northam, Western Australia,(son of Alfred Beazley & Mary Wright) brother of Kim Edward BEAZEY(1917 -2007) MHR, M.O.; uncle of Prof Kim BEAZLEY - ex-opposition leader. Methodist Missionary Trainer at Rabaul, New Guinea. Taken prisoner January 1942 by the Japanese. He died in the early hours of the 1st July 1942 sinking of the Japanese prisoner-of war transport ship "MONTEVIDEO MARU" after it was torpedoed by an American submarine, off Luzon, in the northern Philippines, South China Sea.

23+. +Thomas Walker COKE BENNELONG, infant Parramatta NSW / & Sibling

24. =George BENNER, LMS,

25. Mary (Chistisson)BENNET, humanitarian activist 1930-40s Qld, Mt Margaret WA

26. =Mary BENNET – UAM

27. =Sergeant BENNET

27.a. Dr Agnes Elizabeth Lloyd BENNETT, OBE (1872-1960), teacher, medical practitioner, wartime army medic & officer, flying doctor. Defender of teh rights of women. Aust. & NZ

Agnes Bennett (1872 – 1960) medical practitioner, army officer, flying doctor -
Agnes Bennett was a committee-member of the (Church of England) District Nursing Association and gave free medical assistance. She was the first female commissioned officer in the British Army and first woman doctor to take up hospital work in New Zealand. She served in the Royal Flying Doctor Service, North Queensland, 1938-39. Agnes Bennett was awarded an OBE.

Bennett, Agnes Elizabeth Lloyd (1872–1960)

by Ann Curthoys

This article was published in Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 7, (MUP), 1979

Agnes Elizabeth Lloyd Bennett (1872-1960), medical practitioner, was born on 24 June 1872 at Neutral Bay, Sydney, sixth child of W. C. Bennett, and his first wife Agnes Amelia, née Hays. Educated in England at Cheltenham Ladies' College and Dulwich Girls' High School until her mother's death in 1881, she attended Abbotsleigh girls' school in Sydney from July 1885, then the Girls' High School, Sydney, in 1888-89. She won a scholarship in 1890 and studied science at the University of Sydney (B.Sc., 1894); she was secretary of and a night-school teacher for the Women's Association (later University Women's Settlement).

Finding that female scientists were unwanted, Agnes Bennett worked as a teacher and governess, then left Australia in 1895 to study at the College of Medicine for Women, University of Edinburgh (M.B., Ch.M., 1899). She returned to Sydney in 1901 and set up in private practice in Darlinghurst Road. She soon became a committee-member of the (Church of England) District Nursing Association and gave free medical assistance. Prejudice against female doctors forced her to relinquish her practice, and accept a position on 1 December 1904 as junior medical officer at the Hospital for the Insane, Callan Park. Dissatisfied, in July 1905 she took over the practice of a woman doctor in Wellington, New Zealand, and this time prospered. An outstanding practitioner, she was chief medical officer in 1908-36 at St Helen's maternity hospital, and honorary physician to the children's ward of Wellington Hospital from 1910. In 1911 she completed her M.D. at Edinburgh. She was a consistent defender of women's right to higher education; in 1909 and 1914 she publicly opposed Drs Batchelor and Truby King, who saw higher education as detrimental to women's maternal functions and hence to the human race.

In 1915 Agnes Bennett became the first female commissioned officer in the British Army, when as a captain she worked as a medical officer in war hospitals in Cairo. In 1916-17 she was in charge of a unit of the Scottish Women's Hospitals on the Serbian front. She became the first president of the Wellington branch of the International Federation of University Women in 1923, and represented New Zealand at its world conference at Cracow, Poland, in 1936. She had visited Australia often since 1905, and in 1938-39 was medical officer at the hospital, staffed by flying doctors, at Burketown, North Queensland. She returned to Wellington and in 1939 helped to form the Women's War Service Auxiliary. Between 1940 and 1942 she worked in English hospitals and, on returning to New Zealand, lectured to the women's services on venereal disease and birth control.

Dr Bennett was appointed O.B.E. in 1948; she died in Wellington on 27 November 1960 and was cremated with Presbyterian rites. She had contributed largely to the improvement of maternal and infant medical care in New Zealand, and through example, argument and organization did much to advance women's status. In 1955 and 1956 she had given £10,000 for aeronautical research to the University of Sydney, which inherited the residue of her estate, valued for probate in New South Wales at £26,490.

Her portrait by Charles Hopkinson is held by the Wellington branch of the New Zealand Federation of University Women.

Select Bibliography
* C. and C. Bennett, Doctor Agnes Bennett (Lond, 1960), and for bibliography
* Sydney Morning Herald, 26 Dec 1917, 20 May 1939, 12 Dec 1954, 10 Apr 1956, 7 Aug, 2 Dec 1960
* W. C. Bennett papers (State Library of New South Wales).

28. Brothers: Andrew BEVERIDGE M.A. Frontier martyr, Tyntynder, Victoria & Peter BEVERIDGE
Peter Beveridge

From Australia Dictionary of Biography _ ADB Online : -

Beveridge, Peter (1829–1885)

by J. Ann Hone

Peter Beveridge (1829-1885), squatter and author, was born on 24 June 1829 at Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland, the third son of Andrew Beveridge, baker, and his wife Margaret, née Spratt. In 1839 the family arrived in Port Phillip and settled at Mercer's Vale (Beveridge). Later Andrew took up Dean station at Wandong. In 1845, inspired by Robert McDougall's description of the Swan Hill district and guided by him, Peter and his older brother Andrew (M.A., Edinburgh) drove 1000 cattle by way of Kilmore and Mount Alexander to the Loddon River, crossed it at Tragowel and continued on to Curlewis & Campbell's Reedy Lake station. They formed Tyntynder station, ten miles (16 km) down the Murray from the site of Swan Hill. Another brother, George, joined them with flocks of sheep and in 1846 they took up Piangil, about fifteen miles (24 km) beyond Tyntynder. There in September Andrew was speared to death by Aboriginals in an argument over stolen sheep. In 1847 the rest of the family moved to Tyntynder, Mrs Beveridge being the first white woman in that region. They stayed for six years before returning to Kilmore; Peter and two brothers remained on the stations until 1868.

In these years Peter acquired an extensive knowledge of the Aboriginals of the Murray, Murrumbidgee and Darling areas. He wrote, often under a pseudonym, many articles on their customs, dialects and myths, aware of the urgency of his task, for the Aboriginals were 'vanishing off the face of the land' and prompt 'remedial measures' were needed 'for their conservation'. He estimated the Aboriginal population of New South Wales and Port Phillip in 1845 as 5410 and in 1853 as 2405. He observed and recorded their remedies for such things as 'pulmonary affections, rheumatic fevers', headache, sore eyes and inflammation of the bowels. In May 1869 his paper on 'Aboriginal Ovens' was read to the London Anthropological Society, the author prefacing his remarks with: 'My observations of this subject extend over a period of twenty-eight years and having always taken great interest in things aboriginal I have not any hesitation in saying (even although it may savour of egotism) that the following description is correct in every particular'. In June 1883 in another paper read to the Royal Society of New South Wales Beveridge described at some length such subjects as chieftainship, marriage relations, games, poetry and philology. This paper formed the basis for The Aborigines of Victoria and Riverina as Seen by Peter Beveridge, published posthumously in Melbourne in 1889.

Beveridge's last years were spent at Green Hills, French Island. After a painful illness he died on 4 October 1885 at his mother's home, Woodburn, near Kilmore. A Presbyterian, Beveridge was described as a 'conversationalist of no mean order', and was liked as a 'frank, genial and companionable man'. He was survived by his wife Annie, née Forrest, and his brothers George and Mitchell Kilgour, who was founder of the Kilmore Advertiser in 1873.

Select Bibliography
* J. E. Robertson, The Progress of Swan Hill and District (Melb, 1912)
* J. A. Maher, The Tale of a Century: Kilmore, 1837-1937 (Melb, 1938)
* M. K. Beveridge, ‘Pioneering on the Lower Murray’, Victorian Historical Magazine, vol 1, no 1, Jan 1911, pp 27-29
* Argus (Melbourne), 1 Sept 1846, 5 Oct 1885
* Kilmore Free Press, 8 Oct 1885
* Kilmore Advertiser, 10 Oct 1885
* Beveridge manuscript (State Library of Victoria).

29. +Black Mr BEVERIDGE Wati Wati/Wembawemba? Tyntynder, Vic.

30. = Bill BIRD, Redfern, NSW

31. + BIRABAN (aka John McGILL), Reid’s Mistake, Lake Macquarie, NSW

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Biraban (died 14 April 1846), also known as John McGill (also spelt M'Gill, MacGil, Maggill), was a leader of the Awabakal people of Indigenous Australians at Lake Macquarie. His native name, also spelt Barabahn, Bi-ra-bán, and Birabān, means "eaglehawk" in the Awabakal language.
Biraban spoke English fluently, and acted as an interpreter between Aborigines and settlers. From 1825 he served as an informant to the missionary Lancelot Edward Threlkeld, teaching him the Awabakal language and tribal lore. Biraban Public School was named after him since that was where he lived.
Threlkeld, L. E. (1850). "Reminiscences of Birabān". A key to the structure of the Aboriginal language. Sydney: Kemp and Fairfax. pp. 5–7.


Biraban (?–?) by Niel Gunson

Biraban (flourished 1819-1842), Aboriginal leader, was a member of the Awabakal or Newcastle tribe. From boyhood he was servant to an officer at the military barracks, Sydney, where he learnt to speak English fluently, and was given the name John McGill. He was taken to Port Macquarie in 1821, helped Francis Allman to establish the new penal settlement and proved useful in tracking escaped convicts. He returned to Lake Macquarie and as Biraban or 'Eagle Hawk' he assumed ceremonial leadership amongst his people, being singled out as 'tribal king' of the district under Governor Lachlan Macquarie. Unlike many of these 'chiefs' who regarded their identity discs as sources of remuneration, Biraban brought dignity to the office, and lived up to his responsibilities by maintaining good relations between Aboriginals and settlers. A caricature painting of 'Magill' by the convict artist Browne, about 1819, shows him in corroboree stance.

When Rev. L. E. Threlkeld commenced missionary work at Reid's Mistake in 1825 Biraban became his principal assistant, and a 'mateship' based on mutual respect and affection developed between the two men. Biraban instructed Threlkeld in tribal lore and absorbed the principles of Calvinist Christianity. He gave daily instruction in the language and corrected the missionary's transcripts. After a year's work the language had been reduced to a written form and by 1829 the first draft of St Luke's Gospel had been completed. Threlkeld commended Biraban's 'intelligence and steady application' to Governor (Sir) Ralph Darling who publicly honoured him at the annual conference with the Aboriginals at Parramatta in 1830 with a brass plate inscribed 'Barabahn, or MacGil, Chief of the Tribe at Bartabah, on Lake Macquarie; a Reward for his assistance in reducing his Native Tongue to a written Language'.

Biraban developed considerable enunciatory skill, and assisted Threlkeld to interpret in court cases involving Aboriginals, and would have been sworn in as interpreter in his own right had the oath not precluded this. His answers to Judges (Sir) William Burton and John Willis in open court in 1834 impressed them with his ability, and Burton assumed that he was a baptized Christian in 1838. The Quakers James Backhouse and George Washington Walker and the American exploring expedition representatives, especially the linguist Horatio Hale, were impressed by Biraban's intelligence and failed to understand why he continued loyal to tribal customs. Though he never gave evidence of an Evangelical conversion, and was punctilious in observing his ceremonial obligations, he was regarded as living proof of the errors of phrenology and current racial theories. Archdeacon William Broughton sent a drawing by Biraban of the steamship Sophia Jane (made to inform the missionary who had not seen it) to the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge in London as further proof.

Threlkeld described Biraban as 'a very valiant athletic man'. The United States explorers added that he was 'about the middle size, of a dark-chocolate colour, with fine glossy black hair and whiskers, a good forehead, eyes not deeply set, a nose that might be described as aquiline, although depressed and broad at the base'. His portrait was drawn by Agate, the expedition's artist. In October 1842 Ludwig Leichhardt described a meeting with him: 'The two blacks … came into the hut and asked for some embers and a kettle. Calvert gave him some flour [which] he knew quite well how to use to make doughboys, though it was hardly edifying to see him kneading the dough and smoking his pipe at the same time. He used the kettle, which still contained the water in which Calvert had boiled two fowls, for cooking the doughboys. The two noble savages then went over to the small fire they had lit under a Eucalyptus tree, stretched themselves out lazily beside it until their meal was ready, ate without stopping until they swallowed the last scraps, and then slept until late the next morning, regardless of the somewhat showery night, but putting more wood in their little fire whenever they felt the cold'.

Backhouse also left a verbal portrait. Biraban's wife was known as Patty and was described by Threlkeld as 'pleasing in her person', 'kind and affectionate in her disposition' and shrewd and intelligent. He eulogized their domestic bliss presenting them 'reciprocally rouging each other's cheek with pigment of their own preparing, and imparting fairness to their sable skin on the neck and forehead with the purest pipeclay, until their countenances beamed with rapturous delight at each other's charms'. Patty predeceased her husband. Though Biraban absented himself frequently from the mission in order to get rum at Newcastle he remained consistently loyal. He continued to protect the settlers, and when Governor Sir George Gipps considered the formation of an Aboriginal Police Corps in 1837 he remarked, 'Make me the head of them, and not a bushranger shall escape my tribe'.

Biraban did not long survive the closing of the mission in 1842. The missionary recorded a generous tribute by way of introduction to his A Key to the Structure of the Aboriginal Language (1850). He was undoubtedly the outstanding Aborigine of his time, at once preserving his tribal integrity and assimilating himself to the ways of the European.

Another notable Aborigine from the Lake Macquarie mission was [Harry] Brown (b.1819?) who accompanied Leichhardt on his first and second expeditions, and after whom Brown's Lagoons were named.

Select Bibliography
P. Cunningham, Two Years in New South Wales, 3rd ed, vol 2 (Lond, 1828), 13
J. Backhouse, A Narrative of a Visit to the Australian Colonies (Lond, 1843), p 379
C. Wilkes, Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition 1838-1842 (Lond, 1852)
J. Backhouse, Extracts from the Letters of James Backhouse, vol 3 (Lond, 1838), pp 64-67
L. E. Threlkeld, ‘Reminiscences’, Christian Herald (Sydney), 1854-55
Sydney Gazette, 12 Jan 1830
B. W. Champion, ‘Lancelot Edward Threlkeld: His Life and Work, 1788-1859’, Journal and Proceedings (Royal Australian Historical Society), vol 25, part 5, 1939, pp 341-411.


Birks, Rosetta Jane (1856 - 1911)

12 March 1856
Adelaide, South Australia
3 October 1911
College Park, South Australia
Welfare worker
Alternative Names
  • Thomas, Rosetta (maiden name)


Rosetta Birks was a member of the South Australian Women's Suffrage League and the Social Purity Society in Adelaide. She was president of the YWCA.

Rosetta Jane was the daughter of William Kyffin Thomas, founder of Flinders Street Baptist Church in Adelaide, and his wife Mary. Rose was a dedicated member of the Flinders Church. In 1879 she married her sister's widower, Charles Birks, and became stepmother to his children.
Rose Birks was a member of the Social Purity Society Adelaide ladies' branch committee and, from 1888, was treasurer of the South Australian Women's Suffrage League, working with Mary Lee and Mary Colton. Following the enfranchisement of South Australian women she joined the Woman's League committee. She was appointed to the Adelaide Hospital board in 1896, and later the Queen Victoria Maternity Home board. She was co-founder and vice-president of the National Council of Women in South Australia.
In 1902, Rose Birks became president of the YWCA. She attended a meeting of the world committee in London in 1906, and attended international conferences in Paris and Berlin, establishing connections between Australian branches of the YWCA and their European and North American counterparts. In 1911 she launched the local YWCA's Travellers' Aid Society, offering protection to unescorted young female travellers and attempting to direct them toward Christian influences.

Sources used to compile this entry: Dickey, Brian (ed.), Australian Dictionary of Evangelical Biography, Evangelical History Association, Sydney, 1994; See also: Southern Baptist, 12 &amp; 19 October 1911.

Related entries

Related Women

33. Mr BLAKE, Belgrave, Vic

32 +. Robert Clive BLAND

Robert Clive BLAND - Ambulance Paramedic, Victoria

Born: 25 September 1953 ~ Goroke/ Horsham, Victoria

Religious confession: Evangelical Independent Churches

Occupation: Paramedic & Emergency

Ministry; Good Samaritan, helping hand - Donor of help - a hand, effort, transport, time and money to almost everyone he met who he saw to be in need.

Died: 2nd January 2004 Maroonda Highway, Healesville Victoria

Circumstance: CORONER's INQUEST "Ambulance paramedics Robert Bland and Phillip Oakley died at approximately 3.30pm on 2nd January 2004 when an ambulance Mr Bland was driving, responding to an emergency call, ran off the Maroondah Highway at the Black Spur approximately 68 kilometres from Melbourne rolled 90 degrees and struck a tree. Unfortunately, the force of the impact was directly onto the roof of the cabin. The nature of the multiple injuries sustained by both Mr Bland and Mr Oakley meant that each died virtually instantly."

State Funeral: St Paul's Cathedral, Melbourne. January 2004

Buried: Goroke Cemetery, Goroke, West Wimmera, near The Little Desert, Victoria

Adopted son David Bland writes - on his My Space Page - My Hero: - My father: Robert Clive Bland, He was and is a hero to me as he taught me love and he always tried to help himself and others to the best of his ability."

32+. Alain Marie Guynot De BOISMENU (1870-1953)

Bishop Alain Marie Guynot De BOISMENU
Born: 27 December 1870 St Malo, Brittany, France
Cultural Influence: Breton French
Christianity: Catholic
ADB ONLINE - Australian Dictionary of Biography

Occupation: Missionary (Missionaries of the Sacred Heart) Catholic Priest, Bishop of Papua

Bishop Alain Marie Guynot De BOISMENU
Died: 5 November 1953 Kubuna, Papua New Guinea
Buried: Kabuna, Papua New Guinea
Legacy: " Jesus-bearded, gaunt and bright-eyed, he seemed a living ikon of Christian benignity. Paul Claudel called him 'that lion-hearted bishop worthy of the most dazzling ages of the Church' and the poet James McAuley saw him as 'the man who most exemplified greatness', with 'a rare sanctity and unerring spiritual discernment'.
His grave at Kubuna is a place of pilgrimage.

33. Mrs Anne Fraser BON, 'Born on 9 April 1838 at Dunning, Perthshire, Scotland, daughter of David Dougall, physician, and his wife Jane, née Fraser.' At age 20 she married fellow Scots' Australian, John BON of Wappan Station, on the Devil's (Delatite) River, Bonnie Doon, nr Mansfield. A presbyterian philanthropist, Activist, Advocate & Defender of Aborigines, Chinese, Women, the Sick, etc. Devout Christian Correspondent. When plans for Lake Eildon took over Wappan station she took refuge on 'her own' floor of the Windsor Hotel, Melbourne, where she read the Bible every morning at 10 a.m. She died, aged 98, in Melbourne on 5 June 1936 and was buried in Kew cemetery.

'Devoutly religious, imperious in her manner, a loving but stern mother, an autocrat with her domestic staff and stationhands, Ann BON held firmly to her course even if it meant defying authority. Lonely and in many ways shy, she made few close friends, but to those in need, especially the Aboriginals, she showed compassion and generosity. Dispossessed members of the Taungerong tribe had found a refuge at Wappan; in the 1860s they were resettled at Coranderrk near Healesville, but on their annual return for shearing they kept Mrs Bon informed of their treatment by the Board for the Protection of the Aborigines. Her home at Kew was a refuge for the sick and needy and she regularly visited Aboriginal patients in Melbourne hospitals. When her efforts to provide jobs and clothing were rebuked as 'interference' in 1879, she began to support Aboriginals who opposed protection board policy, notably Thomas 'Punch' Bamfield, henchman to William Barak. Using her influence with leading Presbyterian clergymen and politicians, she persuaded the government to investigate conditions at Coranderrk in 1881; she accepted membership of the inquiry and succeeded in reversing policy. The antagonism of officials prevented her appointment to the protection board but she continued her direct intercessions with government members. In 1904 she became a board-member and attended regularly until 1936. She maintained a voluminous correspondence with Aboriginals all over Victoria, remaining uniquely responsible to them; she earned reprimands for 'disloyalty' in 1921, 1923 and 1936 when she protested to the minister that her colleagues' decisions had caused injustice or hardship.

Ann Bon was a member of the first ladies' committee of the Austin Hospital and a generous benefactor; she was a foundation member of the committee of the Charity Organisation Society and a lifelong supporter of the Salvation Army. She established a school for Chinese children in Melbourne and worked towards a more enlightened approach to mental sickness. She gave generously to the Presbyterian churches at Mansfield and Bonnie Doon and in World War I donated an ambulance to the Belgian Army, for which she was decorated in 1921 by King Leopold. Each Christmas she gave £20 to every blinded soldier in Victoria. As 'Sylvia', she wrote and published books of homely verse and hymns.' Joan Gillison ADB Online

34. Senator Neville BONNER

35. James BONWICK , historian Hawthorn/ Brighton VIC

35+. Doctor Mary BOOTH Anglican, Christian Good Samaritan, Champion of the Dignity of Women; Campaigner for public & sexual hygiene; Medical Missionary Campaigner - against infant mortality; against venereal diseases. Supporter of Immigrant - Dreadnought Scheme; Women's Reform League

Birth: 9 July 1869 Burwood, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Death: 28 November 1956 Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

Portrait of Dr. Mary Booth, O.B.E. [picture] - by Watkins, J. S. (John Samuel), 1866-1942.

Selections from ADB ONLINE

Booth, Mary (1869–1956)

by Jill Roe

Mary Booth (1869-1956), physician and welfare worker, was born on 9 July 1869 at Burwood, Sydney, eldest of three daughters of William Booth, schoolmaster, and his wife Ruth, née Sewell. Educated by Mrs Cornell, she matriculated from Airlie School in 1886 and attended the University of Sydney (B.A., 1890). In 1891-93 she was governess to the children of the Earl of Jersey, governor of New South Wales. A legacy from her maternal grandfather Thomas Sewell in 1893 gave her some financial independence. After briefly studying as a medical student at the University of Melbourne in 1894, she left for Scotland, accompanied by her sister Eliza (Bay), and in July next year enrolled at the College of Medicine for Women, University of Edinburgh (M.B., C.M., 1899). After some experience in infirmaries, she returned to Sydney in 1900.

Dr Booth's medical career was relatively short lived and she never worked in an Australian hospital. Although she kept rooms near Macquarie Street until 1910, much of her practice was contractual with, for example, the Australian Mutual Provident Society. Appointed to the Department of the Government Statistician as anthropometrist in 1900, she lectured on hygiene at girls' secondary schools... - she was a founder of the Women's Club in 1901, and corresponding secretary in 1905-07 and later a vice-president of the National Council of Women of New South Wales. She was lecturer in hygiene for the Department of Public Instruction in 1904-09, and then in 1910-12 was employed by the Victorian Department of Education to help to establish the first school medical service in that State. She published in the Transactions of the Australasian Medical Congress and of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science, and in the Australasian Medical Gazette. In 1913 she visited Britain and represented the Commonwealth government at the English-Speaking Conference on Infant Mortality, London.

Back in Sydney by 1914, Mary Booth quickly responded to the domestic problems raised by World War I; her offer to supervise refugee camps in Egypt was refused as she was too well qualified. In November she founded the Babies' Kit Society for the Allies' Babies and in June next year opened the Soldiers' Club in the Royal Hotel, George Street; she was its honorary secretary until it closed in 1923, and she ran it very strictly. From September 1915 she was a member of the executive committee of the Universal Service League and campaigned vigorously for conscription. Other war-work included organizing the Centre for Soldiers' Wives and Mothers and setting up a war widows' fund. In 1918 she was appointed O.B.E. She was defeated in 1920 for the North Shore seat in the Legislative Assembly as an independent feminist candidate and, supported by the Women's Reform League, failed after negotiations to stand for a Senate seat in 1922.

Fiercely patriotic, Dr Booth determined to promote and protect the Anzac tradition; in 1921 she founded the Anzac Fellowship of Women and remained president until 1956. It was the only civilian organization granted the right by W. M. Hughes to use the name 'Anzac'. An equally ardent advocate of increased immigration, she was an office-bearer of the New Settlers' League of Australia, and a member of the Women's Migration Council of New South Wales. When British ex-servicewomen began arriving in Sydney, mostly as assisted migrants, she founded the Ex Service Women's Club. From 1921 she looked after boys migrating under the 'Dreadnought scheme' and in 1923 set up the Empire Service Club. She raised funds, supervised the Empire Service Hostel and in 1925-44 published the monthly Boy Settler, all as a contribution to maintaining 'our own British Stock' and counteracting communism. She kept in contact with her boys and worked closely with the Department of Labour.

Incorrigibly active, Dr Booth belonged to the University of Sydney Society for Combating Venereal Diseases after the war, and in the 1920s to the League of Nations Union and the English-Speaking Union. A member of the Town Planning Association of New South Wales, in 1920 she told the royal commission on the basic wage that young families could be happily brought up in a flat if it was designed with proper space for the children; in 1929 she attended the 12th Congress of the International Federation for Housing and Town Planning in Rome, and visited Britain.

'In 1931 the Anzac Fellowship of Women set up the Anzac Festival Committee, with Dr Booth as chairman and the governor-general Lord Gowrie and Lady Gowrie as patrons, to encourage the arts rather than sport in the 'Anzac Season'... Her last major initiative was to found in 1936 the Memorial College of Household Arts and Science, on land adjoining her home at Kirribilli; she firmly believed that 'good wives make good husbands'. In 1961 its funds were used to found the Dr Mary Booth scholarship for women economics students at the University of Sydney.

She died in the Rachel Forster Hospital for Women and Children on 28 November 1956 and was cremated with Anglican rites. Her estate was valued for probate at £14,335.

Select Bibliography
Royal Commission on the Basic Wage (Syd, 1920), Evidence
National Council of Women (New South Wales), Jubilee Report, 1896-1946
Medical Journal of Australia, 23 Feb 1957
R. F. H. Row, ‘School medical services in Victoria’, Health Bulletin (Victoria), 5 (1959)
Sydney Morning Herald, 21 Feb 1920, 26 July, 9 Nov 1929, 27 Apr 1958, 17 May 1969
I. L. Marden, Dr. Mary Booth … (1957, State Library of New South Wales)
R. Mackinnon, Mary Booth, a Biography (1969, State Library of New South Wales)
Anzac Fellowship of Women papers (National Library of Australia)
Mary Booth papers (State Library of New South Wales)
Miles Franklin correspondence, 1923-53 (State Library of New South Wales)
R. R. Garran papers (National Library of Australia).

36a. Sarah Crisp BOOTH (1844 - 1928)

Sarah Crisp BOOTH & 'Lila' Eliza White BOOTH Founders of the Y.W.C.A. in Melbourne

Born: 1844 Boston, Lincolnshire, England
Father: James BOOTH, grocer and stationmaster
Mother: Millicent HARDIWICK
Emigrated: Arrived Sept 1856 at Port Melbourne on the ship 'ZOBOA" age 11
d. Saturday 24 March 1928 in "Shirley' Inkerman Street, St Kilda East, Victoria

'Lila' Eliza White BOOTH
Born: abt 1850 Ratcliff, Nottinghamshire, England,
Father: James BOOTH, grocer and stationmaster
Mother: Millicent HARDIWICK
Emigrated: Arrived Sept 1856 at Port Melbourne on the ship 'ZOBOA" age 5
Died: 7th November 1923 at "Shirley' Inkerman Street, St Kilda East, Victoria, Australia @ 73 yrs

FROM - the Australia Women's Register; - Sarah Crisp Booth (1844-1928) was instrumental in making a success of the first Melbourne Young Women’s Christian Organisation, which was officially recognised by the Young Women’s Christian Organisation of Great Britain on the 21st May 1883.

Initially a reluctant recruit, Booth (together with her sister E. W. Booth), became the first General Secretary of the Melbourne Young Women’s Christian Organisation of Melbourne. She is listed as Honorary Secretary 1882- 1910.

As part of the ‘midnight missions’, library development, ‘gospel temperance union’ and factory visit programs, Booth – keenly aware of space restrictions – set up a building fund in 1886. This resulted in the purchase of the “Christian Home for Girls” in Jolimont in 1888.

36+. Lady Diamantina BOWEN - [Lady Diamantina CANDIANO ROMA] Greek Orthodox Christian Good Samaritan, woman of poised serenity and Christian kindness. From Zakinthos, Greece to Moreton Bay, Queensland
Lady Diamatina Roma Bowen

- From Austalia Dictionary of Biography ADB Online

Bowen, Diamantina (1833–1893)
by Hugh Gilchrist

Diamantina Bowen (1833-1893), by Johnstone, O'Shannessy & Co.
National Library of Australia, nla.pic-vn3356220

Diamantina Bowen (1833-1893), governor's wife, was born in 1833 on the island of Zante (Zakinthos), Greece, tenth of eleven children of Conte Giorgio-Candiano Roma and his wife Contessa Orsola, née di Balsamo. The family—originally named Regolo and with origins in thirteenth-century Rome—included notable men in the Venetian occupation of Corfu, the Peloponnese and Crete, and some distinguished personages in newly independent Greece. Belonging to the small aristocracy of the Ionian Islands, Diamantina enjoyed a privileged life during the British rule (1815-64). Her father was president of the Corfiot Senate and titular head of the Ionian Islands Republic. Queen Victoria appointed him the islands' poet laureate.

On 28 April 1856 in the Palace of St Michael and St George, Corfu, Contessa Diamantina Roma married (Sir) George Ferguson Bowen, government secretary of the islands. He was appointed first governor of Queensland in 1859 and Lady Bowen accompanied him to Brisbane with their daughter, arriving on 10 December. She ably fulfilled the ceremonial role of governor's wife. In 1864, with a silver spade and a cedar wheelbarrow, she turned the sod for Queensland's first railway-line, at Ipswich. An exemplary hostess at Government House and a tireless worker for charity, she gave birth to three children while in Brisbane and helped to found the Lady Bowen Lying-In Hospital in 1866. In January 1868 she and Sir George proceeded to New Zealand on his appointment as governor-general. Here their last child was born. They returned to Australia in March 1873 when Bowen was sworn in as governor of Victoria.

By then Diamantina had acquired some of the characteristics of a grande dame, and was an elegant and fascinating figure evoking popular respect. To a gossip columnist she was 'as exotic as a bird of paradise, still a beauty, with black dazzling eyes, a flawless cream complexion and a figure that, even in the dresses of the period, was the envy of many younger matrons'. Mrs Campbell Praed had described Lady Bowen's 'soft foreign accent'; in private conversation with Sir George she normally spoke Italian. Active in charitable causes and cultural events, she was dignified but also unconventional: on one occasion she went roller-skating. Attacked by a deranged woman (Esther Gray) in Collins Street in 1876, she suffered only slight injury. In February 1879 a large assemblage at a Melbourne banquet heard Marcus Clarke's poem, 'Farewell to Lady Bowen' set to music by Alfred Plumpton. Sir George was governor of Mauritius until 1882 and of Hong Kong in 1882-86.

His wife was a woman of poised serenity and kindness, with a degree of reserve. Self-disciplined, compassionate, dutiful, she was interested in garden plants, music and objets d'art, and was a fine pianist and singer. On Sir George's retirement they and their two unmarried daughters settled in London, where she worshipped at the Greek Orthodox Church in Moscow Road. She died of acute bronchitis on 17 November 1893 in Cadogan Square, and was buried in the Bowen family grave at Kensall Green. Her husband and their five children survived her.

Among many place names commemorating her are the town of Roma and the Diamantina River in Queensland. In 1953 her many letters, long preserved in a villa on Zakinthos, were destroyed after earthquakes in the Ionian Islands.

Select Bibliography
■U. G. Prentice, Diamantina, Lady Bowen, Queensland’s First Lady (Brisb, 1984)
■H. Gilchrist, Australians and Greeks, vol 1 (Syd, 1992), and for bibliography
■M. Hancock, Colonial Consorts (Melb, 2001).

37. Frank W. BOREHAM

38. Arthur BOYD – Artist, Murrumbeena, Shoalhaven

39. =Bishop BRADY

40. = Pastor Jack BRAESIDE Indulkana, Warburton Range, Fregon, Western Australia, Port Augusta, South Australia, Mildura, Victoria, Redfern NSW


Christian Aboriginal pastor - excluded from The Encylcopaedia of Aboriginal Australia 1994 (Ed Horton, David)

"THE HISTORY OF THE AEF - Pastor Jack Braeside—January 1982
‘I came to South Australia in 1967 because some friends, who were managing Tanderra Hostel in Adelaide, came back to Western Australia and told us of the spiritual need of Aboriginal people in South Australia, particularly in Adelaide. They needed someone to go around to witness among them, so a friend of mine, Jack Ridley, and I came over from Western Australia. We came to Umeewarra Mission, and then to Adelaide.
‘Later, I went up to Indulkana where I found there were some tribal boys whom their people had brought over from Warburton Ranges. They asked me to take them back to Fregon, because the people at Indulkana did not have any vehicles. I was asked by the tribal people to accompany the boys back to Warburton. Then I went on to Mt Margaret Mission, then on to Kalgoorlie where I saw Pastor Denzil Humphries We talked about
forming an Aboriginal evangelical fellowship.
‘I went on to Perth and talked to Pastor Ben Mason. He told me that there was a need for an Aboriginal fellowship. I said, “We have already talked about that”. We then talked to a United Aborigines Mission (UAM) missionary, Keith Morgan, and between us we arranged for a conference at the Keswick Convention at Orange Grove, in 1967.
‘There we contacted a number of Aboriginal Christians and we formed the Aboriginal Evangelical Fellowship in Western Australia. There was Sonny Graham from the Churches of Christ; Rev. Cedric Jacobs from the Methodist (later Uniting) Church; Pastor Denzil Humphries from the People’s Church; the late Pastor Ben Mason from Nunga Church; and Colin Green, a teacher from the Education Department. Dr Graham Miller
(Presbyterian) and Rev. Dr Geoffrey Bingham (Anglican) were our advisers who told us about fellowships being formed in other countries, such as the Maori Evangelical Fellowship.
‘We were concerned about the rise of black nationals in Australia and black power movements in America, but we didn’t want our people to be involved in the critical and destructive sides of these movements. We wanted our people to work together in an organisation that could arrange an annual convention, encourage evangelistic meetings and encourage each other in Christian ministry.

‘We couldn’t read the smoke signals from five thousand kilometres away in the eastern states, but they were also considering the same ideas over there. Later, we contacted the Aboriginal Christians in the eastern states because we heard that they had formed a similar fellowship in 1968, two weeks after us. We had learned about that through the Aboriginal Inland Mission (AIM) literature.

‘In August 1968 we had a conference at Singleton Bible College, and from there we formed a steering committee for the AEF and settled on the date of Easter 1969 to have a further conference at Brookton in Western Australia. The eastern states delegation consisted of Geoff Higgins, Lyal Browning, Pastor David Kirk, Rev. Bill Bird and Pastor Cecil Grant. There we settled on a national convention at Port Augusta in January 1970. We invited a number of Aboriginal Christians from different denominations and missions. That was the beginning of AEF in South Australia. ‘Port Augusta became the venue of the national convention from then on. The AEF work in South Australia was made possible by the Maori pastor, Pastor Keith Mildon, coming from New Zealand to start the work in Adelaide, and then I came over later to help in the city work while Keith was doing the outreach work at Murray Bridge.

‘We went around the other centres in South Australia, helping other missions and visiting the tribal people, and also the people at Copley, Nepabunna and Gerard, as well as on the West Coast. We formed an AEF committee, and they became responsible for the work in South Australia. That is how things started. ‘The first convention was at Stirling North, near Port Augusta. I was then the National Secretary and organised the first few conventions. We had two conventions at Stirling North. The first attracted about seventy delegates. This year we had over two thousand people at some meetings. We met in the hall there, but, when more people came, we shifted into the Port Augusta Town Hall.
‘The commencing year, 1970, was an interesting year. Looking back, and putting the AEF into a world perspective, we learned that the Canadian Indian Evangelical Fellowship commenced their organisation in 1970, and also in that year, there was a revival in the Solomon Islands. We also learned that the Maori Evangelical Fellowship commenced in New Zealand in 1959. Other fellowships all over the world were springing up, while we thought that we were the only ones. ‘In the first convention at Stirling, we tried to contact as many people as possible from different denominations, but only seventy responded to the invitations and came to Port Augusta. In the second year we had Maori people. We hadn’t known about their fellowship until after the first convention. Rev. Miller, the Principal of the Auckland Bible College, told us about it and we invited them.
‘The year they came, 1971, it was very hot but they worked hard to put on a Maori feast, a “hangi”, for us. About five hundred people came to it. That occasion was when they saw their first snake because apparently there are no snakes in New Zealand. The Maori people went wild and chased it until they got it, just to see their first snake in Australia.

‘The tribal people have a real contribution to make to the AEF. Three Pitjantjatjara men came to the second convention, and the numbers increased rapidly up to 1982. It was an education to the urban people just to meet tribal people. Sometimes these were the first tribal people they had met. There are few tribal people in Port Augusta and other areas they can talk to. ‘In a later convention, in 1982, they had been witnessing to the Yalata people who had come for the first time. Also they taught us about faith and simplicity in their approach to the Gospel. They were not tied up with a lot of material things, nor the necessity for logical reasoning in everything. They just accepted the simple accounts and stories, so their faith was more straightforward. They gave more Aboriginality to the meetings with their tribal ways, language and singing.’
In 1988 Jack said, ‘I would like to see more church planting right throughout the nation, and all the Aboriginal people, urban, rural and tribal, taking leadership roles in their churches. Also I would like to see the day when Aborigines form Aboriginal fellowships in the Aboriginal evangelical churches of Australia, along lines similar to what the Uniting churches are trying to do.
‘I would like to see the missions gradually contributing to that and phasing out their own work. They should be handing over to Aborigines to encourage their strength and unity and fellowship, as the political climate may change and we might be expecting persecution and hard times in the future. Aboriginal churches should come together and strengthen each other. In South Australia (1985) we had churches in Prospect, Ottoway, Salisbury, Murray Bridge, Meningie, Tailem Bend, Raukkan, Noarlunga, Port Augusta, Port Lincoln and Ceduna.

‘From the beginning we had help from the Umeewarra Mission in making their properties at Port Augusta and Stirling North available each year for the convention. We did not get any help from the government as we were a religious body. However, the army helped us by lending us tents, crockery and other equipment. People paid their own fares, and for their meals. Generally we don’t get much help from outside as we are a religious organisation. The value of the convention was that people came into a
deeper experience of God and went back to their own places contributing to their churches and fellowships. Others were being inspired to start churches of their own and became an asset to their community churches. People were being educated as Christians in organising things in the convention, contributing choir items, reaching and attending council meetings. Doing this ourselves has been an educational exercise. ‘Of course people can’t become mature Christians on just excitement;
they needed deep Bible teaching and grounding in the Word of God. I’ve seen people who go back into the bush by themselves, where they had no fellowship, and no excitement; they just fell away and lost their joy and their witness. There is need for a balanced experience.’

From CDP [Christian Democratic Party] Honours Aboriginal Heritage - Rev Fred Nile's statement to the NSW Pariliament Thursday, 21st October 2010 ' Pastor Jack Braeside from Redfern, originally from Western Australia, and one of the stolen generation... When I asked Pastor Braeside how he had acquired such a distinguished name he said that after he had been stolen he was taken to a property called Braeside and that he and all the other boys were given the surname Braeside. His non-Aboriginal name was Jack Braeside. All those men made a big impression on me ...' Rev. Fred Nile

"Pastor Jack Braeside had done Christian work in Western Australia, then
in Adelaide, and later returned to Western Australia. At present (1995) he is working in Mildura." (HART)

1.'THE STORY OF FIRE' Aboriginal Christianity - by Jack HART
2. The CDP [Christian Democratic Party] Honours Aboriginal Heritage - Rev Fred Nile's statement to the NSW Pariliament Thursday, 21st October 2010

41. Bishop William BROUGHTON C of E

41+. Missionary Dr. George BROWN (1835-1917)
Methodist Missionary to Fiji, NZ, Sydney, NSW,

Dr. George BROWN (1835-1917) Methodist Missionary, Samoa & Fiji archipelago
Birth: 7 December 1835 Barnard Castle, Durham, North of England
Cultural Influence: Mediterranean-European Judeo-Christian, Jordie English, Scottish, Southsea Islander, Australian
Christianity: Methodist, Southseas Mission Christian, Unitarian
Occupation: Missionary, Methodist minister, ethnographer, naturalist, diarist, correspondent, writer, autobiographer, memoirist
Marriage: 2 August 1860 at Raglan, New Zealand
Wife: Sarah Lydia WALLIS, [daughter of Rev. James Wallis, missionary at Whaingaroa Harbour, NZ] she died at Kinawanua on 7 August 1923.
Field: 1. New Zealand, 2. Savai'i, Samoa; 3. Fiji; 4. Tonga; 5. Sydney, NSW
Death: 7 April 1917 Gordon, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Burial: Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

From Australian Dictionary of Biography - ADB ONLINE

Brown, George (1835–1917)

by Niel Gunson

George Brown (1835-1917), Methodist missionary, was born on 7 December 1835 at Barnard Castle, Durham, England, son of George Brown, professional secretary, editor, barrister and Unitarian preacher, and his wife Elizabeth, née Dixon, sister of the wife of Rev. Thomas Buddle, missionary in New Zealand. He received his rudimentary education at a private school. Reacting to his stepmother's discipline, he proved wayward, dealt in contraband when an apprentice and attempted to run away to sea. After experience on a troopship and in Canada, he migrated to New Zealand in March 1855, attending classes held by Bishop Selwyn and Rev. J. C. Patteson on the voyage. While living with Buddle at Onehunga, Brown was influenced by leading Methodist preachers, joined the 'society', became a local preacher and was designated a missionary for Samoa in 1860. On 2 August 1860 at Raglan he married Sarah Lydia, second daughter of Rev. James Wallis, missionary at Whaingaroa Harbour; of their nine children, two sons and four daughters survived infancy.

Brown was ordained in Sydney on 19 September and soon afterward sailed to the islands. While stationed at Savai'i (Samoa), Brown urged the opening of a mission in New Britain. In 1874-75 he travelled in Victoria, New South Wales, Tasmania and New Zealand canvassing support. He then visited Fiji and Samoa for volunteer missionaries, and a station was established at Port Hunter, Duke of York Island. In October 1876 Brown arrived in Sydney and continued his deputationary work in the colonies. An entire house was built in Sydney to be transported to New Britain and the Browns settled there at the end of the missionary voyage in 1877. When a Fijian missionary and three teachers were murdered in April 1878 Brown acquiesced in a punitive expedition which caused a furore in the Australasian press (the Blanche Bay affair) and had repercussions at Exeter Hall, but which rendered the region safe for all expatriates. Seriously ill, Brown withdrew to Sydney in May 1879. In September he went to Fiji where he was virtually exonerated. Because of travel hazards he did not reach New Britain until March 1880. His wife had survived a serious illness but two of his children had died. When the Browns left the archipelago in January 1881 about twenty-nine stations had been established.

Sydney now became Brown's headquarters where he engaged in linguistic work for the mission. He had accrued additional celebrity through descriptions of his collections in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London in 1877-81, and was popular for deputationary work. In 1881-91 he did much to influence Australian public opinion about the islands by his letters to the Sydney Morning Herald under various pseudonyms, the most notable series being the Carpe Diem letters in 1883-85 which criticized British inaction and warned of German aggression. Appointed to the Bourke Street circuit, he was superintendent in 1884-85. In 1886 he visited England where he was lionized in church and scientific circles and acted as a commissioner for New South Wales at the Indian and Colonial Exhibition in London. He returned to Sydney via America in March 1887. In the interim he had been appointed general secretary of missions, an office which he held until his retirement in April 1908. His first major assignment was to act in 1888-91 as special commissioner to Tonga, where colonial mission policies had provoked the secession of the 'Free Church' in 1885 under the King and Rev. Shirley Baker. By his capable handling of the situation Brown helped to avoid dissension in the Australian colonies where active Tongan committees had been formed. While secretary, he was also responsible for pioneering two new mission fields within the Australian sphere of influence. He attended the meeting at Port Moresby on 17 June 1890 under the auspices of Sir William MacGregor when the major Protestant missions came to a mutual understanding on Papua, and in 1891 launched the Methodist mission at Dobu. After visiting the Solomon Islands in 1901, he conducted the first mission party to Roviana in May 1902. He also made many visits to Methodist missions in the western Pacific.

In 1892 Brown was awarded an honorary D.D. by McGill University. He wrote many mission pamphlets and reports and was a regular contributor to the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science. His papers included 'Conceptional theory of the origin of Totemism' and 'The necessity for a uniform system of spelling Australian proper names', and in 1911 he was responsible for an influential report on the 'Future of the Australian Aborigines'. His Carpe Diem letters were resumed briefly in 1907. He visited London in 1908 where he published George Brown, D.D., Pioneer-Missionary and Explorer: An Autobiography, much of the work being done by his daughters Elizabeth and Monica. Melanesians and Polynesians: Their Life-Histories Described and Compared followed in 1909. Brown's scientific correspondents included Ferdinand Mueller, Lorimer Fison, E. B. Tylor, Sir James Frazer, J. J. Lister and R. H. Codrington. He was a corresponding member of various societies and a fellow of the Royal Geographical Society. In 1913, when president of the Methodist General Conference, Brown went to England as special Australasian representative to the missionary centenary celebrations of British Methodism in October. When he died at his home, Kinawanua, Gordon, on 7 April 1917 he was also vice-president of the British and Foreign Bible Society and the Australian Native Races Protection Society. He was buried in the Methodist section of the Gore Hill cemetery. His wife died at Kinawanua on 7 August 1923. His estate was valued for probate at more than £16,000. His extensive collection of South Sea artefacts was bought by the Bowes Museum at Barnard Castle, and over thirty volumes of his papers are in the Mitchell Library.

At once urbane, venturous and practical, Brown earned the respect and friendship of colonial administrators such as Sir Arthur Gordon, Sir John Thurston, MacGregor and C. M. Woodford. MacGregor described him as 'the most pellucid man' he knew, and Thurston, who was not generally sympathetic to missionaries, liked him and described him as 'thoroughly trustworthy'. Though at first he seemed 'lady-like' in manners and appearance to colonial Wesleyans, his essential toughness and resilience helped him to survive all manner of obstacles. R. L. Stevenson found in him, as in James Chalmers of New Guinea, a hero, and wanted to write his biography in 1890. Brunsdon Fletcher saw him as an imperialist, though 'a Radical to his finger-tips'. Although the opponents of missions said that he 'cared more about his name being given to a new snake, bird, or insect' than for the souls of the islanders, his missionary exertions gave him little time for the scientific pursuits he enjoyed, and he had a real sympathy for the indigenous peoples.

Select Bibliography
W. Powell, Wanderings in a Wild Country (Lond, 1884)
C. B. Fletcher, The New Pacific (Lond, 1917)
W. Deane (ed), In Wild New Britain: The Story of Benjamin Danks (Syd, 1933)
C. B. Fletcher, The Black Knight of the Pacific (Syd, 1944)
Methodist (Sydney), 14 Apr 1917
Sydney Morning Herald, 3 Apr 1917
manuscript catalogue under George Brown (State Library of New South Wales).

42. James Robertson BRUCE,

James R Bruce was born in 1871 at Tower Hill (Illowa), near Warrnambool, VIC. (son of George BRUCE & Mary ROBERTSON) C.I.M. Missionary. Died by Martyrdom at Chen-Cheu, Hunan, China on 15 August 1902. Memorial fountain & Stainglass window celebrates him at the St John's Presbyterian Church hall, Warrnambool.
The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842-1954) - Wednesday 27 August 1902
MELBOURNE, Tuesday. - Mr James Robertson Bruce, one of the missionaries attached to the China Inland Mission who was beaten to death by a Chinese mob, was a native of Illowa, in the western district of Victoria, and he and all the members of his family are well known about Warrnambool. Mr Bruce was in a solicitor's office in Warrnambool for some years, and in 1896 he volunteered for service with the China Inland Mission. His family received a letter from him last week, in -which, while the possibility of an out-break appeared to be recognised there was nothing to cause special anxiety. Mr Bruce was about 30 years of age, and unmarried. He trained for missionary work under the Rev W. Lockhart Morton at Belair, South Australia. Concerning the identity of the second victim mentioned in the cable, there is some doubt. Mr J. J. Kitchen, M.B., of South Melbourne, the president of the China Inland Mission in Melbourne, is of opinion, from letters recently to hand, that it is Mr J. H. Lewis, an American missionary, who went out in 1899, and who has been of late a good deal associated with Mr Bruce. On the other hand, the latest Chinese directories available include the name of the Rev S Lewis, a missionary stationed at Chungking, ia the province of Seechuan, a province which almost adjoins Hunan.

43. + Peter BULLA NT

44. =John BULMER VIC


46. Johann BURGI, Wandin VIC

47. =Anne CAMFIELD, Albany WA

48. David CARLEY - (1821-1884) ex-convict RC, Cossack WA convict
David CARLEY (1821-1884) ex-convict, RC, Cossack, Western Australia Convict Histtory: David Carley, one of 320 convicts transported on the Clyde, 11 March 1863. Convicted at Middlesex, Clerkenwell Sessions for a term of 10 years. Sentence: 10 years. Departure date: 11th March, 1863 Place of arrival: Western Australia.
REFERENCE/ SOURCE: 1. Henry REYNOLDS - This Whispering in our Heart (1998),
2. Keith WINDSCHUTTLE - The myths of frontier massacres in Australian history, Part III
Massacre stories and the policy of separatism - in Quadrant December 2000

49. Fr P.A. CARMINE, Broken Hill, Bourke NSW

49.a - 'Salvo' General George Lyndon CARPENTER (1872-1948) Head Salvation Army Officer

George Lyndon CARPENTER (20 June 1872 – 9 April 1948) was the 5th General (World) of The Salvation Army (1939-1946). Preceded by Evangeline Booth -Succeeded by Albert Orsborn

Spouse: Mrs. General Minnie Lindsay ROWELL -

He trained in Raymond Terrace, Australia, and became an officer of the Army in 1892. For the first 18 years of his officership, he worked in property, training and literary work in Australia.

He and Ensign Minnie Rowell were married in 1899. She wrote such books as Commissioner Lawley, Notable Officers of The Salvation Army and Women of the Flag, among others.

In 1911, George was called up to International Headquarters. He became the literary secretary of The Salvation Army under General Bramwell Booth. He served in this role until 1927. From 1927 to 1933, he was called back for further service in Australia, to take over the ranks as Chief Secretary of Australia Eastern Territory. In 1933, he became South America East Territorial Commander. In 1937, he became Territorial Commander of Canada, and served at that post until he was elected General by the High Council in 1939.

His term in office as the General of The Salvation Army was during some trying times. World War II was going on in Europe, but he was a strong leader. He retired as General 26 June 1946.

His books include Keep the Trumpets Sounding and Banners and Adventures.

General George Carpenter died at the age of 75.

50. Robert CARTWRIGHT philanthropist C of E Vicar 1824 NSW

51. = John CASEY, ex-convict & his wife Caroline Purcell CASEY - early practitioners of 'the Roughly Christian' "Open House" in a life embracing a Christian Ethic of Generosity, Neighbourliness and Hospitality.

The Casey's Charism or Grace was well expressed in the poem below 'At Caseys After Mass'- by John O'Brien.

John Casey (died 1882) was an Irish rebel, who was caught and tried in 1824 and transported to Australia in 1826. He won his freedom by helping capture the bushranger, John Tennant, in 1828 and became one of the early pioneers of the Gundaroo district.

Biography: John and Caroline CASEY - from WIKIPEDIA

Emancipated convicts, John Casey and Caroline Purcell, pioneers of Gundaroo, c.1870

John Casey came from Loughmoe in County Tipperary.

In 1824 he was convicted at Cashel of insurrection and seems to have been involved in the later disturbances of the ‘Whiteboys’, fighting for the rights of tenant farmers in the rural areas. Casey was transported to Australia and arrived in Sydney in January 1826 aboard the convict transport, Sir Godfrey Webster. In the colony of New South Wales, he was allocated to a family on the newly opened Goulburn plains and worked as a bullocky. During these early years in Australia, Casey’s wife and infant children died in Ireland.

Eventually, Casey was allocated to Joshua Moore, who had a farm at Liverpool and a new land grant called Canberry Station in the district that was to become Canberra. Moore was the first European landholder in the area. Casey worked as a shepherd and bullocky at both the Moore stations.

In 1828, Canberra’s first bushranger, John Tennant, an escaped convict known as a ‘bolter’, was ravaging the district with his gang. They stole from local travellers, camps and homesteads. Local overseer, James Ainslie, organized a party to capture Tennant. The colonial authorities advertised ‘tickets of leave’ for any convicts willing to assist in Tennant’s capture.[5] Casey volunteered. He knew Tennant and his knowledge of the region would be critical to the party’s success. After a bloody shoot-out, Tennant and his partner, 'Dublin Jack' Rix, were wounded, captured and transported to Sydney, where they were tried and sent to Norfolk Island. Casey was granted a ticket of leave.

John Casey met his second wife, Caroline Purcell, at Moore’s Liverpool station. Purcell was also a convict. She had been working at Moore’s station as a domestic servant. The couple received permission to marry in 1832 and were allowed to set up an independent life for themselves at Tallagandra, near Gundaroo. They raised a family of eight children and prospered in the district as small farmers. Three of the Casey sons continued with their father’s bullock team and became the main carters of the district.

John Casey died on 22 May 1882 and is buried in the Gundaroo Catholic Cemetery.

* * *

- A celebration of frontier Australian'Rough Christian' open generosity and hospitality


~ by John O'Brien (pseudonym of Fr Patrick Joseph Hartigan (1878–1952))

There's a weather-beaten sign-post where the track turns t'wards the west,
Through the tall, white, slender timber, in the land I love the best.
Short its message is: -"To Casey's" -for it points the road to Casey's;
And my homing heart goes bushwards on an idle roving quest,
Down the old, old road contented, o'er the gum-leaves crisp and scented,
Where a deft hand splashed the purple on the big hill's sombre crest.

Ah, it's long, long years and dreary, many, many steps and weary,
Back to where the lingering dew of morn bedecked the barley-grass,
When I watched the wild careering of the neighbours through the clearing
Down that sweet bush track to Casey's, o'er the paddock down to Casey's;
Spending Sunday down at Casey's after Mass.

For, as soon as Mass was over, round the church they swarmed like bees,
Filled their pipes and duly lit them, brushed the dust from off their knees;
Then they'd "ready-up" for Casey's - self-invited down to Casey's -
Harness horses for the women with a bushman's careless ease.
With a neat spring to the saddle, soon would start the wild skedaddle.
Passing gigs and traps and buggies packed as tight as they could squeeze;

Hearts as buoyant as a feather in the mellow autumn weather,
While the noisy minahs cheered to see the glad procession pass -
All the Regans and the Ryans, and the whole mob of O'Briens
Bringing up the rear to Casey's -in the Shandrydan to Casey's -
Spending Sunday down at Casey's after Mass.

Past the kitchen door they rattled and they took the horses out;
While the women went inside at once, the menfolk hung about
Round the stable down at Casey's, waiting dinner down at Casey's;
And they talked about the Government, and blamed it for the drought,
Sitting where the sunlight lingers, picking splinters from their fingers,
Settling all the problems of the world beyond a chance of doubt.

From inside there came the bustle of the cheerful wholesome hustle,
As dear old Mrs. Casey tried all records to surpass;
Oh, there's many a memory blesses her sweet silver-braided tresses;
They were "lovely" down at Casey's - always joking down at Casey's -
Spending Sunday down at Casey's after Mass.

So they called us in to dinner, five-and-twenty guests -and more -
At the longest kitchen-table ever stood upon a floor.
There was plenty was plenty down at Casey's -ay, an open house was Casey's,
Where the neighbour and his missus never, never passed the door;
Where they counted kindly giving half the joy and pride of living
And the seasons came full-handed, and the angels blessed the store;

While the happy Laughing Mary flitted round us like a fairy.
And the big, shy boys stopped business, and looked up to watch her pass -
Ah, but when she caught them staring at the ribbons she was wearing!
Well, they spilled their tea at Casey's - on the good clean cloth at Casey's -
Spending Sunday down at Casey's after Mass.

Then the reckless feats of daring, and the bushman's fierce delight
When the brumby squealed and rooted, and the saddle-girths were tight!
They could ride 'em down at Casey's - stick like plasters down at Casey's -
When they noticed Mary looking, they would go with all their might;
Ho! they belted, and they clouted, and they yelled, and whooped, and shouted,

"Riding flash" to "ketch" the ladies, spurring, flogging, left and right!
And the lad with manners airy risked his neck for Laughing Mary
When he summoned all his courage up a rival to surpass;
Oh, the fun went fast and faster, as he landed in disaster
In the puddle-hole at Casey's -with his brand new suit at Casey's -
Spending Sunday down at Casey's after Mass.

Hoary, hale, bewhiskered veterans, perched like mopokes in a row,
Out of danger on the top-rail, gave advice to those below;
They were wonders down at Casey's, were the old men at the Caseys' -
They're the boys could ride the "bad 'uns" in the days of long ago!
Faith, and old man Casey told 'em of a way he had to hold 'em.
Man, "the deuce an outlaw thrun him," when he "got a proper show";

Ay, and each man "upped and showed 'em" how he "handled 'em, an' rode 'em" -
Pshaw! there never was a native these old rides could outclass.
Once again they were "among 'em," and they "roped 'em" and they "slung 'em"
On the stockyard fence at Casey's - smoking, pitchin'," down at Casey's -
Spending Sunday down at Casey's after Mass.

Hard and cold is youth to fancies which around the old men cling;
So they left them perched upon the rail to swap their vapouring,
Took a seat inside at Casey's, on the good chairs at the Caseys';
While the Caseys' new piano made the old house rock and ring.
There their mild eyes stared and glistened, as they sat around and listened
To the tuneful little ditties Laughing Mary used to sing;

There they rubbed their chins and reckoned that to no one was she second -
"Cripes, she'd sing the blooming head off any singer in her class!"
And the banter and the laughter when the chorus hit the rafter!
It was "great" to be at Casey's - healthy, wholesome fun at Casey's -
Spending Sunday down at Casey's after Mass.

There was something in the old life which I cannot quite forget;
There are happy golden memories that hover round me yet -
Something special down at Casey's, in that wonderland of Casey's,
Where the crowfoot and the clover spread a downy coverlet,
Where the trees seemed always greener, where the life of man was cleaner,
And the joys that grew around us shed no leaves of brown regret.

Oh, the merry, merry party! oh, the simple folk and hearty,
Who can fling their cares behind them, and forget them while they pass
Simple lives and simple pleasure never stinted in the measure.
There was something down at Casey's, something clean and good at Casey's -
Spending Sunday down at Casey's after Mass.

Passed and gone that old bush homestead where the hours too swiftly flew;
Silent now the merry voices of the happy friends I knew;
We have drifted far from Casey's. All deserted now is Casey's -
Just a lone brick chimney standing, and a garden-tree or two.
Still the minahs love to linger where the sign-post points the finger
Down the bush track winding westward where the tall white timber grew.

But the big hill seems to wonder why the ties are snapped asunder,
Why the neighbours never gather, never loiter as they pass;
Yet a tear-stained thought beseeming comes along and sets me dreaming
That I'm back again at Casey's, with the old, old friends at Casey's;
Spending Sunday down at Casey's after Mass.

* * *

51+. 'TAMATE' Missionary James CHALMERS- The Greatheart of New Guinea
& his first wife Jane Hercus Chalmers

'TAMATE' Missionary James CHALMERS- The Greatheart of New Guinea

Born: 4 August 1841 Ardrishaig, Argyllshire, Scotland
Training: 1864 Entered London Missionary Society college at Highgate.
Married: 17 October 1865
Wife: Miss Jane HERCUS
Wife died: 20 February 1879 Sydney, NSW, Australia
Marriage 2: 1889 Cooktown, Queensland, Australia.
Wife 2. Sarah Eliza HARRISON
Died: 8 April 1901 - Killed / eaten by cannibals at Goaribari Island, Papua

From: Christian Biography Resources ONLINE

James Chalmers (1841-1901)
was a Scottish missionary-explorer who served in Rarotonga in the Cook Islands for ten years, and in New Guinea from 1877 until his brutal murder by cannibal tribesmen on April 8, 1901, during a missionary trip to Goaribari Island.

Jane Hercus Chalmers: First missionary wife of James Chalmers. "A lady of quite exceptional gifts and graces ... her early training had been an admirable discipline for the work and experience which came upon her..." A school-mistress in Leeds, Miss Hercus married James Chalmers on October 17, 1865, and faithfully served with him until her death on February 20, 1879. Chalmers said of his dear wife Jeanie, "She was a whole-hearted missionary."

FROM ADB ONLINE - Australia Dictionary of Biography

Chalmers, James (1841–1901)

by Patricia A. Prendergast

James Chalmers (1841-1901), missionary, was born 4 August 1841 in the fishing village of Ardrishaig on Loch Fyne, Scotland, the only son of an Aberdonian stonemason. When he was 7 the family moved to Inveraray where he attended the local school and then worked for some years in a solicitor's office. In his youth Chalmers was greatly impressed by an account of missionary work in Fiji but later reacted against the stern Calvinistic doctrines preached by Highland Presbyterians and drifted away from the church. In 1859 he was converted in a religious revival and two years later joined the Glasgow City Mission as an evangelist. There he met George Turner, the Samoan missionary, at whose suggestion he applied to the London Missionary Society for acceptance as a missionary candidate in 1862. He was trained at Cheshunt College and Highgate Academy and was ordained on 19 October 1865, two days after his marriage to Jane Robinson, daughter of Peter Hercus of Greenock and New Zealand.

Chalmers had hoped to work in Africa but was appointed to the Pacific, arriving with his wife at Rarotonga in the Cook Islands on 20 May 1867; there they remained for ten years. Although disappointed that his position lacked the challenge of pioneer mission work, Chalmers waged a vigorous campaign against drunkenness, reorganized the training of island evangelists and produced a monthly newspaper. Tamate, the name by which he preferred to be called, was the Rarotongan version of his surname. In 1877 his desire for pioneer work was realized when he was appointed to New Guinea, where three years earlier Rev. William Lawes had established a mission with headquarters at Port Moresby. The co-operation of these two men laid the foundation of the London Missionary Society's work in the island. Their policy was to set up a chain of mission stations along the southern coast, staffed by South Sea Island evangelists under the supervision of European missionaries. While establishing these stations Chalmers explored much of New Guinea's coastline, made several inland journeys and was the first European to contact many of the different groups of people who inhabited these areas. Although he was interested in exploration and was asked several times to lead expeditions into New Guinea he refused on the grounds that he was first and foremost a missionary. In the ceremonies associated with the declaration of the British Protectorate in 1884 Chalmers acted as official interpreter in areas outside Port Moresby. Sir Peter Scratchley was anxious to secure his services for the administration but Chalmers remained with the mission.

During his missionary career he returned to Britain in 1886-87 and 1894-95, receiving acclaim both as an explorer and as a missionary and arousing widespread interest in the island by his lectures. He published several accounts of his work: Adventures in New Guinea (1885), Pioneering in New Guinea (1887) and Pioneer Life and Work in New Guinea 1877-1894 (1895). His wife died on 20 February 1879 and in 1888 he married one of her childhood friends, a widow, Sarah Elizabeth Harrison, née Large; she died on 25 October 1900. There were no children of either marriage.

During his twenty-three years in New Guinea Chalmers resided for short periods on the east coast at Suau, Port Moresby, Motumotu and Saguane in the Fly River delta, but for long periods he had no permanent home. His last station was Daru. From there he set out with a colleague, Oliver Tompkins, to establish a mission on Goaribari Island. Their deaths at the hands of hostile islanders on 8 April 1901 resulted in the last major punitive expedition in British New Guinea. Three years later the acting administrator, Judge Christopher Robinson, set out with a party to recover the skulls of the two missionaries. Robinson's mishandling of the situation resulted in the death of a number of islanders and led to his suicide.

An eccentric, humane man of great personal charm, Chalmers numbered among his friends personalities as diverse as Robert Louis Stevenson and 'Bully' Hayes; but his talent for friendship was most evident in his relations with the New Guinea people to whom he was sincerely and unsentimentally devoted. 'He had consecrated himself to New Guinea', wrote the Methodist missionary Dr George Brown, 'and to that work he was loyal to the end'.

Select Bibliography
R. Lovett, James Chalmers: His Autobiography and Letters (Lond, 1902)
W. A. Young, Christianity and Civilization in the South Pacific (Lond, 1922)
LMS Archives (Westminster).

52. +Bertha CHAMBERS, Indooroopilly, QLD

53. John CHANDLER ~ 40yrs in the wilderness

54. Dora CHAPMAN, Silvan VIC

54a. Marion Elizabeth CHAPMAN, CIM missionary to China , Reported Martyred 30 Aug 1900 Kuh-u, Shan-shih, China -

Marion Elizabeth CHAPMAN, of Mount Barker South Australia. She was born 3 Sept 1874 Enfield, Adelaide, South Australia, daughter of Hobart Town, Van Diemen's Land-born fresh-food gardener John Reuben CHAPMAN the elder (1835-1924) who came to Adelaide as an infant at age three in about 1938 & Illogan, Cornish-born Jane JEFFREY (1834–1901) - Went to China in 1897 as a CIM missionary. - Reperted Died 30 August 1900 at Kuh-u, Shan-shih, Hailin, Heilongjiang, China -

Not Martyred as CIM (China Inland Mission Missionary in China - But she was hiding in the outlying hills where she could be protected by Chinese Christians and with fellow missionary Miss Way wventually made her way to safety. She escaped the fanatic murderous mobs, to soon be married to fellow CIM missionary Graham McKIE (1874–1944) with the wedding held on 29 March 1901 in Shanghai Cathedral. Their three McKIE sons were born, William McKie b.1902 Chefoo, China, Duncan McKie born 1904 P'ing-yang Fu, China & Graham Donald McKie b.1906 China. When European were expelled from China the McKie family came to Australia. She died 10 Dec 1969 in Adelaide, South Australia.

54+. Reverend Septimus Lloyd CHASE, Church of England, Reading & Melbourne

55. Alexander Hugh (Alec) CHISOLM (1890-1977) -
Psalmist of the Australian Creation; Celebrant of Winged Creation; Singer of the Created Orders; Journalist & Naturalist
Alexander Hugh (Alec) CHISOLM
Parentage: Colin CHISOLM, Australian-born grocer & Scottish-born Charlotte KENNEDY
Birth: 28 March 1890 at Maryborough, Goldfields, Victoria, seventh of eight children
Education: Maryborough State School; then an Autodidact, Insatiably reading, observing & learning
Christianity: Presbyterian, Open broad-church catholic Christian
Occupation: Journalist, Sports Writer, Nature Writer, Editor, Biographer, Enclopaedia Editor -
[from Encyclopedia of Australian Science: - 'Left school at 12. Various jobs; contributed notes on bird life to the local press, then to newspapers in Melbourne; honorary nature teacher in Victorian high schools; reporter on the Maryborough and Dunolly Advertiser 1911-15; Brisbane Mail 1915-22?; honorary adviser and Lecturer on Natural History for the Queensland government 1918-22; edited a number of metropolitan daily and weekly newspapers, including Argus (Melbourne), Australasian (Melbourne) and Sunday Pictorial (Sydney); editor Who's Who in Australia 1947; Editor-in-Chief, Australian Encyclopaedia 1958. First recipient, Australian Natural History Medallion 1939. President, Queensland Field Naturalists' Club; president, Queensland Gould League of Birdlovers 1919-22; president, Queensland Naturalists' Club 1920-22; honorary editor, Queensland Naturalist 1920-22; Corresponding Fellow, American Ornithologists' Union 1922; honorary editor, The Emu 1926-28; president, Victorian Field Naturalists' Club 1937-38; president, Victorian Bird Observers' Club 1937-38; president, Royal Australasian Ornithologists' Union 1939-40; honorary editor, Victorian Naturalist 1939-48; Fellow, Royal Australian Historical Society; Fellow, Royal Historical Society of Queensland; Fellow, Royal Australasian Ornithologists' Union 1941; Corresponding Member, British Ornithologists' Union.']

Marriage : 8 November 1923 Sacred Heart Church, Rosalie, Brisbane QLD
Wife: Olive May Haseler (b. QLD d.1971) a Catholic
Achievment: Awoke awareness of beauty in Nature; pioneer conservationist; Champion of the birds
Works: - Mateship with Birds (Melbourne, 1922), Birds and Green Places (London, 1929), Nature Fantasy in Australia (London, 1932), Bird Wonders of Australia (Sydney, 1934), Strange New World (Sydney, 1941; (autobiography) The Joy of the Earth (Sydney, 1969)
Cross: Imperiousness, Querulousness, Illness: stomach ulcers & gall stones
Death: 10 July 1977 at home, Cremorne Point, Sydney, NSW
Burial: cremated with Presbyterian forms.

1. Alec Chisolm ; works
2. Australian Dictionary of Biography - ADB Online -
3. Encyclopedia of Australian Science

From Australian Dictionary of Biography - ADB Online -

Chisholm, Alexander Hugh (Alec) (1890–1977)

by Tess Kloot

Alexander Hugh (Alec) Chisholm (1890-1977), journalist, ornithologist and encyclopaedist, was born on 28 March 1890 at Maryborough, Victoria, seventh of eight children of Colin Chisholm, a native-born grocer, and his Scottish-born wife Charlotte, née Kennedy. Alec attended Maryborough State School until the age of 12. During his formative years, after work and farm chores, he educated himself, learned shorthand, wrote poetry, fossicked for gold, collected stamps and cigarette cards, and enjoyed amateur theatricals. An insatiable reading appetite and an astounding memory were to serve him well.

In his autobiography, The Joy of the Earth (Sydney, 1969), Chisholm claimed that, from early childhood, he was aware of nature surrounding him. Whenever he could, he escaped to the bush and in 1907 commenced a diary in which the entries were almost entirely devoted to birds. That year he became a member of the (Royal) Australasian Ornithologists Union and in 1908 published six articles in Emu. A conservationist long before it became fashionable to be one, he attacked the plume trade in an article in the Maryborough and Dunolly Advertiser which won him many friends, among them (Dame) Mary Gilmore; in 1911 he accepted a job as a reporter on that newspaper. An invitation to join the Bird Observers' Club led to his lifelong association with natural history societies; once nature study was accepted as a school subject, he addressed children and coached teachers.

Four major moves and the irregular hours of journalism enabled Chisholm to lead a life of varied and ceaseless activity. He often turned his experiences into books. In 1915 he moved to Queensland as a reporter on the Brisbane Daily Mail. There he contacted local birdwatchers, joined clubs, and became honorary advisor and lecturer (1918-22) on natural history to the Queensland government. In 1921 he promoted legislation protecting native fauna and made court appearances to prosecute offenders. Through journalism, he championed the causes of birds. His sustained efforts led to the rediscovery in 1922 of the Paradise Parrot (Psephotus pulcherrimus), now possibly extinct. When dignitaries went birdwatching, he was called upon to act as guide: he would count among his acquaintances Sir Philip Game, Lord Alanbrooke, Viscount Dunrossil and Sir Henry Abel Smith.

In 1922 Chisholm transferred to Sydney's Daily Telegraph. On 8 November 1923 at the Sacred Heart Church, Rosalie, Brisbane, he married a nurse Olive May Haseler (d.1970). While in Sydney he chaired (1924-26) the combined meetings of the ornithological section of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales and the State branch of the R.A.O.U., and served as a trustee (1927-32) of (Royal) National Park. From 2UW radio on 3 July 1931 he participated in the first, live broadcast of a lyrebird's calls.

Returning to Victoria in 1933, Chisholm joined the Argus and Australasian in Melbourne. An admirer of Donald Macdonald, he succeeded him as nature and sports writer. Appointed editor in 1937, he resigned next year and spent eight months lecturing in Britain, the Netherlands and Germany. Again using newspapers to achieve his aims, he sought material relating to John Gould. This highly successful plan, related in Strange New World (Sydney, 1941), led to the discovery of Gouldiana, historical documents pertaining to Australia and John Gilbert's diary. Back in Melbourne, Chisholm joined the Herald. He was press liaison officer to the governor-general, the Duke of Gloucester, for three months in 1945 and edited the 1947 edition of Who's Who in Australia.

In 1948 Chisholm resigned from the Herald and moved permanently to Sydney to undertake the single, largest assignment of his career—as editor-in-chief of the ten-volume Australian Encyclopaedia (Sydney, 1958). This achievement earned him in 1958 the O.B.E. which, with the Australian Natural History medallion (1940), became his most prized awards. He also began an association with the Sydney Morning Herald that lasted until his death.

As well as the hundreds of articles which he contributed to ornithological and natural history magazines, Chisholm published such monographs as: Mateship with Birds (Melbourne, 1922), Birds and Green Places (London, 1929), Nature Fantasy in Australia (London, 1932), Bird Wonders of Australia (Sydney, 1934), The Story of Elizabeth Gould (Melbourne, 1944), The Making of a Sentimental Bloke (Melbourne, 1946) and Scots Wha Hae (Sydney, 1950). After Edmund Banfield's death, Chisholm had edited Last Leaves from Dunk Island (Sydney, 1925). He was represented in several anthologies, and his innumerable articles appeared in a wide range of newspapers and journals, as well as in the Australian Dictionary of Biography. His forewords, introductions, reviews and obituaries provide valuable background to Australian bird-lore, history and his own life. An excellent photographer at a time when it took herculean strength to manage the equipment, he illustrated his books and articles with his work.

President of the Queensland Gould League of Bird Lovers (1920-22), the R.A.O.U. (1934), the Royal Australian Historical Society (1959-61), the B.O.C. (1937-38) and the Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria (1937-38), Chisholm edited some of their journals. He received over twenty awards and honorary fellowships in Australia and overseas; he unveiled historic markers in three States, delivered memorial lectures and was patron of various events, notably the Maryborough Golden Wattle Festival. The price of this hectic life was bouts of ill health, and operations for gall-stones and stomach ulcers.

Chisholm was short and slight, with piercing, blue eyes and a mass of wavy hair. In later years he was a familiar figure in his hat and gabardine overcoat, carrying a suitcase and walking stick. Imperious and querulous, he gained the respect—and incurred the wrath—of many people, but remained passionately faithful to the causes in which he believed. He died on 10 July 1977 in his flat at Cremorne Point and was cremated with Presbyterian forms. His daughter survived him.

Select Bibliography
H. M. Whittell, The Literature of Australian Birds (Perth, 1954)
Wild Life (Melbourne), Mar 1940
Victorian Naturalist, 75, Nov 1958, p 133, 94, Sept-Oct 1977, p 188
Emu, 77, no 4, Oct 1977, p 232
T. Kloot, 'Alexander Hugh Chisholm: 1890-1977', Australian Bird Watcher, 7, no 4, Dec 1977, p 103
Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, 63, no 3, Dec 1977, p 206
Ibis (London), 120, no 2, 1978, p 241
New South Wales Field Ornithologists Club, Newsletter, 30, Apr 1978
Chisholm file (from Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union Archives, privately held)
Chisholm collection (State Library of New South Wales).

55+. Caroline CHISOLM NSW

56. Ronald O. CLACK, Ballarat, Field Secretary of the YMCA, Adelaide. Leader of the Y.M.C.A. Melbourne - Roy C. CLACK,
- & Mr William S. 'Bill' CLACK ; & Clem CLACK, Writer and Bible Campaigner

REFERENCE; 1. The Bible in focus: A pictorial of prophecies, people and places [by] Clem Clack in association with Dawn Saward and Olive Clack, 1980
2. The Tomb Is Empty' by Clem Clack. 1988
3. Bible Mountaineering
4. Report of visit to France - by R. O. CLACK - Young Men's Christian Associations of Australia.

57. =Robert CLARK, Wybalenna, Flinders Is VDL/T & +Pinnano-bathae (Bessy Clark) Wybalenna VDL/TASAS / martyr &

58. =Katherine Mary CLUTTERBUCK (Sister Kate) Perth WA

59. +COCHRANE , Wellington NSW

60. John Cowley COLES, radical evangelist, Wesley Church, Melbourne ( Wesleyan Convert of Talbot goldfield, missionary to poor Lonsdale St & Melbourne jails Biship of a Dirty Diocese)

61. Lt General David COLLINS (1756–1810) 1st Lieutenant Governor of VDL, Hobart, TAS - Buried St David's Park, Hobart Town, VDL (Tasmania)

In David’s Name - Percy from the Pews -27.04.10 'in honour of our first Lieutenant-Governor, David Collins, founder of Hobart, is St David’s Cathedral named, and the churches before it."

62. Don Angelo Bartolomeo CONFALONIERI - 9 June
= Don (Father) Angelo Bartolomeo CONFALONIERI Port Essington, NT (born June 1813, Riva del Garda, on Lake Garda, Trentino, Italy and died 9 June 1848 at 'New Victoria,' Port Essington, Cobourg Peninsula, Northern Territory, Australia).
Girola writes that Confalonieri 'was educated at various Capuchin institutes in the Trentino. To fulfil his vocation as a missionary among the Aborigines he had trained not only spiritually, at the Propaganda Fide's Urban College, but also physically, in the mountains of his region, undergoing extreme tests of withstanding fasting, the cold and intense heat.' He was the first missionary, and first Catholic missionary to work in the Northern Territory. He arrived in the remote settlement of Victoria at Port Essington in 1846, only to die two years later. It is likely that he he is a Martyr for he died of malaria as well as of exhaustion in his attempt to learn the custom and language of the Aborigines by following their harsh way of life for the sake of Christ.
'T. H. Huxley's "Diary of the Voyage of the H.M.S. Rattlesnake" tells of the ship's arrival at Port Essington on November 5th, 1848. He writes; "Several miles nearer the mouth of the harbour (below the red cliff) than Victoria and on the opposite bank of the estuary, we passed in coming up a little low solitary house that we rightly judged to be the residence of Don Angelo, the Catholic Missionary.
"When we arrived, we learned the poor man had died a short time before our arrival, of fever, under which he had laboured for a week before anyone was acquainted with the circumstances . . . Don Angela lived wholly by himself. He got the natives to build his house for him and he lived wholly in their manner - rather priding himself upon so doing, though there can be little doubt that he thereby hastened his end."'
On a new work about the Missionary, Rolando Pizzini writes:
"In his short life, Angelo Confalonieri (1813-1848) wrote an important page in the history of contacts between European and Aboriginal cultures of Australia and, more generally, between Catholic missionaries and indigenous people. The contributions collected in this volume, prepared by scholars from diverse disciplinary, revealed both whether an event of extraordinary cultural, religious and human wealth is the personality of a missionary in the first half of the Trentino that he decided to devote their lives to Aboriginal people and their evangelization." - [Nagoyo la vita di don Angelo Confalonieri fra gli Aborigeni d'Australia : 1846-1848 / a cura di Rolando Pizzini].

- Stefano Girola writes: "On the morning of 11 June 1848, something unusual happened at Port Essington, an isolated English military outpost in the Cobourg Peninsula at the far end of northern Australia. The full contingent, soldiers and officers, gave a military tribute to the body of a 35-year-old priest who had died of his exertions and malaria two days earlier. They accompanied him to his grave "with all the respect that was due to a man so highly esteemed", Commandant MacArthur assured John Bede Polding, the first Archbishop of Sydney. - The fact that Protestant soldiers were paying homage to a Catholic missionary perhaps would have passed unobserved in Australia today. But in the middle of the 19th century, many living in the British colony shared the views of John Dunmore Lang, the Presbyterian clergyman who held that the Pope was the anti-Christ and that the spread of the "papist superstition" in the new continent was a threat to be warded off at all costs. Who was the man for whom anti-Catholic prejudice was set aside?"

Father Confalonieri was a man who practiced the charism of treating the Aborigines with respect for 'The Godlike Image' in which he believed they were made. - Girola continues: ' Sharing their daily life, Confalonieri soon succeeded in acquiring a good knowledge of the language of the tribal group of the Iwaidja. In addition, he drew a map of the area in which he outlined the different tribal areas with precision. Today this map is preserved at Melbourne State Library.

Mastery of the Aboriginal languages must have seemed to the priest from Trent essential for the task of evangelization. In those very years the other Italian mission at Stradbroke Island was failing, partly because of the lack of communication between the missionaries and the Aborigines.

Confalonieri set to work on a dictionary of the Iwaidja language and also translated into this idiom prayers and readings from the New Testament. In addition, he built a basic field hospital and, in treating the Aborigines during an influenza epidemic, put into practice the medical skills he had learned in Italy.

However, nomadic life, loneliness and the difficulty of adapting to a climate and diet so different from those in Europe undermined Confalonieri's physical and moral constitution. Only two years after his arrival at Port Essington, the young priest died from a fever caused by malaria.'

Don Angelo Bartolomeo CONFALONIERI's grave is at New Victoria, Port Essington, on Cobourg Penisula, in the Northern Territory.

Father Angelo Bartolomeo CONFALONIERI - References:
1. Don Angelo Confalonieri Confalonieri's Manuscripts: Final English-Translation- Online PDF File
2. Ernest MacGregor CHRISTIE: Angelo Confalonieri : first missionary to Port Essington, North Australia, 1942 [manuscript] State Library of Victoria
3. Stefano Girola - Fr Confalonieri's Legacy in the Australian Church - An avant-garde missionary to the Aborigines.
4. Rolando Pizzini - Nagoyo la vita di don Angelo Confalonieri fra gli Aborigeni d'Australia : 1846-1848.

63. Fr Phillip CONNOLLY, Catholic Father,

64. =Captain James COOK, ???????? Navigator, Discoveer of NSW

65. Constance COOKE

66. +William COOPER, Indigenous activist, Cumerooginga, NSW. Echuca,& Footscray, VIC

67. Harold Roy COVENTRY


Father: Charles Henry Coventry 1862 – 1920
Mother: Adeline Agnes Tomkins 1863 – 1955
Cultural Heritage: Cornish, English
Birth: 3 February 1891 Athelstone, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
Upbringing: Aldgate, Adelaide, South Australia
Christianity: Disciples or Churches of Christ,
Training: The College of the Bible, Glen Iris, Victoria
Departure for India - February 1916 Fremantle WA - per "S.S. Khyber"
Field: Baramati Mission, Baramati, Maharashtra, India
Marriage: 23 November 1916 at Pune, Maharashtra, India
Wife: Ethel Emily WARMBRUNN 1892 Prahran – 1971 Ashwood, Vic.

Children: 1. Margaret Coventry 1918-2008; 2. Harold Keith Coventry 1921-1921; 3. Vera Coventry 1923; 4. Muriel Coventry 1927; Janet Coventry

Death: 28 October 1963 Mentone, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

* Stephenson. A. W. (M.A.) THE BROKEN CYCLE: - The Story of Harold Roy Coventry whose work among the Criminal Tribes of India gained for him the Kaiser-i-Hind Medal awarded by Kind George V 1934

67+. 'Syms' Simon COVINGTON, Pambula, NSW

Syms Covington

'Syms' Simon COVINGTON -

OCKAM'S RAZOR ABC Radio National - Transcript of Roger McDonald Interview: - " I had no intention of writing about Charles Darwin, but when I read about Syms Covington, Darwin's assistant on the long voyage of the 'Beagle', I was compelled into the story. The name came at me from a corner of the page. Covington.

Here was a person of little importance it seemed, a humble crew member, a walk-on extra in the life of a young gentleman naturalist, a gift for the point of view fiction often demands, the view from the underbelly.

Charles Darwin was only 23 and Syms Covington barely 15 when the 'Beagle's' voyage started at the end of 1831. The vessel's papers listed Covington as ship's fiddler and boy to poop cabin.

In a short time, however, references to a 'servant' appeared in Darwin's letters and diaries. This was Covington. He'd found himself signed over permanently to Darwin by the Captain, Robert Fitzroy. Darwin's father, the richest man in Derbyshire, footed the bill. Now whether Covington volunteered, urged for the job, or was just available, is not known. In my novel, I have him urging, strong with ambition to live life to the full.

From then on, in notes and correspondence, Darwin hardly ever referred to Covington by name, mostly just as 'my servant'. Yet they were close.Midway through the voyage Darwin wrote to his sister back in England:

'Tell my father how much obliged I am for the affectionate way he speaks about my having a servant. It has made a great difference in my comfort; there is a standing order in the ship that no-one, excepting in civilised ports, leaves the vessel by himself. By thus having a constant companion, I am rendered much more independent, in that most dependent of all lives, a life on board.'

But, Darwin added:

'My servant is an odd sort of person. I do not very much like him; but he is, perhaps from his very oddity, very well adapted to all my purposes.'

So I read on in the archive, looking for clues as to why Darwin did not like Covington, why he was odd. None emerged.

Perhaps, I thought, we all resent those we come to depend on absolutely. Or maybe this was just a class thing. If so, did Covington buck against his lowly station in life? Make himself uppity to the upper-class Darwin? Was it his looks, like Billy Budd in Herman Melville? His beliefs? An over-willingness to please? A stickiness of manner? Was it his sexuality?

What might it have been in Covington's presence that evoked this negative but needful prickliness in Darwin?

Fiction comes out of just this vacuum of explanation, charting a relationship whose inner life begs to be imagined.

At the same time, as Isaac Bashevis Singer has observed, a novel must be full of detail, just as music must be full of notes.

So I filled myself with seafaring lore and combed through Darwin's letters and diaries catching hold of clues. Covington learned collecting, preserving, shooting and packing skills from Darwin, slitting open birds' stomachs, poking through half-digested contents, digging bones of prehistoric animals from Patagonian river banks, hefting, carting, sorting, storing.

I gained a picture of Darwin enjoying himself and always collecting ahead of his ideas, as when he desperately wanted to bag a particular small ostrich he'd heard about, and then thoughtlessly cooked and ate one, realising too late it was the rare species he sought. Later it was named after him, the rhea Darwinii. Novels get written the same way, I reflected.

The two young men were to remain as close as man and wife, metaphorically speaking, in their cluttered lodgings on land and sea, almost constantly from 1832 to 1839, during the entire voyage of the 'Beagle' and for the two-and-a-half crucial years following. 'Servant' was a term covering many duties in their time together.

Covington was taxidermist, valet, trusted house-servant, clerk and copyist. He pickled fish, prepared botanical specimens, and became expert with insects and all manner of wriggling, fluttering, crawling life. As the voyage proceeded he emerged as a prodigious collector, shooting most of Darwin's birds, (including the famous finches taken on the Galapagos Islands) and being responsible, it seems, for all of Darwin's insects collected during his brief sojourn in Sydney. By the end, Covington was badly deaf from all the shooting.

Darwin's archive is an immense resource. He remains the most thoroughly documented scientific genius of the 19th century. The voyage of the 'Beagle' was a period of adventure and travel forcibly linked to an intellectual drama 'far more thrilling' (as Stephen Jay Gould has observed) than the voyage itself, thanks to 'the impact upon human history' of the religious and scientific conflict aroused by Darwin.

I wondered about that conflict cutting deep into an individual's psychological sense of himself. Covington's, that is. He was born obscurely in Bedford, the home town of John Bunyan and religious non-conformity. Building from this lone early established fact, I created him imbued with trusting faith from childhood, coming from an older England, a stranger to the Anglicanism of the ruling order. Darwin was half-heartedly planning to serve as a curate when he returned to England, if only he could find a parish with scope for nature study.

But it was not to be. As even the sketchiest reading of The Origin of Species will reveal, Darwin became remorselessly and even aggressively atheist as time went on.

While I invented no facts around the Darwin archive, I interpreted Covington for fictional purposes by taking the known facts of his life into the realm of speculation. This applies particularly to the parts of Covington's life pre-Darwin. Also to the last year of his life, 1860 through to early 1861, as Covington awaited the arrival in Australia of The Origin of Species and I strove in my writing for some sort of reconciliation between science and religion in the spirit of this one person, Covington. But to allow readers interested to see where fact and fiction vary, I appended a list of sources and acknowledgements in an author's note at the back of the book.

Covington's archive by comparison with Darwin's is tiny. It consists of a contested birth-date, a scrappy diary held in the Mitchell Library, Sydney, a few watercolours, a photograph, and scattered mentions in Darwin's letters and diaries.

The letters Darwin wrote to Covington later in life were especially useful clues to work backwards from. Blandly friendly on the surface, wearily nostalgic, they cannot be described as warm-hearted. Whimsically envious of Covington's financial success and improved station in life, and of the health of Covington's children, they are none the less, condescending, in my view, the letters of a distant master to a solid old servant. Darwin sent Covington a silver ear trumpet and asked him to collect barnacles from nearby rocks, and wrote congratulating him on how well they were packed. Was there a touch of guilt in that ear trumpet? Darwin still wanted favours from Covington, and was never known for his gratitude.

So, basing the novel on a true story, I wanted more from this relationship than there was on show. I wanted love, maybe as an antidote to Darwin's spiritual bleakness. I wanted redemption. For this Covington's nature had to be passionate all through.

When I looked at Covington's photograph taken in later life, I saw a stoic, embattled survivor, with a deaf man's look of waiting to be surprised and an air of almost spiritual expectation. There was a chord struck in some inner part of myself. What was Covington holding in? I wanted this man bursting into bloom behind Darwin's back for his whole life. And so the real Covington and the fictional Covington travel parallel, but not together, in my pages.

As for the famous finches, which play a small but crucial part in the novel, Darwin had assumed, when they were on the Galapagos, that as the islands were close together, 'no reason was possible for their harbouring different species true to their own islands', and so, as a creationist (still) he had not labelled them by island. But Covington had labelled by island the birds he had shot for his own private and potentially saleable collection. When they were back in London, Darwin called for these birds to be examined by John Gould at the Zoological Society.

There at 36 Great Marlborough Street, Darwin sorted, listed, and wrote up the immense haul of material with Covington at his side. It was during this time that he first admitted to natural selection in private notes. Thus I propose that Covington, alone, and excluding Darwin's more illustrious contemporaries in this period after the voyage, had not just an instinct for, but a knowledge of what Darwin was grappling with in his understanding.

Then came the day in 1839 when Darwin announced his impending marriage. He presented Covington with a golden guinea, dismissed him from his service, and Covington (somewhat stung, it might be imagined) took ship for New South Wales.

In Australia, Covington married, had the same number of children as Darwin, prospered financially, became innkeeper and postmaster at Pambula, in southern New South Wales. He maintained his polite correspondence with Darwin over more than 20 years. Covington's side of the correspondence has been lost.

Looking back over his life I have Covington obsessively ask a question: Had Darwin on their voyage found proof of natural selection as a theory able to explain life on earth as completely as creationism? More importantly, had Covington handed the proof over to Darwin, willingly and blindly? Had there been a violation of good will? Worse, insult, from the arrangement of reality itself? Had he thus committed, as he puts it to himself, a crime against God and his own good nature?"
Roger McDonald

Covington was also an artist. This is his sketch 'Entrance to Rio'

Syms Covington FROM Wikipedia: -

Syms Covington (1816-1861) was a fiddler and cabin boy on HMS Beagle who became an assistant to Charles Darwin and was appointed as his personal servant in 1833, continuing in Darwin's service after the voyage until 1839. Originally named Simon Covington, he was born in Bedford, Bedfordshire, England, the youngest child of Simon Covington V and Elizabeth Brown. After Covington's trip on the Beagle, he then emigrated to Australia and settled as a postmaster, marrying Eliza Twyford there.[1]

Beagle voyage

When he was fifteen years old, Syms Covington became "fiddler & boy to Poop-cabin" on the second survey expedition of HMS Beagle,[2] which left England on 27 December 1831 under the command of captain Robert FitzRoy.
Covington kept a journal of the voyage, and in September 1832 at Bahía Blanca in South America he noted wildlife found there, including a find of rhea eggs, and giant fossil bones of the megatherium which were collected and sent to England. It is not clear if he was assisting Charles Darwin with this work, but FitzRoy's later account suggests that both Darwin and Covington worked at excavating the fossils,[3] and on November 3 Darwin arranged some clothing for Covington.[4]
On 29 April 1833, Darwin and Covington landed and took up residence ashore at Maldonado, Uruguay, while the Beagle went elsewhere on survey work.[5] After an excursion into the interior lasting twelve days,[6] they spent several weeks at Maldonado preparing the collections to be sent back to England. In a letter home started on 22 May, Darwin told his father that he had decided to take Covington on as a servant –
The following business piece is to my Father: having a servant of my own would be a really great addition to my comfort,—for these two reasons; as at present, the Captain has appointed one of the men always to be with me, but I do not think it just thus to take a seaman out of the ship;—and 2nd when at sea, I am rather badly off for anyone to wait on me. The man is willing to be my servant, & ALL the expences would be under £60 per annum. I have taught him to shoot & skin birds, so that in my main object he is very useful.[6]

He had been thinking about this for some time, but had not yet consulted the captain. In an addition to the letter, dated 6 July, Darwin announced that he had FitzRoy's agreement, and an unexpected saving –
I have asked the Captain & obtained his consent respecting a servant,—but he has saved me much expence by keeping him on the books for victuals, & will write to the Admiralty for permission. So that it will not be much more than £30 per annum. I shall now make a fine collection in birds & quadrupeds, which before took up far too much time. We here got 80 birds and 20 quadrupeds.[6]

As well as working as a servant and general amanuensis, writing out Darwin's records of investigations, Covington became Darwin's assistant as a collector, hunter and taxidermist, In addition to his duties, Covington kept a personal journal regarding his impressions of the voyage. His journal includes accounts ranging from his daily mundane tasks to impressions of the lands and the people he encountered, and it provides an alternative perspective to supplement Darwin's Journal and Remarks, better known as The Voyage of the Beagle.
[edit]Return, work for Darwin and emigration

After the Beagle returned in 1836, Covington became Darwin's manservant and continued in his duties as a general amanuensis. His own collection of bird specimens was invaluable in establishing the relationship of Darwin's Finches to each of the Galapagos Islands as, unlike Darwin, he had taken care to label where each specimen had been taken.
Covington remained in Darwin's service until 25 February 1839.[1] He decided to emigrate, and was given a personal reference from Darwin in a letter dated 29 May 1839.[7]
[edit]Life in Australia

Records indicate that Covington landed in Sydney in 1840, and he married Eliza Twyford who lived at Stroud, a small town in northern New South Wales, although she had been born in London in 1821. He was able to draw on his naval connections to find employment, and by 1843 was working as a clerk at the Sydney coal depot of the Australian Agricultural Company. Around 1844 the family, with their first two sons, accepted the invitation of Captain Lloyd and moved to the South coast property at Pambula, New South Wales, which Lloyd had been given in lieu of a pension from the Royal Navy.[7]
Covington continued to correspond with Darwin, who sent him a gift of a replacement ear-trumpet to help with Covington's increasing deafness.[8] In response to Darwin's request for specimens, Covington and his eldest son collected a large number of barnacles at nearby Twofold Bay. Darwin's letter of 23 November 1850 expressed his delight at having just received the box, which included particularly unusual species. This contributed to the extensive studies of barnacles which established Darwin as a biologist.[7][9]
Covington became Postmaster of Pambula in 1854, and managed an inn called the Forest Oak Inn built on the coast road above the floodplain where the first Pambula township had been repeatedly damaged by floods.[7] His original inn was licensed in 1855, and the building which still stands was constructed on the same site about a year later.[10] By 1848 he and his wife had eight children,[11] six sons and two daughters.[12] In 1861 Covington died of 'paralysis' at only 47 years old.[7] The inn was then run by his widow, and later by her second husband Llewelyn Heaven. The license was taken over by John Behl around 1864, and the building became known as The Retreat in 1895.[10] It has been used as a doctor's surgery and more recently as a Thai restaurant, and its red tin roof and double chimneys can still be seen beside a sharp bend of the main Coast Road.[7]
[edit]Books discussing Covington

"The Journal of Syms Covington, Assistant to Charles Darwin Esq." was discussed by Jonathan Hodge and Gregory Radick in The Cambridge Companion to Darwin.
In 1998, Australian author Roger McDonald published a novel based on Syms Covington's life and his work for Darwin, called Mr Darwin's Shooter.

(Wikipedia) References

^ a b Keynes 2001, p. 449.
^ In July 1832 Darwin copied out a Watch-bill listing the crew and their positions, Keynes 2001, p. 84.
^ "The Journal of Syms Covington - Chapter Three". Retrieved 2008-07-13.
^ Keynes 2001, p. 179, Barlow, p. 169.
^ Keynes 2001, p. 152, "The Journal of Syms Covington - Chapter Four". Retrieved 2008-07-18.
^ a b c Barlow 1945, pp. 85–88.
^ a b c d e f "The Journal of Syms Covington - Chapter Eight". Retrieved 2008-07-20.
^ "Darwin Correspondence Project - Letter 700 — Darwin, C. R. to Covington, Syms, 7 Oct 1843". Retrieved 2008-07-20.
^ "Darwin Correspondence Project - Letter 1370 — Darwin, C. R. to Covington, Syms, 23 Nov 1850". Retrieved 2008-07-20.
^ a b Angela George; Pat Raymond (2006). "Discover Pambala, Walk in the Pioneers' Footsteps" (pdf). Pambula Area Progress and Planning Association Inc.. Retrieved 2008-07-21.
^ "Darwin Correspondence Project - Letter 2276 — Darwin, C. R. to Covington, Syms, 18 May [1858"]. Retrieved 2008-07-20.
^ Freeman, R. B. (2007). "Charles Darwin: A companion". The Charles Darwin Trust. pp. 61. Retrieved 2008-07-20.
Darwin, Charles. Barlow, Nora. ed. . Charles Darwin and the voyage of the Beagle. London: Pilot Press. 1945.
Desmond, Adrian; Moore, James (1991). Darwin. London: Michael Joseph, Penguin Group. ISBN 0718134303
Darwin, Charles. Keynes, Richard. ed. Charles Darwin's Beagle Diary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2001.

Syms Covington: 'Coquimbo.

from Syms Covington - BEGA VALLEY HISTORY. "One of Pambula's most interesting early identities was Syms Covington, the second postmaster a man who was privileged to go on a famous voyage round the world in H.M.S Beagle, when he acted as servant, assistant and later clerk to Charles Darwin, the great naturalist. On this voyage of almost five years duration Darwin began making the scientific observations which led to his far-reaching contribution to man's knowledge of biology and opened the way to its tremendous advances in modern times." Covington was outraged at what Darwin presented as biological 'truths' published in his book 'The Origin of Species' in 1859. Its impact was startling to Covington and shocking to many at that time, as it went against the commonly held position, based on the book of Genesis, that man and all the animals were created by God in seven days and have never altered thereafter. "

In old age Syms Covington thought Darwin to be motivated by revenge for the untimely death of his favourite, his eldest daughter, which manifest in his theory of the origin of the species in rancour against God. Covington maintained his belief in a created universe and the in the divine Mystery, rather than Darwin's athiestic rationality, in the origins of all creation.

Syms Covington: 'At Woollya'

Syms COVINGTON died at age 47 in 1861 in Pambula, Bega/Eden District, New South Wales [2865/1861] and is buried in the Pambula Cemetery.

1. Syms COVINGTON The Journal of Syms Covington Chapter by chapter - online
2. Roger McDONALD – Mr Darwin’s Shooter
3. B. J. FERGUSON – Syms Covington of Pambula 1971/1981 Merimbula NSW
4. F.W.& J.M. NICHOLS- Charles Darwin in Australia
5. Adrian DESMOND & James MOORE – Darwin 1991 London
6. Janet BROWNE – Charles Darwin: Voyaging 1995 London
7. William SWAINSON - Naturalists Guide for Collecting and Presevering Subjects of Natural History and Botany – London 1822
8. Charles DARWIN – The Voyage of the Beagle
9 Charles DARWIN- Origin of the Species 1859 London

68. William COWPER, Cof E, NSW

68+. Pastor Ben CRUSE (c.1905-1999) La Perouse and the Eden Aboriginal community.

Pastor Benjamin John CRUSE married Lillian Sarah PEPPER (1910–1996)
Lillian Sarah PEPPER -b.6 JUL 1910 Orbost, East Gippsland, Victoria, -d. 6/11/1996 La Perouse, New South Wales, Australia - she was a grand-granddaughter of the will known earry Aboriginal Christian Nathaniel Pepper. Her brother Phillip PEPPER, wrote the renowned book "You Are What You Make Yourself To Be"
Father of Pastor Ossie Cruse

Born: 29 JAN 1906 Narooma, New South Wales, Australia
Died: 4 April 1990 late of La Perouse, Sydney, NSW, @ 84 yrs
Christian Aboriginal pastor - excluded from The Encylcopaedia of Aboriginal Australia 1994 (Ed Horton, David)

Obituary Notice for Pastor Ben Cruse, pastor of the Colebrook Memorial Church in La Perouse for 17 years.

69. Antonio Pedro CUBILLO - b. 30 June 1875 Calape, Bohol, Visayan islands, The Philippines d. 1945 Bohol & Delfin Antonio CUBILLO (1913-1986) Darwin, Northern Territory

69+. =Edward Micklethwaite CURR, Tongala VIC

70. =Xavier DALY, Beagle Bay WA

71. =Henry Pulteny DANA, Narree NareeWarren VIC

72. Mad Tom’ Thomas DAVEY, Lieutenant Governor, Tas.

72+. 'FRANK' Francis Terrey DAVIDSON Borneo, Missionary & Missionary Prisoner of War, Prison martyr of the Japanese

'FRANK' Francis Terrey DAVIDSON

Borneo Missionary &
Missionary Prisoner of War,
Prison martyr of the Japanese

Parents: John & Frances B DAVIDSON
Born: 1902 London, England
Cultural Influence: English
Christianity: Anglican, Evangelical,
Emigration: 1917 to New Zealand, in 1919 to Victoria, Au.
Australian Link: Tongala, Victoria
Occupation: Dairy Farmer, Evangelist, Missionary, Prisoner of war Internee
Education: Anglican Sunday School, Melbourne Bible Institute
Ministry: Victorian Evangelist, Missionary with Borneo Evangelical Mission
Marriage: 7 February 1935 The Residency, Libang, Borneo
Wife: Edith - Enid Mabel GRAY (daughter of John GRAY & Annie nee GARNER)
Family: 1. John Davidson; 2. Frances Margaret Davidson
Qualities: Devout, Zeal, Intrepid, Faithful, Moral, Staunch,
Death: 27 April 1945 Internment Prison Camp, Kuching, Borneo
Burial: ? maybe Labuan War Cemetery, Borneo, Indonesia

In Memoriam: -

DAVIDSON. - In loving memory of Francis Terrey, died Kuching internment camp, Borneo, April 27, beloved son of Mrs. Frances B. Davidson, Blackburn, and late John Davidson, beloved brother of John, Violet (Hall), Hugh, Robert, Sheila, and Allister. -He that doeth the Will of God liveth for ever. [The Argus (Melbourne, Vic.) Saturday 29 September 1945]

FROM - Australian Dictionary of Evangelical Biography - Alpha Crucis Online

DAVIDSON, Francis Terrey (1902-1945)


Darrell Paproth


(b. London, England, 1902;
d. Kuching, Borneo, 27 Apr 1945).

Pioneer missionary to Borneo with the Borneo Evangelical Mission.

In 1917 Davidson's family migrated to New Zealand. Opportunities were lacking there and so after eighteen months they crossed the Tasman and began farming in Tongala, Vic. The family was devoutly Christian (his brother Hugh, for instance, became a pioneer missionary for the Assemblies of God in Papua New Guinea) and Davidson was very involved in the local Anglican church, leading a Bible class. He took an active part in CSSM work, and when he was in his twenties he and a friend, David Howell, (later a missionary in the Belgian Congo) went on an evangelistic tour of Gippsland before entering MBI in 1927. There, because of his personality and experience, he was made senior student and put in charge of the Institute's open air evangelistic work.

In May 1928 Davidson met with fellow students Carey Tolley (q.v.) and Hudson Southwell (q.v.) to pray about the needs of Borneo. In August the Borneo Evangelical Mission was formed, and in October the three sailed for Borneo via Singapore. There was already some Christian witness in Borneo but it was contained to the ports and coastal areas. Davidson and the others travelled inland and worked among the Iban, Murut and Kelabit tribes. After much difficulty success crowned their efforts, with great numbers being converted. On 7 Feb 1935 he m. Edith Gray in the Residency in Limbang, Borneo. In Dec 1942 Borneo fell to the Japanese. Davidson was interned in Kuching Civilian Internment Camp where he died a few months before it was liberated.

Davidson was a leader, an evangelist and a pastor. His faith and moral stability and character had a profound effect on his fellow prisoners in Kuching as well as on the Ibans, Muruts and Kelabits.


Electronic Version © Southern Cross College, 2004 - Content © Evangelical History Association of Australia and the author, 2004

73. Lieutenant William DAWES, 1st Fleet, NSW

74. ='Jimmy' James DAWSON Esq (1806-1900) Friend of the Aborigines, Camperdown VIC
James (Jimmy) DAWSON (1806-1900) Friend of the Aborigines, Corangamite -Warrnambool District, Victoria

Father: Adam Dawson
Mother: Frances, née McKell

Born; 5 July 1806 Bonnytoun, Linlithgowshire, Scotland
Cultural Influence: Mediterranean-European Judeo-Christianity, Scottish,

Christianity: Presbyterian, broad church muscular Good Samaritanism

Qualities: Grace, Cultural Courage, Keen Insight, Spiritual understanding,
Occupation: dairy farmer, Indigenous culture recorder, protector of Aboriginals, taxidermist
Marriage: Great Britain
Wife: Joan Anderson née Park,
Family: daughter Isabella,

Emigration: May 1840 to Melbourne

Theatre of Activity: 1. 1842 Yarra Valley, Victoria (farm at Anderson's Creek);
2. 1844 Toolong-Eumeralla, (Belfast-Port Fairy), Victoria;
3. 1866 Camperdown, Victoria

Contribution: 1. Aboriginal-European Understanding
2. Critic of native policy of Govt;
3. witness at 1877 Royal Commission into the condition of the Aborigines
4. Position 1877- Protector of Aborigines

Works: 1881 Australian Aborigines. The Languages and Customs of Several Tribes of Aborigines in the Western District of Victoria, Australia

Died: 19 April 1900 Camperdown, Victoria, Australia
Buried: Camperdown cemetery, Gnotuk, near Camperdown, Victoria, Australia

Legacy: 1. Protection of remnant Aborigines & cultural understanding
2. left a pertinent Record of the culture and language of western Victoria
3. Memorial grave of 'Eel Spear' (Wombeetch Puuyuun)(d.1883) also known as Camperdown George in a Noble Monument to the Aborigines at Camperdown cemetery, Gnotuk, near Camperdown, Victoria, Australia

From: Australian Dictionary of Biography - ADB Online -

Dawson, James (Jimmy) (1806–1900)

by Peter Corris

James (Jimmy) Dawson (1806-1900)
, pastoralist and friend of the Aboriginals, was born on 5 July 1806 at Bonnytoun, West Lothian, Scotland, the youngest son of Adam Dawson and his wife Frances, née McKell. Business reversals in London and the ill health of his wife Joan Anderson, née Park, niece of the African explorer Mungo Park, caused Dawson to migrate with her to Port Phillip. They arrived in May 1840 and Dawson bought a small property on the Yarra above Anderson's Creek. Prosperity and an expanding dairy herd caused him to move in 1844 to the Western District where he took up a cattle-run near Port Fairy. Dawson lost ground in the depression of the 1840s and, although he attempted to survive by using a boiling-down plant, he was declared bankrupt in 1845. However, he continued on the land, profited in the gold rushes and sold his station in 1866 and leased land near Camperdown where he lived for the rest of his life as a farmer, amateur taxidermist and protector, friend and student of the Aboriginals. His only child, Isabella, helped him in his studies. A Presbyterian, he died at Camperdown on 19 April 1900.

Dawson is remembered as an amateur ethnographer (his Australian Aborigines. The Languages and Customs of Several Tribes of Aborigines in the Western District of Victoria, Australia was published in Melbourne in 1881) and for his sympathetic interest in the Aboriginals. He was appointed a protector of Aborigines and gave evidence to the 1877 royal commission on their condition, severely criticizing the assumptions upon which current native policy was based and its results. He considered that the Aboriginals were entitled to government support without obligation, and that it was unfair to restrict their movements and to press unpalatable employment and religion upon them.

In the 1880s Dawson collected money from the settlers around Camperdown for a monument to the last local Aboriginals; it stands in the Camperdown cemetery. An acquaintance later recalled that, when some settlers refused to contribute, Dawson rushed to Melbourne with an account he had written of the early ill treatment of the Aboriginals. He demanded that the Argus editor, Frederick Haddon, publish this attack on the settlers but was refused: 'Dawson however insisted and, when Haddon ordered him out of the room, old Jimmy Dawson went for him with his umbrella'.

Dawson was well known locally as an irascible teller-of-tales about the maltreatment of the Aboriginals, and his book clearly reflects his sympathy for them. On some subjects, particularly on the nature of authority within the Aboriginal community, the book is unreliable, as Edward Curr was the first to show. Dawson got much of his information from the detribalized Aboriginals at the Framlingham reserve. In his desire to put them in a good light, he often pleaded their case to unsympathetic officials. He dedicated his book to this 'ill-used and interesting people', and his reputation as their sincere friend is secure.

Select Bibliography
* R. Boldrewood (T. A. Browne), Old Melbourne Memories (Melbourne, 1884)
* H. Nisbet, A Colonial Tramp (London, 1896)
* A. Henderson (ed), Early Pioneer Families of Victoria and Riverina (Melbourne, 1936)
* Portland Gazette, 9 Dec 1845
* Boyer to Stephens, manuscript catalogue under Dawson (State Library of New South Wales).

75. Christiaan Ludolph Johannes DE VILLIERS (1808 Cape Town, South Africa ~ died 1855 Dandenong, Victoria) VDL/ VIC

Christiaan Ludolph Johannes DE VILLIERS Friend of the Aborigines, Commmandant of the First Aboriginal Police at Narre Narre Warren, near Dandenong, Victoria

Father: Tobias DE VILLIERS (1778-1828) son of Jan Hendrik De Villiers & Johanne nee Van Dyk of Stellenbosch, Western Cape, Kaapkolonie, Suid Afrika
Mother: Johanne Tobia HOFFMANN (1774-1835) born Stellenbosch, daughter of emigrant Cape settlers Johann Bernhardt & Anna Elisabeth Hoffmann from Stralsund, Pomerania, Prussia.

Born: 28 August 1808 Paarl, Stellenbosch, Western Cape, South Africa
Baptised: 11 September 1808, St Johns Church, Stellenbosch, South Africa

1st Emigration: January 1832 - arrived Sydney, New South Wales

Immigration: July 1832 - Launceston, Van Dieman's Land, Australia [- sailed for Sydney, New South Wales on the schooner 'RESOLUTION']

Marriage: 24 July 1834 Launceston, Van Diemens Land
Wife: Mary COX (1816-1836) the daughter of VDL pastoral pioneer, James COX and his wife Mary nee CONNELL

Returned to Stellenbosch, South Africa
2nd Emigration: 10 December 1835 Arrived at Port Phillip, Australia in the brig 'Elizabeth Taylorson' from Cape Town, South Africa

wife Mary died: 4 January 1836 Hobart Town, Van Diemens Land

La Trobe's Special Appointee: 1837 Superintendant of Frontier Aboriginal Police

Argument with La Trobe- dismissed

Death: 1855 Eumemmering, Dandenong, Victoria, Australia


Dillon, Doris Ruth (1896 - 1977)

6 April 1896
Randwick, New South Wales, Australia
July 1977
Castle Hill, New South Wales, Australia
Evangelist and Matron
Alternative Names
  • Percival, Doris (maiden name)


Doris Dillon was the founder and first matron of the Bush Church Aid Society (BCA) hospital at Ceduna, South Australia.


The daughter of W.E.H. Percival, Doris was raised as a devout Christian – both of her brothers became clergymen.

She trained as a nurse at the Royal Prince Alfred and Royal North Shore Hospitals before joining the Church Missionary Society (CMS). Doris was asked to set up a BCA hospital at Ceduna in remote South Australia. Her seven-bed hospital was opened in a galvanised iron cottage on a farm in 1926. With time, the hospital was extended to include more beds and a small operating theatre.

In 1928 Doris married Rev. Fred Dillon, BCA missioner at Ceduna, and travelled with him to his various parish appointments. Widowed in 1959, she continued her involvement with the CMS and the BCA throughout her life.

Sources used to compile this entry: Dickey, Brian (ed.), Australian Dictionary of Evangelical Biography, Evangelical History Association, Sydney, 1994.

76.A. CECILIA DOWNING (1858-1952) 

Downing, Cecilia (1858 - 1952)

13 Janurary 1858
Islington, London, England
30 August 1952
Ivanhoe-on-Yarra, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Community worker and Women's rights activist
Alternative Names
  • Hopkins, Cecilia (maiden name, 13 January 1858 - 12 February 1885)


Cecilia Downing was a leading figure in the Victorian women's movement in the early twentieth century, spreading her activities and influence over an enormous range of organisations. The daughter of Isaac and Mary (née Morgan) Hopkins, Downing was born in London and came to Australia in 1858. She obtained her Teaching Certificate from the Training Institution in Carlton and taught at Portarlington before marrying John Downing in 1885. The couple returned to Melbourne in 1901. Although she had seven children, Cecilia became heavily involved in women's groups and welfare work. She was one of Victoria's first child probation officers (1907) and was an officer bearer with both the Woman's Christian Temperance Union and the Australian Women's National League. From the 1920s, she devoted her energies to the Housewives Association (having become one of its earliest members in 1917) and served as its federal president from 1940-45 and Victorian president from 1938 until her death in 1952. On 8 June 1950 Cecilia Downing was appointed a Member of the British Empire for social welfare services in Victoria.


A member of the Collins Street Baptist Church for 46 years, she helped establish their Women's Guild in 1910 and the Victorian Baptist Women's Association in 1926. In 1935 she was elected foundation president of the Women's Board of the Baptist Union of Australia. She was also honorary secretary of the National Council of Women of Victoria (1928-1935) and foundation president of the National Travellers' Aid Society (1944), having been an executive member of the Victorian Society since 1920. During WWII she was also involved with the Australian Comforts Fund, the Victorian Council of Women's Emergency Service and the War Loan and War Savings Certificates Committee.


12 February 1885
Married John Downing, they had seven children
Joined the Collins Street Baptist Church
One of the government's first child-probation officers
Recording secretary of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, Victoria
Founding superintendent of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union's immigration department
1912 - 1915
President of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union
Vice-president of the Housewives' Co-operative Association (later Housewives' Association of Victoria)
1920 - 1932
Executive Member, Travellers' Aid Society of Victoria
Australian Delegate to the World's Woman's Christian Temperance Union in Lausanne
Australian Delegate to the Baptist World Alliance Conference in Toronto
1928 - 1936
Honorary Secretary, National Council of Women of Victoria
1932 - 1940
Junior Vice President, Travellers' Aid Society of Victoria
1932 - 1941
Secretary, Baptist Women's Association, Victoria
1934 - 1943
President, Collins Street Baptist Women's Guild
1935 - 1938
President of the Australian Baptist Women's Board
1938 - 1952
President, Housewives Association of Victoria
June 1940 - 1945
President, Federated Association of Australian Housewives
1941 - 1942
President, Travellers' Aid Society of Victoria
President, National Travellers' Aid Society
President, Travellers' Aid Society of Victoria
President, National Travellers' Aid Society
1949 - 1951
President of the Federated Association of Australian Housewives
Sources used to compile this entry: Alexander, Joseph A (ed.), Who's Who in Australia 1950, 14th edn, The Herald, Melbourne, 1950, 816 pp; Smart, Judith, 'Downing, Cecilia (1858 - 1952)', in Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, 2006,

Related entries


Vice President

Archival resources

Australian Historic Records Register

  • Woman's Christian Temperance Union of Victoria Inc. : community organisation records, 1887 - 1988, 2944; The Woman's Christian Temperance Union of Victoria (1885 - ); Australian Historic Records Register.

National Library of Australia, Manuscript Collection

  • Minutes [1904-1960] [microform], 1904 - 1960, Mfm G 7541-7544; National Council of Women of Victoria (1902 - ); National Library of Australia, Manuscript Collection.

State Library of Victoria

  • Minute books, 1850-1983. [manuscript], 1850 - 1983, Accession no: MS 12414; Melbourne Ladies Benevolent Society (1845 - 1983); State Library of Victoria.
  • National Council of Women of Victoria, 1902 - ; National Council of Women of Victoria (1902 - ); State Library of Victoria.
  • Records, 1939-1985. [manuscript]., 1939 - 1985, Accession no: MS 13340; Housewives Association of Victoria (1915 - ); State Library of Victoria.

The University of Melbourne Archives

  • Woman's Christian Temperance Union of Victoria, 1887 - 1999, 2001.0085; The Woman's Christian Temperance Union of Victoria (1885 - ); The University of Melbourne Archives.

77.A. James DIXON

77. =Retta DIXON (Retta LONG) La Perouse Mission, NSW

78. =James DREDGE, VIC

79. =Fr William DROSE, Dampier Penninsula WA

79+. Charles Gavin DUFFY - Young Irelander, Politician, Land Reformer, Premier of Victoria

80. "TJILPI" = Dr Charles DUGUID Nhill, Victoria, Ernabella, South Australia NSW- QLD

"TJILPI" = Dr Charles DUGUID, (1884–1986) Medical Missionary, Campaigner for Aboriginal Dignity, Founder of the Ernabella Mission in the Musgrave Ranges, South Australia. Champion of the rights of the under-privileged. Called Tjilpi, or `respected old man’ by the Pitjantjatjara people.

From Australian Dictionary of Biography
- ADB Online

Duguid, Charles (1884–1986)

by W. H. Edwards

Charles Duguid (1884-1986), medical practitioner and Aboriginal rights campaigner, was born on 6 April 1884 at Saltcoats, Scotland, eldest of seven children of Charles Duguid (pronounced Dewgood), schoolteacher, and his wife Jane, née Kinnier. He attended the High School of Glasgow, and studied arts and medicine at the University of Glasgow (MA, 1905; MB, Ch.B., 1909), where he won twenty-one prizes. A full Blue, he represented the university in quarter-mile and half-mile events, his red hair earning him the nickname `the Scarlet Runner’. After graduating he practised medicine at Glasgow.

In 1911 Duguid travelled to Australia as a ship’s medical officer. On board he met and became engaged to Irene Isabella Young, an Australian returning home from England, and decided that his future lay in Australia. Back in Scotland he assisted in a practice that served four mining villages; his observations of poverty and suffering there were to influence his later concern for social justice. Next year he migrated to Australia, again working his passage as a ship’s doctor. On 23 October 1912 he and Irene married with Congregational forms at the Collins Street Independent Church, Melbourne. He practised in the Wimmera township of Minyip before moving to Adelaide in 1914.

On 5 February 1917 Duguid was appointed captain, Australian Army Medical Corps, Australian Imperial Force. He treated casualties in the Middle East (March-July) before returning to Australia in a hospital ship. His AIF appointment terminated on 5 October. He wrote about his war experiences in From the Suez Canal to Gaza with the Australian Light Horse (1917?) and The Desert Trail (1919). After a trip to Scotland in 1919 for postgraduate study he bought a house at Magill, Adelaide, where he set up practice, while also working as a surgeon at the Memorial Hospital, North Adelaide. He became active in local branches of the Returned Sailors’ and Soldiers’ Imperial League of Australia, Legacy and Toc H.

Duguid undertook further medical study in Britain in 1927. His wife, returning home separately with their son, died suddenly at sea. In 1929 he met Phyllis Evelyn Lade, daughter of Rev. Frank Lade and an English teacher at Presbyterian Girls College, of which he was a councillor (1922-34). They married on 18 December 1930 at the Kent Town Methodist Church. That year he was elected a fellow of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons. A patient, who was a missionary in the Northern Territory, had told Duguid of abuses suffered by Aborigines there. In 1934 he decided to visit Darwin and look into the situation himself. Arriving by train at Alice Springs in July, he was asked to perform emergency surgery and, having missed his connection to Darwin, stayed in the area for over three weeks. He was appalled by the treatment that he saw meted out to Aborigines, and by their poor living conditions. At Hermannsburg Mission he visited Pastor Friedrich Albrecht and met Albert Namatjira, with whom he became friends.

In 1935 Duguid was elected the first lay moderator of the Presbyterian Church in South Australia and president of the Aborigines Protection League. Albrecht had suggested that he investigate conditions in the Musgrave Ranges, in north-western South Australia. In June, with R. M. Williams, he journeyed to Ernabella, a pastoral lease, and for the first time met Pitjantjatjara people—thus beginning a relationship with them that was to last for fifty years. Gilpin, a part-Aboriginal youth, guided him farther west. Duguid was again disturbed by his observations of discrimination and of abuse of Aboriginal workers and women, and by evidence of increasing health problems. He discussed with his wife the possibility of establishing a Christian mission to serve as a `buffer between the Aborigines and the encroaching white man’. They decided that there should be `no compulsion nor imposition of our way of life on the Aborigines, nor deliberate interference with tribal custom’ and that the vernacular language should be used, medical care offered, and responsibility passed to the local people as soon as possible. In 1936 he visited Haasts Bluff, west of Hermannsburg, with Albrecht. That year, despite opposition from some influential members, including Rev. John Flynn, the general assembly of the Presbyterian Church of Australia approved Duguid’s proposal to establish a mission in the Musgrave Ranges. With support from the government of South Australia, Ernabella Mission was founded in 1937.

Duguid and his wife also took an interest in the children of mixed descent living in Cole-brook Home, Quorn, run by the United Aborigines Mission. For six weeks over Christmas 1935 thirty-four had stayed at the Duguids’ home. Duguid was to maintain contact with them into adulthood and to assist their struggle for equality with White people. In 1939 he toured the Aboriginal reserves west of Ernabella with Albrecht, Theodor Strehlow and Rev. Harry Taylor, the superintendent of Ernabella. From the Petermann Ranges they travelled on camels, guided by a Pitjantjatjara man, Tjuintjara, who became Duguid’s close friend and later lived at Ernabella.

Appointed a founding member (1940) of South Australia’s Aborigines Protection Board, Duguid inspected reserves throughout the State, noting abuses against Aborigines on pastoral properties and discrimination in education. The Duguids, with their two children and their fostered Aboriginal son, Sydney James Cook, visited Ernabella in 1946. Soon afterwards they heard of the British proposal to test guided weapons over South Australia from a base to be built at Woomera. Concerned about the impact of the rocket range on the inhabitants of the Central Australian reserves, Duguid criticised the scheme at public meetings in Adelaide and, with Donald Thomson, in Melbourne. Duguid resigned from the Aborigines Protection Board when it approved the proposal, but as a result of the protests a patrol officer, Walter MacDougall, was appointed at Woomera.

During a measles epidemic at Ernabella in 1948 Duguid helped to care for the sick. In 1951 he reported on health needs of Aborigines in the Northern Territory. President (1951-61) of the Aborigines Advancement League of South Australia, in 1953 he arranged a meeting in the Adelaide Town Hall at which five Aborigines spoke of their experiences. One told of discrimination against young Aboriginal women applying for entrance to nursing training at Royal Adelaide Hospital. The Duguids supported moves to break down this barrier. Another outcome of the meeting was the establishment in 1956 by the AAL of Wiltja Hostel at Millswood, to accommodate Aboriginal country girls attending secondary schools in Adelaide.

Duguid was president (1944-60) of the District and Bush Nursing Society of South Australia. Following a motorcar accident in 1956 he retired as a surgeon and took up an interest in geriatric medicine. Under the auspices of the AAL, he published The Central Aborigines Reserve (1957). He and his wife were leaders of a campaign that in 1958 resulted in the repealing of a clause in the Police Offences Act which had enabled police to arrest Aborigines for consorting with non-Aborigines. That year he was elected inaugural president of the Federal Council for Aboriginal Advancement. The Duguids continued to visit Ernabella, and welcomed the mission’s choir to Adelaide in 1954 and 1966. He wrote No Dying Race (1963) and an autobiography, Doctor and the Aborigines (1972).

Stubborn in defence of the rights of the under-privileged, and sometimes impetuous, Duguid fought for justice and fiercely opposed hypocrisy and incompetence in the administration of Aboriginal affairs. His concerns and actions were motivated by his Scottish Presbyterian faith and by his conviction that in this changing world one thing remains unchanged—`the astonishing power of selfless love’. By the 1960s, however, Aboriginal leaders in organisations such as the FCAA were objecting to the assimilationist approach of Duguid and other white campaigners, considering it paternalistic. For his part, Duguid was dismayed by the emergence of the `Black Power’ movement.

In 1971 Duguid was appointed OBE. Next year he received what he considered his greatest honour: a letter from the Ernabella people requesting that when he died, his body be buried at the mission, `so that the Aboriginals will always remember that he was one of us and that he faithfully helped us’. The Pitjantjatjara people called him Tjilpi, or `respected old man’. In 1980 he attended a meeting in Adelaide at which Pitjantjatjara people met with members of parliament to press their claim for recognition of their land rights, which was granted in 1981. The Ernabella choir made a special visit to Adelaide to sing at his hundredth birthday. He died on 5 December 1986 in his home at Kent Town and was buried in the Ernabella Mission cemetery. His wife (d.1993), their son and daughter, and the son of his first marriage, survived him.

Charles DUGUID: - Select Bibliography
N. Barnes, Munyi’s Daughter (2000)
S. Taffe, Black and White Together (2005)
People (Sydney), 14 Feb 1951, p 42
Advertiser (Adelaide), 2 Dec 1981, p 4
S. Kerin, `Doctor Do-good’? Charles Duguid and Aboriginal Politics, 1930s-1970s (PhD thesis, Australian National University, 2004)
Duguid papers (National Library of Australia and State Libary of South Australia)
private information.

81. William Augustine DUNCAN, Scots Highlander, Convert to Catholicism. Journalist, Newspaperman, Duncan's Weekly Register, of Politics, Facts and General Literature & The Australian Chronicle; Historian & Writer of the significant "Account of a Memorial of Voyages… by Captain Fr. Pedro Fernandez de Quiros, in search of the Southland of the Holy Spirit(Sydney, 1874); Catholic Schoolteacher, Educational Campaigner, Classicist, Anti-Plutocrat, Polemicist, Disputant, Poet, Advocate of Libraries, Christian scholar, An even-headed formative Australian Constitutionalist, and a Public Servant in the real sense.

William Augustine DUNCAN
Duncan, William Augustine (1811–1885) - by Michael Roe [ADB Online]

William Augustine Duncan (1811-1885), journalist and public servant, was born on 12 March 1811 at Bluefield, Towie, Aberdeenshire, Scotland, the son of Peter Duncan and Mary, née Macdougal. Duncan's early ability encouraged his parents to suppose that he might join the Presbyterian ministry, but in adolescence his unaided reading caused him to enter the Roman Catholic church. The Benedictine order attracted Duncan and he studied at Blairs. Having quarrelled with his teachers he withdrew, and for five years was a bookseller and publisher in Aberdeen. He agitated for the Reform Act of 1832. When his business failed he did some journalism and teaching. News of Governor Sir Richard Bourke's church and school measures prompted him to migrate to New South Wales as a Catholic schoolteacher in 1837.

Duncan taught first at Maitland, and there engaged in his first colonial controversy, repudiating an Anglican minister's designation of the Pope as 'the man of sin' (Correspondence Between the Rev. Mr Stack … and W. A. Duncan … and A Reply to the Reverend W. Stack's Attempted Defence of His Lecture, Sydney, 1839). In 1839 he became foundation editor of the Roman Catholic Australasian Chronicle, published in Sydney. Its columns ably expounded the rights, not only of the church, but of other out-groups, especially small farmers and working men. Duncan saw the established landowners as Australia's bane, falsely claiming to be an aristocracy. Against their pretensions he urged the growth of representative institutions in which the popular voice would assert itself. His chief ally among colonial politicians was the radical Henry Macdermott.

Politics never swamped Duncan's cultural interests. Adept in Latin, Greek, Italian, French and Spanish, he read widely in modern and classical literatures. In 1840 he published Aroldo and Clara, An Historical Poem. Translated from the Italian of Silvio Pellico and in 1841-42, expressing another love, wrote two patriotic songs which Isaac Nathan set to music.

Duncan's skill did not save him from conflict with his co-religionists. He disliked the ex-convict parvenu Irish who dominated the Sydney laity and financed the Chronicle. In the tension which developed between them and the English Benedictine bishop, John Bede Polding, his sympathies were strong with Polding. Polding being abroad, Duncan's critics, egged on, he alleged, by his political enemy, William Charles Wentworth, forced him from the editor's chair late in 1842, provoking his An Appeal from the Unjust Decision of the Very Rev. Vicar General (Sydney, 1843). In 1843 Duncan also published three polemical Letters, which answered Robert Allwood's criticism of Polding's assumption of a territorial title. Yet Polding did not reinstate Duncan to the Chronicle and the two thereafter were alienated.

Duncan established his own Duncan's Weekly Register, of Politics, Facts and General Literature in July 1843. Its literary columns revealed him as an intelligent critic and the patron, publisher and friend of colonial poets, especially Charles Harpur and (Sir) Henry Parkes. As editor Duncan stressed the liberal quality of his Catholicism. He deplored the tendency, strongest among the Irish but apparent even in Polding, to emphasize the alienation of Catholics from the community at large. Especially he disputed the church's antagonism to non-denominational education. Other leading articles, some reprinted as pamphlets (On Self-Supporting Agricultural Working Unions and A Practical Treatise on the … Olive-Tree, Sydney, 1844), praised close-knit rural life in a manner characteristic of much Catholic social thought. His campaign against the dominance of any narrow class interest continued, although squatters now replaced landowners as his major enemy. He stood firm, but not, as sometimes said, alone, beside Governor Sir George Gipps in the land controversy of 1844. The squatters' hostility might have contributed to financial troubles which forced the Register to close in December 1845. Gipps offered a post as customs officer at Moreton Bay and, to the cry of jobbery, Duncan accepted in May 1846.

Thereafter Duncan earned his living in the customs service. At Brisbane he filled many subsidiary posts including deputy-sheriff, immigration officer, chairman of the Steam Navigation Board, commissioner of the peace, and water police magistrate. His diligence and ability were as marked as ever, and won him appointment as the New South Wales collector of customs in May 1859. The most eventful episode in this position occurred in 1868, when Duncan left office during a complex dispute in which the Customs Department became a topic of political controversy. However, he soon returned to his post, continuing in it until 1881. On retirement he was appointed a C.M.G.

Duncan's success in an uncongenial job best proved his human quality. Moreover he always continued wider interests: anthropology, botany, literature, music, politics, philanthropy, education. His Lecture on National Education (1850) was the first pamphlet printed in Brisbane, and he was founding president of the School of Arts there (1850-54). In 1856 he published A Plea for the New South Wales Constitution, which criticized radical extremists who were already arguing for the replacement of the nominated Legislative Council by an elective body. Although denying any change of principle, Duncan now sympathized with Wentworth's plan for a local nobility. As a liberal churchman he engaged in controversies with both Polding (1858-59) and Roger Vaughan (1880), and sat on the National Board of Education and later the Council of Education. His Account of a Memorial … by Captain Pedro Fernandez de Quiros (Sydney, 1874) was the fruit of a long-standing interest in historical research, while his Memoir of … Joseph Monnier, S.M. (Sydney, 1876) translated a biographical sketch of a priest who had worked in Oceania and New South Wales. Institutions to benefit from his support and leadership included the Free Public Library of Sydney, St John's College, St Vincent's Hospital, and St Cecilia's Philharmonic Society.

Duncan died at his home, The Boulevard, Petersham, on 25 June 1885 and was buried in the Devonshire Street cemetery. At Aberdeen in 1831 he had married Mary Yates (Yeats); she died on 21 December 1880. They had a son, Lewis (1834-1845) and six daughters, one of whom, Mary, became a member of the convent of the Sisters of Charity.

Select Bibliography
W. A. Duncan, ‘Notes of a Ten years' Residence in NSW’, Hogg's Weekly Instructor (Edinburgh), 5 (1847)
W. A. Duncan, autobiography (State Library of New South Wales)
Parkes papers (State Library of New South Wales).

82. =Mary DURACK , writer, The Rock and The Sand WA

83. Charles DUTTON, Queensland