Monday, May 16, 2011

For A Calendar of Likely & Unlikely Australian Saints

Mary of The Cross, Mary McKillop, our officially sanctioned 'Saint' is not among the elect on her own, for she yet leads a throng of hundreds, thousands, maybe tens of thousands, of the unofficially acknowledged, for too long uncelebrated, too-often unrecognized, and maybe, even completely unnoticed or overlooked ...

"Christians of The Australian Clay"

+ + + + + An Australian Christian ALMANAC + + + + +

Alf Traeger as a young man
A faithful Christian, electronic tinkerer and scientific inventor, Hermann Alfred Traeger (2 August 1895 – 31 July 1980), gave the Outback, and the Royal Flying Doctor service, a way of fast contact via the innovative local sustainable technology of the Pedal-Powered Wireless which he invented. Traeger can hardly be said to have personally profited from his original 'discovery' for rather than patenting and marketing it for his own enrichment, like many of today's wireless internet multi-millionaire inventors, he self-sacrificingly applied the technology in the service of others. The Traeger Pedal wireless was a lifeline of communications, used both in Outback Australia, in Africa and the South Pacific. A district of Alice Springs is named to honour him.
Alf Traeger in later years.

'William' BARAK born c. 1824 Brushy Creek, near Lilydale - died15 August 1903, Healesville, Victoria, was the last traditional 'ngurungaeta' elder of the Wurundjeri-willam people of the Yarra Valley. He led his people into a firm Christian faith through the influence, first of assistant Protector and Wesleyan, William Thomas, and later to his Scots friends, John and Mary Green of Healesville. Barak who could read and write, and would lead deputations to the Governor, believed strongly that his path went on to Christ's new heaven and new earth with a Yarra Valley brought into paradise.

This site is a work in progress with the ultimate aim of providing interactive
networking to harvest human interest details to write mini-biographies and
illustrate the lives of those significant Australian Christians
or Christian Australians, however great, however flawed, for the gift of their
particular grace, or charism, for what will ammout to
a Calendar of Australian ' SAINTS ' - although, not named as such,
but, in all their fallibility and humanity in the Australian context of cultural cringe,
especially in relation to divinity, to be called


SO - ONE inspiring 'SAINT' for each day of the year

- and so 365 or 366 people

Irene McCormack, (1938-1991) a Sister of St Joseph of the Sacred Heart - from Trayning, Western Australia.Went to Peru to work for the poor. She was assaulted, mocked, and so martyed by being murdered by Maoist terrorists in Peru.

Christians Of The Australian Clay

Christ's Mob in God’s Own Country:

(God Botherers here Downunder)

On Australia day 2004 a television guest on

the ABC Aussie Hero Quest show said:

"Well he couldn't be a saint because he was Australian."

YET - we have Christian martyrs who were born in Australia
- We have Christian martyrs in Australia who were born elsewhere

- we have outstanding acts of Christian service in Australia
- we have outstanding acts of Christian service by Australians out of Australia
- we have outstanding acts of Christian witness in Australia
- we have outstanding acts of Christian witness by Australians out of Australia -



+ Christ’s Cross-Bearers in Australia.

OZ SAINTS Australian Saints [or Bearers of Christ’s Cross in Australia }

· Exceptional Christians

· = worked with aboriginals

· + aboriginal

· people who made a Christian contribution, .

who shared the love of Christ for the poor, lost, stranger, the addicted
who defended the faith, or were apologists for Christ and his church
who took up the cross of Christ, or who turned the other cheek,
who called for repentence
who stood for justice, human rights of those made 'in the Image' of God
who were prophets in their time
· those who bore witness to Jesus Christ with their life in devoted service of the needy, the sick, the dying

· who were Christian mystics with a life of prayer, reflection and contemplation

Christians of the Australian Clay

~ a calendar year book of unofficial downunder saints


In a corporate world even secular corporations now make a “Mission Statement’. Whether knowing, or ignorant, this causal focus is a legacy of Christian Missions. It was once only Christians who wrote up their principles and visions were firmly based on the sense of purpose and cause which is endowed in the Great Commison of Jesus Christ himself. The cause is summarised as the love of God and our neighbour as ourself. The following great crowd of witnesses have seen this love, this God, as a cause in Australia. For all their flaws and weaknesses the people of the soil of Novae Hollandae touched them and they have touched in return. This touching was a work to a Terra Australis de Espiritu Santu.

The Southland of Holy Ghost, the enigma, country of the Ultima Thule, at the very uttermost parts of the earth, at ends of the planet. A land wrought on another side of the Old World’s perception. A land covered by mystery. This land’s story, its late finding by most of the world, its fabled existence, is one of paradox. It exists as a body of spiritual scriptures for its first peoples. It existed as an idea, the idea of balance, a counterweight in the mind of western northern-hemisphere men. Australia is a land that had to be different, wry, other. It is scripture still, just as it is that counterweight still. ‘Paradoxical’ describes the humour of a people who mock themselves, who laugh at this clay.

It is said that she is a young country, ‘the last of lands, but they lie, she is of the oldest lands. Her geological landscapes are withered, her ranges like old teeth worn down with age. Her very position on the globe stands traditional viewpoints on their head. Podal Assumption goes like a tailless kangaroo in the Antipodes. The noble skulls in the pride of old glory end up eaten out by flies. The irony of the mineral-rich place touches its workings towards a quality - a sort of spiritual steel.

Christians of the timid or overly pious sort are ‘wowsers’ here. Killjoys. Christians of the authoritarian sort are hard to pick from Herod, Pilate, Caiaphus or Governor Bligh. Yet Christ is here. Unsung faith gets no swan-song. But here, Jesus often knows the cattleshed, the stocktrough, a whip, rejection, a crown of thorns and the old rugged cross. Many people of the old faith have had to walk that journey again, this time on Australian terms, to find Christ in His Australian life and truth.

Here, the sign of the Eucalyptus rules, from east to west, north to south. The sign is of a hidden glory; for eucalyptus means: well-covered. For every single blossom on the Australian national trees is covered with a wooden lid. All public flowering has a lid kept on it until the very last thing. The glory of the tree is kept hidden until the very last moment. For this is the harsh environment. The tough country. Hard-bitten in its character. The sclerophyll scrub stretches from desert coast to coast. Prickly leaves, coarse string bark, ironbark, crunchy, sticky scrublands and tangled heaths. This is tough country, of hard won existence, and hard-held tenderness.

The character of life is like the echidna, spiny on the outer, soft inside. This is the land that spikes its too-tender children with the edge and points of its tall-poppy scissors. It brings everyone down to earth. The natives know that they have feet of clay, and so they remind each other that they are no better than all the rest. Only, sometimes, this amounts to cruelling: of love, of grace.

Yet in Australia the great sinner might be a secret saint. And the great saint might be revealed to be a secret sinner. And don’t those feet in clay love to find other feet among that semi-fluid matter. Grief becomes a lifelong moan, and repentance is a matter of disgrace, unless it is born with stoic indifference. Australia is scrub and sand, rock and raspiness. Ironbark, messmate, prickly moses, wire and sword grass.

One thing many a heathen in church-bypassing Australia does not often appreciate about Christianity is its central tenet of forgiveness. This is the key point of God’s star-sent message to mankind in Jesus Christ, who stood as ransom for anyone that will accept Him, and He said of those earthbound men rejecting him: “Father forgive them, for they don’t know what they do.’

The Christian life is lived within these tensions: earth and the heavens. Two pulls, like the springs on opposite ends of the playing mat make life a spiritual trampoline. The spirit is willing but the flesh is weak; God knows! Jesus Christ does not expect us to be good enough What he wants is us to want more than just to have our feet on good clay, he wants our hearts and minds, our spirits and souls, to rise above.

The spirit is willing but the flesh is weak. Nevertheless, the striving Christian knows a potency of spirit that brings them, on repentance, into such goodwill, such redemption that he or she comes into fellowship with God himself, despite those personal failures, the sins. The whole body of weak moments goes to nothing when laid into eternity before the King of Creation. His body was broken for that end. And so melds the clay into gold in the rainbow.

Christians of the Australian Clay belong to the allsorts bag. This book is broad church. Names, denominations, matter as much as places do, states of origin, or of habitation. The Kaluthumpian and the Biblebasher, the Vandiemonian and the Victorian, the Territorian and the Terra-Globalist are all there.

Places as far apart as Thredbo and Yuendumu are represented. Islands and the main.

It owes its inspirations to these examples among fallible humanity who have been gripped by Divinities in the Christian Way. They have done in some way as Jesus would, for His way goes on, They have walked out of the Scriptures with the Word whose story is still being told: As Rod Boucher, Australian songwriter put it in his album ‘Set Us On Fire”:

“Thank God for the Bible...Its full if mistakes:
People who know it, and go it... and blow it;
But God tells his story through them...
and God lives his story through us...”

Yes, it is breathtaking to bring it right home like that, but true, on our shore, and close to us. I believe each of these Australians tried to live for Christ in some way or other. These, of the shifted-sinners who belong in the communion of saints, are all dead and gone to their reward. We now are the ones at the coalface between the clay and the stars. How do we shape up for the upward challenge?

Let the spirit be willing, even if the flesh is weak. Indeed this is why we need the other members of Christ’s body. Where the heathen looks for the evidence of weakness of flesh to attempt to annul this spirit; I do the opposite. I seek to show how wonderful it is that Christ has been telling his Australian stories in re-fired vessels of clay.

"Out of Clay
We were Made
And its Going
All the Way" Gerry Holmes


IN selecting Christians of The Australian Clay

1. Martyr Priority, or any High-Souledness as to Christian self-giving : - in largesse, respect, dignity, catholicity, generosity

2. Orthodoxy of heart and mind - as in the 'Heart of Christ', Integrity as to Creed, witness to truth of the Creedal Faith

3. Coal-face Christianity, need-engaged Christian ministry, both Great Commission responsive and Good Samaritan responsive

4. Courage is valourised: Courageous Faith, Brave Christian Conviction, or intrepid missionary adventuring, Risk-taking life-Pilgrimage minded faith

5. First People’s priority, Australian Indigenous frontier seen as a First Christian Cause

6. Holiness, Sanctity, Goodness, Devotion to Call or to Ordination, displaying something of the 'Heart of Christ'. CROSS: witness to bearing a Cross or showing a Christian response to difficulty, persecution, personal pain or suffering

7. Spiritedness, Wit, Christlike Edge, Spark, Fire, Quickness of soul,

8. A significant Australian connection: eg. birth, ministry, residency, death

9. Diversity: broad church, Global, Cosmopolitan, Ecumenical

10. Dead: the person needs be deceased, in the communion of the saints



Christians Of The Australian Clay

1. Charles William ABEL

1+. John ADAMS (alias Alexander SMITH) & Thomas ADAMS


John Adams (mutineer)

Born : December 4, 1767 St. Johns, Hackney, Middlesex, England
Died: March 5, 1829 (aged 61) Pitcairn Island
Occupation: Sailor
Spouse: Teio, Vahineatua
Children: Dinah, Rachel, Hannah and George Adams

John Adams
(4 December 1767 – 5 March 1829) was the last survivor of the Bounty mutineers who settled on Pitcairn Island in January 1790, the year after the mutiny. His real name was John Adams; He used the name Alexander Smith until he was discovered in 1808 by Captain Mayhew Folger of the ship Topaz. His children used the surname "Adams".

Further reading

Conway, Christiane (2005). Letters from the Isle of Man - The Bounty-Correspondence of Nessy and Peter Heywood. The Manx Experience. ISBN 1-873120-77-X.
[edit]External links

Texts on Wikisource:
"Adams, John (1760?-1829)". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.
"Adams, John (mutineer)". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.
"Adams, John (mutineer)". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920.

FROM: - Australian Dictionary of Evangelical Biography

ADAMS, John (1757-1829)
Raymond Nobbs

(formerly known as Alexander Smith)
(b. Stanford Hill, Middlesex 1757,
d. Pitcairn Island, 5 March 1829).
Occupation: Able seaman, mutineer and patriarch.

John Adams
took a prominent part in the mutiny and seizure of HMS Bounty on 28 April 1789 (his nickname was 'Reckless Jack') and along with others of the crew, their Tahitian women, and six island males as servants, settled on Pitcairn Island on 15 Jan 1790.

THOMAS ADAMS - great grandson of the above

FROM - Australian Dictionary of Evangelical Biography

ADAMS, Thomas (1879-1935)


Raymond Nobbs

(b. Norfolk Island, 1879; d. Norfolk Island, September 1935). Horticulturalist and Methodist pastor.

The elder son of Byron Adams of Pitcairn Island and his wife Edith (née McCoy) Thomas Adams m. Elsie Nobbs, granddaughter of George Hunn Nobbs (q.v.) but they had no issue. His father was one of the initial 37 members of the Norfolk Island Methodist Church which was founded in August 1884 following the arrival of the American missionary Alfred H. Phelps. 4


2+. Friedrich Wilhelm & Minna ALBRECHT

Friedrich Wilhelm ALBRECHT was the Lutheran Pastor & Minna ALBRECHT his wife, at Hermannsburg, Northern Territory. =
Friedrich Wilhelm & Minna ALBRECHT (Friedrich Wilhelm Albrecht, son of German Pole, Ferdinand Albrecht, was born on the 15th Oktober 1894 at Plawanice, near Chelm, County Lublin, then Russian Poland, (now in Lubeiskie, Poland)- The Albrechts arrived in Australia from the United States of America on the ship "AORANGI" at Port Jackson, Sydney, New South Wales on the 18th October 1927. Albrecht had previously been in the USA for just five months since emigrating out of Russian Poland by way of Deutschland. Upon disembarking in Sydney, the Albrechts made their way to South Australia and were resident at Light Pass, in the Barossa Valley for their first six months in Australia.

"A Polish-born German, Friedrich Wilhelm Albrecht arrived in Australia in late 1925, to take up the position of missionary at Hermannsburg in Central Australia, a position which had been vacant since Carl Strehlow's death in October 1922. By early 1926, Albrecht and his wife Minna were out at Hermannsburg, where the normally dry country was in the grip of severe drought. So began a missionary career which lasted officially - until the end of 1951 when Albrecht retired; but continued unofficially until his death in 1984. aged 89."


ex-Jesuit Father Ian TRAVERS-BALL, a son of Frederick Henry Travers-Ball & Annie Margaret Cecilia Miller,
Ian Travers-Ball was born in about 1928 at Brighton, Melbourne, Victoria.
He died 4 October 2000 at the 'Indian Sisters,' Gore Street, Fitzroy, Victoria.

Co-founder of the Brothers of the Missionaries of Charity, with Mother Teresa of Calcutta.
Houses of the Missionaries of Charity:the Missionaries of Charity write that 'In 1963 Mother Teresa founded the Missionaries of Charity Brothers. Two years later, Jesuit Father Ian Travers-Ball (Brother Andrew, M.C.) joined the Brothers in 1965 and became their first Superior. The Brothers were officially established as a diocesan congregation in 1967.' - but others declare the Brother Andrew was really the co-founder of the order along with Mother Teresa.

After many generous years of foundational giving in service Brother Andrew was evicted out of the very Order he founded based in Calcutta. He then fell into addiction, largely in Australia. Later, as a recovered alcoholic, he became a wonderful Back to Basics Spiritual Campaigner, Spiritual Director, and an Inspirational Speaker directing Spiritual retreatants towards the love of Christ.

He then wrote a regular newsletter of Spiritual pilgrimage. Books: 'What think you of Christ? : a life of Christ for non-Christians or for those who would know him better' 1962 St Paul Publications, Bombay, India.

"A most humble man, without any pretensions, Br Andrew was ordained as a Jesuit but chose to follow in the work of Mother Teresa of Calcutta by founding and leading the Missionary Brothers of Calcutta from which he retired in the 80's to concentrate on travelling throughout Australia to proclaim the Gospel of God's merciful love of the 'triers' and the down-and-outs' and the call of a Christian to unconditionally open his heart to his fellow man. His life exemplifies one of poverty, compassion and simplicity, and the appeal and richness of his personal anecdotes and wisdom demonstrate his commitment to a loving God." - blurb from Christian Teaching Recordings

Here are the titles of some of Brother Andrew's recorded Retreat Messages:
Our Wounds Qualify Us for God's Love;
Jesus Frees Us from Wearing Masks;
You Cannot Grow unless You Shed your Dead, Constricting Outer Skin;
Our Littleness is What Opens God's Heart;
The Lord is Gathering His Community;
Loving Mother Church / "Peter, Do You Love Me? ;
The Woman at the Well / Anger & How to Deal with It;
How to Discern God's Will / When There Is Nothing...;
The Lord Listens to the Cry of the Poor / The Kingdom is for the Derelicts;
Release Yourself from Negative Anger;
Jesus Meets Us at Our Low Points;
Prepare for a God of Surprises;
Simplicity is the Joy of Poverty / Suffering Seen through the Eyes of Faith;
We All Have a Need to Read Our Own Story;
The Enduring Heart of the Church;
The Honour of Chastity in Youth (Homily);
When All Hope Seems Lost;
The Heart of Our Faith is a Love Story...;
Being People of the Resurrection;
Nothing is Too Small to Receive Love (homily);
Our Spirit Finds Its Rest Only with God...

[see - Brother Andrew - Obituaries]

"Ian Travers-Ball, Br Andrew, has touched the lives of each of us in a special way, and how that, on this day that he leaves us, it is important that the witness of his whole life speak to each of us. I, too, have been largely moulded by Ian - by his humour, commonsense and idealism in our novitiate and by the advice given in brief meetings over many years as our paths crossed in India, Hong Kong and the Philippines...

In a kernel, Ian showed us all how to live simply and how to be truly simple. This was not something pious. He rejected all forms of showiness and with vehemence never allowed the mantle of guru to be placed on his shoulders. He was a sophisticated man, well versed in the ways of the world with his mother's charm and compassion and his father's eye for the fine things of life.

His simplicity was his transparency - he simply made God the main priority of his life. At 23 he fell in love with God and through bad days and good he never took his eyes off God. Ian did this so effortlessly that he has been able to cajole all of us to have a shot at doing the same, but always in our own way.

There are many hurdles to jump before one can become free enough, not to worry about oneself, what one will wear, how one will survive, how one can be completely free and available to God, and Ian didn't conceal his own hurdles from us, and how on the really big ones he had to take several run ups before he could get over them ? he shared his vulnerability with appealing candour and great Australian humour.

This is not to praise Ian, it is rather to encourage you and also myself. Ian shows us that we really can follow the Lord very closely, that it doesn't matter what career we follow in life we can be transparent in our priorities, simple in our lifestyle - we can be free to love God. Above all, in some way we all carry Ian's mantle - there is a real possibility that we can bring some of the Travers-Ball charm, humour and laid back style into our life stories. I suspect its already there - Ian's magnetism has always been contagious. Ian would laugh but for better or worse it depends on what we do with it, some of his holiness has surely rubbed off on all of us. Avanti, Brother Andrew, into God's future but please keep us all within your horizon."

Daven Day, SJ

Br Andrew of Calcutta & Melbourne

'At the Funeral Mass for Br Andrew on 6th Oct 2000 - sharing' by Br Geoff, MC. [see - Brother Andrew - Obituaries]

"I believe that one of the main inspirations that Br Andrew tried to share through his life and words was, to put it in a few words, that our poverty can be our greatest wealth - because it is in our poverty that God can find an empty space to come in and work in us and love us fully.

That poverty can have many forms. It can be in an external lifestyle that is as materially simple as circumstance permit. It can be in any form of human brokenness, tragedies, weaknesses, things we cannot control in our lives or even just little things that are not quite as we would like them to be. It can be a poverty that is freely chosen or, as is more open the case, it can be something that is given to us and can only be freely accepted...
The spirit of MC, (the Missionaries of Charity) as Mother (Teresa) expressed it, is a spirit of total surrender, loving trust and cheerfulness. Br Andrew will always be for the MC Brothers our best example of this spirit. We will always thank God for the great gift of Br Andrew to us as our Co-founder and I have a feeling that there is still much that we need to learn from him and from his life's message.

As I am here with you today, I am very conscious that we MC's share in the gift of Br Andrew as only one of four 'families' or phases of his life - his life as a Travers-Ball, his life as a Jesuit, his life as an MC and his life as a friend and inspiration to all those that God brought into his "small boat" as he at one time called it."

From: Jenny & John Barnes. Mill Park, Victoria. [see - Brother Andrew - Obituaries]

"Dear Friends of Br Andrew, - It is with a heavy heart that we write to you with the news of Br Andrew's death. However we rejoice that he has gone home to be united with Jesus, and we now have our very own saint in heaven to pray to. ....Brother gave a retreat in Sydney and was preparing to follow that with a trip to the Philippines. It was while he was in Sydney that he became ill. He struggled on to finish the retreat, as he said without much energy.

Back in Melbourne, he was not picking up and sought medical advice. It was confirmed that he had stomach cancer - and it was rapid. -

We received a note from Brother dated 31st August, to tell us he was feeling "seedy" and he had cancelled the Philippines trip.

Our next communication was a phone call on 22nd September. Brother asked if we were ready for a shock, then said "it's cancer and its rapid". He went on to say he had asked the Missionaries of Charity Sisters in Fitzroy, if he could come to them to die.

The sisters welcomed him with much love and considered it a great privilege to take care of him. He arrived at 101 Gore Street on 23rd September about 4.00pm, with his only worldly possessions in a small bag.

We went to see him that day and it was evident that he was very sick. Brother told us he was very peaceful about everything and his great joy was that he had come "home" to the M.C.'s to die. While we were there he looked around the room the sisters had prepared. The room was very basic and simple - on one wall a picture of Mother Teresa, on another wall a table with a small wooden tabernacle on it and a large picture of the Sacred Heart above it. Near his bed was a little sign written by the Sisters which read "A Heartfelt Welcome to our Dearest Br Andrew" As he looked around the room he said to us "Isn't it beautiful? I have everything." He died at 5.45am, 11 days later on 4th October.

How blessed we were to witness such a holy death! Each day he struggled, accepting everything, complaining about nothing, and finding beauty even in the things that could have been a bother. Occasionally he would ask someone to read a prayer for him. At other times he was heard whispering quiet prayers.

The doctor came and prescribed injections to control and manage the pain. One of the sisters was able to administer these injections as required. Brother was never alone; together with the sisters we kept a 24-hour vigil at his bedside."

REFERENCE: 1. Jenny & John Barnes - Brother Andrew - Obituaries - c/- J & J Barnes. Mill Park, Vic. Australia
2. Missionary of Charity Fathers website
3. Christian Teaching Recordings Website about 30 Brother Andrew Titles on Cassette: as listed. etc Etc.
4. Brother Andrew MC - 'What think you of Christ? : a life of Christ for non-Christians or for those who would know him better' Published 1962 St Paul Publications, Bombay, India
5. Brother Andrew MC 'What I Met Along The Way'

3+. = Bala Willie AMBRYN - Kanaka preacher, Yarrabah QLD
Bala Willie AMBRYN - Kanaka preacher, Yarrabah QLD -worked with Gribble.
Bala Willie AMBRYN, married to Say-Say AMBRYN A daughter of theirs died on Queensland on the 20th December 1885

REFERENCE : - 1. LOOS, Noel - White Christ Black Cross: the emergence of a Black church By Noel Loos

4. = Caprio or Carpis & Mrs ANABIA b. Phillipines, Beagle Bay, nr Broome, WA
Caprio & Mrs ANABIA: - In 1900 Caprio or Carpis ANABIA was married to Mary Edivigis SESKE iN Broome, Western Austalia.

"Only one Trappist monk was left, Father Nicholas Emo, had been carrying on his work as parish priest in Broome. Father Nicholas, from an influential Spanish family, was eager to spend his life with the Aboriginal people. He wrote that it was “the secret attraction I felt for this unfortunate race” (A.C.A.P. Letter to the Aborigines Protection Board with 27 signatures, August 1897). This was his intention upon entering Sept Fons as a novice in 1894. - Before long Father Nicholas established a small school for the Aboriginal children and a hostel for mixed race girls. He had obtained help from a Filipino, Caprio Anabia, and his mixed race wife. Father Nicholas carved a stone cross in the sandhill near his new school and, with the help of Filipinos, put up beside it a church and small presbytery." - Caprio or Carpis ANABIA died in Broom in 19110. His son or brother Loesakoe ANABIA died in the same place in 1911.


6. Rev. Neville P. ANDERSEN Baptist / NZ/ MBI

7. George Fife ANGASS SA / George French ANGAS SA / John Howard ANGAS SA

8. William & Jacobine ANGLISS, Meat Producers, Philanthropists
Sir William Charles ANGLISS
Born: 20 January 1865 Dudley, Worcestershire, England
Died: 15 June 1957 Auburn, Boroondara, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Box Hill Cemetery
Lady Jacobena Victoria Alice nee Grutzner Angliss

Birth: May 1896 in Epping, Victoria, Australia
Death: 10 November 1980 in Windsor, Prahran, Victoria

9. =Governor George ARTHUR ?????? VDL/TAS

10. +Eddy ATKINSON

11. Elizabeth Phillips AUSTIN nee HARDING - (1821–1910)
Anglican Philanthropist - The Austin Hospital for Incurables, Heidleberg, Victoria [Elizabeth Phillips Austin (1821-1910), philanthropist,

Elizabeth Phillips AUSTIN,

Austin, Elizabeth Phillips (1821–1910)
by Paul H. De Serville

Elizabeth Phillips AUSTIN nee HARDING (1821–1910) Anglican Christian Philanthropist - The Austin Hospital for Incurables, (now the Austin Hospital) Heidleberg, Victoria

12. Fr Georg Heinrich BACKHAUS (1811–1882) Missionary in India, Catholic priest & Vicar-General of Bendigo, Vic.
Born: 15 February 1811 Paderborn, Westphalen, The Ruhr, Prussia
Death: 7 September 1882 Bendigo, Victoria, Australia

12+. James BACKHOUSE, Quaker TAS

13. Joseph BANKS – Botanist on Cook's 'Endeavour’

14. 'BERUK' - William BARAK - 15 August

+ Elder (Ngurungaeta) William BARAK, Brushy Creek, Yarra Valley, Healesville, Victoria.
'BERUK' or William BARAK, son of the Woiwurung Ngurungaeta (Elder) Bebijern, and a nephew of the famous Ngurungaeta (Elder) BilliBellary, who was known as Jaika Jaika. Barak was born by his own report, in 1813 at Brushy Creek, Mooroolbark, in the Yarra Valley, but quite prossibly in 1823, for he also says he was present as an eleven-year old at the meeting of those relatives and elders with John Batman in making the Treaty at the Merri Creek branch of the Yarra River in June 1835. Beruk, whose name meaning 'White grub in gum tree' was of the Wurundjeri Willum moitey of the clan.

Patricia Marcard writes: " He received a brief taste of education at Rev. G. Langhorne's mission school in 1837-39, and was possibly one of the more sober members of Captain Henry Dana's Native Police Force.... Barak worked for a small wage on the station farm and acquired a few horses. Further schooling and religious instruction were undertaken; he could read but not write.' That schooling was by Mr & Mrs John & Mary Green (see below) at Woori Yallock (Steeles Flat) and Acheron and then at Healesville (Coranderrk Station), and through their generous care and beneficent influence Barak chose to become a Christian in about 1863. He was was then baptized, confirmed, and begun to play a part as a very often graced leader in his communities.
Marcard continues: '(Barak) took a second wife Annie 'of the Lower Murray' (Lizzie died before 1863) in a publicized Presbyterian ceremony in 1865. The fate of his family was typical of the time; two infants died of gastro-enteritis, David and Annie of consumption. When he married Sarah (Kurnai) on 7 June 1890 he was the oldest man at Coranderrk and only full-blood survivor of his tribe.'

Wiencke writes "In his eightieth year, tires and ailing, William Barak announced that "When the wattles bloomed again he would die," and surely, come the 15th August 1903 he passed away as "all along the rivers and creeks the golden wattles were in full bloom.' Barak was buried in the Coranderrk Cemetery, by the Badger Creek, out of Healesville, where a monument to him now stands, erected by the wonderful Mrs Ann Bon and her supporters, a significant Australia cultural feature which once stood in the middle of the town of Healesville, but being subject to vandalism, was moved, and is now to be found in the little Aboriginal Cemetery at the end of Barak Lane, off the Woori Yallock Road, Healesville, Victoria.
Further Reference: 1. Shirley W. Wiencke 'When The Wattles Bloom Agian: -The Life and Times of William Barak, Last Chief of the Yarra Yarra Tribe. Published 1984 by Shirley W. Wiencke, Woori Yallock.
2. Diane E. Barwick 'Rebellion At Coranderrk' Editors: Laur E. Barwick & Richard E. Barwick. Published 1998 Aboriginal History Monograph 5., Aboriginal History Inc., Canberra.

15. =Sister Pamela BARKER,

16. +Jimmie BARKER, Brewarrina, NSW

17. Sir Henry BARKLY , Governor of Victoria

18. = George BARRINGTON - 'Ex- Prince of Pickpockets' - AKA Irish George WALDRON, Dublin & London Pickpocket, Confidence Trickster, Criminal Socialite, Transported Convict, Reformed Man, Repentant Sinner, Pleader of Mercies, Religious Convert, Preacher of sermons on Sydney Sundays, Metamorphosed Christian, Defender of the Downtrodden, Superintendent of Convicts, Constable, Defense Lawyer, Author of the line: 'We left our country for our country's good. ,' Poet, Historian. Sydney Cove, NSW. Born 14 May 1755 Maynooth, Dublin, Ireland ~ died 27 December 1804 Parramatta, NSW. Transported September 1791 in the convict transport 'ACTIVE' to Sydney Cove. Sent to work at Toongabbie and given a ticket of leave for 'Irreproachable conduct'. Author of the classic: " A Voyage to Botany Bay " and other writings, including:

From distant climes, o'er wide-spread seas, we come,
Though not with much éclat or beat of drum,
True patriots all: for, be it understood:
We left our country for our country's good.

George Barrington, A History of New South Wales
'Life in the colony had a reforming effect upon the infamous London pickpocket. Judge-Advocate David Collins, Captain Watkin Tench, and Governor Hunter all commented upon Barrington's remarkable transformation. The Historical Records of Australia contains testimony to Barrington's thoughtful, sober and zealous demeanour. As Superintendent of Convicts at Parramatta, he apparently carried out his duties with commendable diligence. It was always the best plan to set a thief to catch a thief? Impressive though his colonial metamorphosis was, it has been eclipsed by his legendary notoriety in London... -George Barrington (1755? - 1804), by Sir William Beechey, c1785, courtesy of National Library of Australia.
The 'Prince of Pickpockets' reputation was fostered by an unfailing ability to produce elegant treatises in his own defence. This finely-honed skill never deserted him, even when he was forced to confront the most senior
judges at the Old Bailey. In celebrated court-room appearances, Barrington impressed with erudite oratory. Jurors and judges were astonished to find such a person in their midst, able to present such eloquent pleas for mercy and understanding. Barrington often outclassed his accusers and demonstrated an intimate knowledge of the law. Having argued on the weaknesses of the prosecution's case (often related to lack of tangible evidence) he regularly, though not always, eluded a verdict of 'guilty'. by Suzanne Rickard ANU

19. George BASS


21. =John BATMAN Parramatta NSW, Kingston TAS, Dutigalla Port Phillip,

22. Emilie Luise BÄYERTZ (

Emilia Baeyertz conducted evangelical missions throughout Australia (Victoria, South Australia and Queensland), New Zealand, Britain and North America.

The daughter of wealthy Jewish parents, Emilia left school at thirteen. When her first fiancé died, she suffered a breakdown and was sent to Australia with her brother to recover her health. Living with her sister in Melbourne, Emilia met Anglican bank manager Charles Baeyertz and married him in October 1865 without informing her family. With Charles, she settled in Colac and had two children. In 1871, Charles was killed in a gun accident and Emilia converted to Christianity shortly thereafter. She began jail and hospital visits, Sunday School teaching, and door to door evangelism in the Jewish community of Melbourne. She was an active member of the YWCA and undertook evangelical missions to Sandhurst (Bendigo) and Ballarat. From 1880 she was conducting missions throughout South Australia, and the Baptists reported over 100 conversions as a result. Emilia moved her campaign to Victoria, Queensland, New Zealand, and finally Britain and North America.

* Evans, Robert - Emilia Baeyertz - Evangelist: Her Career in Australia and Great Britain - Church Heritage journal - Volume 15 Issue 2 (Sept 2007)
[ Robert Evans, Emilia Baeyertz - Evangelist: Her Career in Australia and Great Britain. Hazelbrook, N S W : Research in Evangelical Revivals, 2007, ISBN 9780975673324, AUD$25.00 from the author. ]

Review by Owen ROBERTS -
"Over the last few years, our UCRHS President, the Rev. Robert Evans, has embarked
upon the strange and unlikely business of printing, binding and publishing his own books. Strange, because most people who do not want to spend large sums having their books printed commercially do not venture into the book publishing business at all.
Unlikely, because hardly anyone who publishes his or her own books actually prints
the copies themselves, and binds them by hand. The books he has written relate to a subject for which there is not a high demand, and would therefore not attract the interest of any commercial book publisher. ...

The first of these books appeared last January, and is entitled Emilia Baeyertz - Evangelist. This lady was born in North Wales into an orthodox Jewish family in 1842. She came to Australia at age 21 for her health, and despite family antipathy, married a Christian man, had two children, was suddenly widowed and, like Saul on the Damascus Road, became a convert to Christianity. Through the mid- 1870s she slowly developed into a most effective evangelist, preaching in Tasmania, Victoria and South Australia. From 1890 onwards she spent nine months in New Zealand, two
years in North America, and then most of the remainder of her life preaching in Great Britain. (Her son, Charles Nalder Baeyertz later had a notable career in New Zealand as a teacher, journalist, editor and literary critic.) She returned to Australia for about twenty months in l904 and 1905, but then returned to England for the rest of her days and died there in 1926. The first section of the book provides an outline of what information is available about Emilia's life and ministry, a brief biography, a study of her attitude to the barriers which faced women preachers at that time, and an analysis of her spirituality, her preaching, her theology and of her role in Australian evangelism. The main part of the book, however, provides a reproduction of about 200 published reports on her missions right through her career, from various Australian and English denominational or evangelistic newspapers. Thus they give a great insight into the whole evangelistic ethos of the time, as well as into the evangelism of this particular lady. The reproduction of these primary documents provides a valuable resource for any historian working in this area of interest. Mrs Baeyertz was also an outstanding example of a Jewish person who contributed richly to Australian evangelical life, and who also used her Jewish background as a significant resource in the shaping of her message and of her craft. OWEN ROBERTS

From : Australian Dictionary of Evangelical Biography -

BAEYERTZ, Emilia Louise (1842 - ?)


John Walker

(b. England, 29 March 1842; d. unknown). Evangelist.

A sickly child of wealthy Jewish parents, Emilia left school at the age of 13. As a young woman she was engaged to be married but suffered a breakdown when her fiance died. Sent to Australia with her brother to recoup her health, she lived with her sister in Melbourne. She m. Charles Baeyertz a bank manager and Anglican 16 Oct 1865, without the knowledge of her family, who spurned her as a result.

Settling in Colac, Emilia had two children and became involved in the activities of the local Anglican church without ever converting to Christianity. Following the death of her husband in a gun accident in 1871, Emilia became a Christian and continued her association with the Church of England throughout her life. Once converted Emilia quickly became involved in jail and hospital visitation, Sunday School teaching, house to house evangelistic work and evangelism among Jews in Melbourne. By 1878 she was conducting successful meetings for the YWCA in Melbourne. Her reputation was made with missions in two gold-mining centres, Sandhurst and Ballarat, where crowds thronged to hear her simple homely anecdotal style of preaching which was combined with her careful avoidance of emotional excess and uncompromising presentation of sin and redemption.

Invited to SA in Sept 1880 by a group of Baptists, Mrs Baeyertz conducted missions in virtually every Baptist church in the colony during the following two years. The Baptists were delighted with her efforts and some churches reported over 100 conversions. Her efforts touched particularly the young and those already associated with church life and her meetings exclusively for men also reaped an evangelistic harvest.

Upon leaving SA Emilia conducted successful evangelistic campaigns in Victoria and Brisbane and in 1889 she journeyed to New Zealand where she spoke to large crowds in the major cities. Shifting her attention to North America she preached to large gatherings in Los Angeles, Hamilton, Toronto, Boston and Ottawa, often preaching under the auspices of the YWCA. Missions followed throughout Britain in 1892 where her work gained wide acceptance among evangelicals of different denominations.

Baeyertz continued her evangelistic work into the new century but never graduated to the ranks of evangelists such as R A Torrey with their extensive city wide campaigns.

* D Hilliard, Popular Revivalism in South Australia from the 1870.s to the 1920s (Adelaide, 1982);
* J Walker, ‘The Baptists in South Australia, 1863 to 1914’, BTh thesis, Flinders University, 1990;
* No name, From Darkness to Light. The life and work of Mrs Baeyertz, no date

Electronic Version © Southern Cross College, 2004


Sydney Colin BEAZLEY
Carpenter Missionary (1909-1942)-
Sydney Colin BEAZLEY, Carpenter Missionary, was born in 1909 at Northam, Western Australia,(son of Alfred Beazley & Mary Wright) brother of Kim Edward BEAZEY(1917 -2007) MHR, M.O.; uncle of Prof Kim BEAZLEY - ex-opposition leader. Methodist Missionary Trainer at Rabaul, New Guinea. Taken prisoner January 1942 by the Japanese. He died in the early hours of the 1st July 1942 sinking of the Japanese prisoner-of war transport ship "MONTEVIDEO MARU" after it was torpedoed by an American submarine, off Luzon, in the northern Philippines, South China Sea.

23+. +Thomas Walker COKE BENNELONG, infant Parramatta NSW

24. =George BENNER, LMS,

25. Mary (Chistisson)BENNET, humanitarian activist 1930-40s Qld, Mt Margaret WA

26. =Mary BENNET – UAM

27. =Sergeant BENNET

28. Brothers: Andrew BEVERIDGE M.A. Frontier martyr, Tyntynder, Victoria & Peter BEVERIDGE
Peter Beveridge

From Australia Dictionary of Biography _ ADB Online : -

Beveridge, Peter (1829–1885)

by J. Ann Hone

Peter Beveridge (1829-1885), squatter and author, was born on 24 June 1829 at Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland, the third son of Andrew Beveridge, baker, and his wife Margaret, née Spratt. In 1839 the family arrived in Port Phillip and settled at Mercer's Vale (Beveridge). Later Andrew took up Dean station at Wandong. In 1845, inspired by Robert McDougall's description of the Swan Hill district and guided by him, Peter and his older brother Andrew (M.A., Edinburgh) drove 1000 cattle by way of Kilmore and Mount Alexander to the Loddon River, crossed it at Tragowel and continued on to Curlewis & Campbell's Reedy Lake station. They formed Tyntynder station, ten miles (16 km) down the Murray from the site of Swan Hill. Another brother, George, joined them with flocks of sheep and in 1846 they took up Piangil, about fifteen miles (24 km) beyond Tyntynder. There in September Andrew was speared to death by Aboriginals in an argument over stolen sheep. In 1847 the rest of the family moved to Tyntynder, Mrs Beveridge being the first white woman in that region. They stayed for six years before returning to Kilmore; Peter and two brothers remained on the stations until 1868.

In these years Peter acquired an extensive knowledge of the Aboriginals of the Murray, Murrumbidgee and Darling areas. He wrote, often under a pseudonym, many articles on their customs, dialects and myths, aware of the urgency of his task, for the Aboriginals were 'vanishing off the face of the land' and prompt 'remedial measures' were needed 'for their conservation'. He estimated the Aboriginal population of New South Wales and Port Phillip in 1845 as 5410 and in 1853 as 2405. He observed and recorded their remedies for such things as 'pulmonary affections, rheumatic fevers', headache, sore eyes and inflammation of the bowels. In May 1869 his paper on 'Aboriginal Ovens' was read to the London Anthropological Society, the author prefacing his remarks with: 'My observations of this subject extend over a period of twenty-eight years and having always taken great interest in things aboriginal I have not any hesitation in saying (even although it may savour of egotism) that the following description is correct in every particular'. In June 1883 in another paper read to the Royal Society of New South Wales Beveridge described at some length such subjects as chieftainship, marriage relations, games, poetry and philology. This paper formed the basis for The Aborigines of Victoria and Riverina as Seen by Peter Beveridge, published posthumously in Melbourne in 1889.

Beveridge's last years were spent at Green Hills, French Island. After a painful illness he died on 4 October 1885 at his mother's home, Woodburn, near Kilmore. A Presbyterian, Beveridge was described as a 'conversationalist of no mean order', and was liked as a 'frank, genial and companionable man'. He was survived by his wife Annie, née Forrest, and his brothers George and Mitchell Kilgour, who was founder of the Kilmore Advertiser in 1873.

Select Bibliography
* J. E. Robertson, The Progress of Swan Hill and District (Melb, 1912)
* J. A. Maher, The Tale of a Century: Kilmore, 1837-1937 (Melb, 1938)
* M. K. Beveridge, ‘Pioneering on the Lower Murray’, Victorian Historical Magazine, vol 1, no 1, Jan 1911, pp 27-29
* Argus (Melbourne), 1 Sept 1846, 5 Oct 1885
* Kilmore Free Press, 8 Oct 1885
* Kilmore Advertiser, 10 Oct 1885
* Beveridge manuscript (State Library of Victoria).

29. +Black Mr BEVERIDGE Wati Wati/Wembawemba? Tyntynder, Vic.

30. = Bill BIRD, Redfern, NSW

31. + BIRABAN (aka John McGILL), Reid’s Mistake, Lake Macquarie, NSW

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Biraban (died 14 April 1846), also known as John McGill (also spelt M'Gill, MacGil, Maggill), was a leader of the Awabakal people of Indigenous Australians at Lake Macquarie. His native name, also spelt Barabahn, Bi-ra-bán, and Birabān, means "eaglehawk" in the Awabakal language.
Biraban spoke English fluently, and acted as an interpreter between Aborigines and settlers. From 1825 he served as an informant to the missionary Lancelot Edward Threlkeld, teaching him the Awabakal language and tribal lore. Biraban Public School was named after him since that was where he lived.
Threlkeld, L. E. (1850). "Reminiscences of Birabān". A key to the structure of the Aboriginal language. Sydney: Kemp and Fairfax. pp. 5–7.


Biraban (?–?) by Niel Gunson

Biraban (flourished 1819-1842), Aboriginal leader, was a member of the Awabakal or Newcastle tribe. From boyhood he was servant to an officer at the military barracks, Sydney, where he learnt to speak English fluently, and was given the name John McGill. He was taken to Port Macquarie in 1821, helped Francis Allman to establish the new penal settlement and proved useful in tracking escaped convicts. He returned to Lake Macquarie and as Biraban or 'Eagle Hawk' he assumed ceremonial leadership amongst his people, being singled out as 'tribal king' of the district under Governor Lachlan Macquarie. Unlike many of these 'chiefs' who regarded their identity discs as sources of remuneration, Biraban brought dignity to the office, and lived up to his responsibilities by maintaining good relations between Aboriginals and settlers. A caricature painting of 'Magill' by the convict artist Browne, about 1819, shows him in corroboree stance.

When Rev. L. E. Threlkeld commenced missionary work at Reid's Mistake in 1825 Biraban became his principal assistant, and a 'mateship' based on mutual respect and affection developed between the two men. Biraban instructed Threlkeld in tribal lore and absorbed the principles of Calvinist Christianity. He gave daily instruction in the language and corrected the missionary's transcripts. After a year's work the language had been reduced to a written form and by 1829 the first draft of St Luke's Gospel had been completed. Threlkeld commended Biraban's 'intelligence and steady application' to Governor (Sir) Ralph Darling who publicly honoured him at the annual conference with the Aboriginals at Parramatta in 1830 with a brass plate inscribed 'Barabahn, or MacGil, Chief of the Tribe at Bartabah, on Lake Macquarie; a Reward for his assistance in reducing his Native Tongue to a written Language'.

Biraban developed considerable enunciatory skill, and assisted Threlkeld to interpret in court cases involving Aboriginals, and would have been sworn in as interpreter in his own right had the oath not precluded this. His answers to Judges (Sir) William Burton and John Willis in open court in 1834 impressed them with his ability, and Burton assumed that he was a baptized Christian in 1838. The Quakers James Backhouse and George Washington Walker and the American exploring expedition representatives, especially the linguist Horatio Hale, were impressed by Biraban's intelligence and failed to understand why he continued loyal to tribal customs. Though he never gave evidence of an Evangelical conversion, and was punctilious in observing his ceremonial obligations, he was regarded as living proof of the errors of phrenology and current racial theories. Archdeacon William Broughton sent a drawing by Biraban of the steamship Sophia Jane (made to inform the missionary who had not seen it) to the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge in London as further proof.

Threlkeld described Biraban as 'a very valiant athletic man'. The United States explorers added that he was 'about the middle size, of a dark-chocolate colour, with fine glossy black hair and whiskers, a good forehead, eyes not deeply set, a nose that might be described as aquiline, although depressed and broad at the base'. His portrait was drawn by Agate, the expedition's artist. In October 1842 Ludwig Leichhardt described a meeting with him: 'The two blacks … came into the hut and asked for some embers and a kettle. Calvert gave him some flour [which] he knew quite well how to use to make doughboys, though it was hardly edifying to see him kneading the dough and smoking his pipe at the same time. He used the kettle, which still contained the water in which Calvert had boiled two fowls, for cooking the doughboys. The two noble savages then went over to the small fire they had lit under a Eucalyptus tree, stretched themselves out lazily beside it until their meal was ready, ate without stopping until they swallowed the last scraps, and then slept until late the next morning, regardless of the somewhat showery night, but putting more wood in their little fire whenever they felt the cold'.

Backhouse also left a verbal portrait. Biraban's wife was known as Patty and was described by Threlkeld as 'pleasing in her person', 'kind and affectionate in her disposition' and shrewd and intelligent. He eulogized their domestic bliss presenting them 'reciprocally rouging each other's cheek with pigment of their own preparing, and imparting fairness to their sable skin on the neck and forehead with the purest pipeclay, until their countenances beamed with rapturous delight at each other's charms'. Patty predeceased her husband. Though Biraban absented himself frequently from the mission in order to get rum at Newcastle he remained consistently loyal. He continued to protect the settlers, and when Governor Sir George Gipps considered the formation of an Aboriginal Police Corps in 1837 he remarked, 'Make me the head of them, and not a bushranger shall escape my tribe'.

Biraban did not long survive the closing of the mission in 1842. The missionary recorded a generous tribute by way of introduction to his A Key to the Structure of the Aboriginal Language (1850). He was undoubtedly the outstanding Aborigine of his time, at once preserving his tribal integrity and assimilating himself to the ways of the European.

Another notable Aborigine from the Lake Macquarie mission was [Harry] Brown (b.1819?) who accompanied Leichhardt on his first and second expeditions, and after whom Brown's Lagoons were named.

Select Bibliography
P. Cunningham, Two Years in New South Wales, 3rd ed, vol 2 (Lond, 1828), 13
J. Backhouse, A Narrative of a Visit to the Australian Colonies (Lond, 1843), p 379
C. Wilkes, Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition 1838-1842 (Lond, 1852)
J. Backhouse, Extracts from the Letters of James Backhouse, vol 3 (Lond, 1838), pp 64-67
L. E. Threlkeld, ‘Reminiscences’, Christian Herald (Sydney), 1854-55
Sydney Gazette, 12 Jan 1830
B. W. Champion, ‘Lancelot Edward Threlkeld: His Life and Work, 1788-1859’, Journal and Proceedings (Royal Australian Historical Society), vol 25, part 5, 1939, pp 341-411.

31+. Mr BLAKE, Belgrave, Vic

32. Robert Clive BLAND

Robert Clive BLAND - Ambulance Paramedic, Victoria

Born: 25 September 1953 ~ Goroke/ Horsham, Victoria

Religious confession: Evangelical Independent Churches

Occupation: Paramedic & Emergency

Ministry; Good Samaritan, helping hand - Donor of help - a hand, effort, transport, time and money to almost everyone he met who he saw to be in need.

Died: 2nd January 2004 Maroonda Highway, Healesville Victoria

Circumstance: CORONER's INQUEST "Ambulance paramedics Robert Bland and Phillip Oakley died at approximately 3.30pm on 2nd January 2004 when an ambulance Mr Bland was driving, responding to an emergency call, ran off the Maroondah Highway at the Black Spur approximately 68 kilometres from Melbourne rolled 90 degrees and struck a tree. Unfortunately, the force of the impact was directly onto the roof of the cabin. The nature of the multiple injuries sustained by both Mr Bland and Mr Oakley meant that each died virtually instantly."

State Funeral: St Paul's Cathedral, Melbourne. January 2004

Buried: Goroke Cemetery, Goroke, West Wimmera, near The Little Desert, Victoria

Adopted son David Bland writes - on his My Space Page - My Hero: - My father: Robert Clive Bland, He was and is a hero to me as he taught me love and he always tried to help himself and others to the best of his ability."

32+. Alain Marie Guynot De BOISMENU (1870-1953)

Bishop Alain Marie Guynot De BOISMENU
Born: 27 December 1870 St Malo, Brittany, France
Cultural Influence: Breton French
Christianity: Catholic
ADB ONLINE - Australian Dictionary of Biography

Occupation: Missionary (Missionaries of the Sacred Heart) Catholic Priest, Bishop of Papua

Bishop Alain Marie Guynot De BOISMENU
Died: 5 November 1953 Kubuna, Papua New Guinea
Buried: Kabuna, Papua New Guinea
Legacy: " Jesus-bearded, gaunt and bright-eyed, he seemed a living ikon of Christian benignity. Paul Claudel called him 'that lion-hearted bishop worthy of the most dazzling ages of the Church' and the poet James McAuley saw him as 'the man who most exemplified greatness', with 'a rare sanctity and unerring spiritual discernment'.
His grave at Kubuna is a place of pilgrimage.

33. Mrs Anne Fraser BON, 'Born on 9 April 1838 at Dunning, Perthshire, Scotland, daughter of David Dougall, physician, and his wife Jane, née Fraser.' At age 20 she married fellow Scots' Australian, John BON of Wappan Station, on the Devil's (Delatite) River, Bonnie Doon, nr Mansfield. A presbyterian philanthropist, Activist, Advocate & Defender of Aborigines, Chinese, Women, the Sick, etc. Devout Christian Correspondent. When plans for Lake Eildon took over Wappan station she took refuge on 'her own' floor of the Windsor Hotel, Melbourne, where she read the Bible every morning at 10 a.m. She died, aged 98, in Melbourne on 5 June 1936 and was buried in Kew cemetery.

'Devoutly religious, imperious in her manner, a loving but stern mother, an autocrat with her domestic staff and stationhands, Ann BON held firmly to her course even if it meant defying authority. Lonely and in many ways shy, she made few close friends, but to those in need, especially the Aboriginals, she showed compassion and generosity. Dispossessed members of the Taungerong tribe had found a refuge at Wappan; in the 1860s they were resettled at Coranderrk near Healesville, but on their annual return for shearing they kept Mrs Bon informed of their treatment by the Board for the Protection of the Aborigines. Her home at Kew was a refuge for the sick and needy and she regularly visited Aboriginal patients in Melbourne hospitals. When her efforts to provide jobs and clothing were rebuked as 'interference' in 1879, she began to support Aboriginals who opposed protection board policy, notably Thomas 'Punch' Bamfield, henchman to William Barak. Using her influence with leading Presbyterian clergymen and politicians, she persuaded the government to investigate conditions at Coranderrk in 1881; she accepted membership of the inquiry and succeeded in reversing policy. The antagonism of officials prevented her appointment to the protection board but she continued her direct intercessions with government members. In 1904 she became a board-member and attended regularly until 1936. She maintained a voluminous correspondence with Aboriginals all over Victoria, remaining uniquely responsible to them; she earned reprimands for 'disloyalty' in 1921, 1923 and 1936 when she protested to the minister that her colleagues' decisions had caused injustice or hardship.

Ann Bon was a member of the first ladies' committee of the Austin Hospital and a generous benefactor; she was a foundation member of the committee of the Charity Organisation Society and a lifelong supporter of the Salvation Army. She established a school for Chinese children in Melbourne and worked towards a more enlightened approach to mental sickness. She gave generously to the Presbyterian churches at Mansfield and Bonnie Doon and in World War I donated an ambulance to the Belgian Army, for which she was decorated in 1921 by King Leopold. Each Christmas she gave £20 to every blinded soldier in Victoria. As 'Sylvia', she wrote and published books of homely verse and hymns.' Joan Gillison ADB Online

34. Senator Neville BONNER

35. James BONWICK , historian Hawthorn/ Brighton VIC

35+. Doctor Mary BOOTH Anglican, Christian Good Samaritan, Champion of the Dignity of Women; Campaigner for public & sexual hygiene; Medical Missionary Campaigner - against infant mortality; against venereal diseases. Supporter of Immigrant - Dreadnought Scheme; Women's Reform League

Birth: 9 July 1869 Burwood, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Death: 28 November 1956 Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

Portrait of Dr. Mary Booth, O.B.E. [picture] - by Watkins, J. S. (John Samuel), 1866-1942.

Selections from ADB ONLINE

Booth, Mary (1869–1956)

by Jill Roe

Mary Booth (1869-1956), physician and welfare worker, was born on 9 July 1869 at Burwood, Sydney, eldest of three daughters of William Booth, schoolmaster, and his wife Ruth, née Sewell. Educated by Mrs Cornell, she matriculated from Airlie School in 1886 and attended the University of Sydney (B.A., 1890). In 1891-93 she was governess to the children of the Earl of Jersey, governor of New South Wales. A legacy from her maternal grandfather Thomas Sewell in 1893 gave her some financial independence. After briefly studying as a medical student at the University of Melbourne in 1894, she left for Scotland, accompanied by her sister Eliza (Bay), and in July next year enrolled at the College of Medicine for Women, University of Edinburgh (M.B., C.M., 1899). After some experience in infirmaries, she returned to Sydney in 1900.

Dr Booth's medical career was relatively short lived and she never worked in an Australian hospital. Although she kept rooms near Macquarie Street until 1910, much of her practice was contractual with, for example, the Australian Mutual Provident Society. Appointed to the Department of the Government Statistician as anthropometrist in 1900, she lectured on hygiene at girls' secondary schools... - she was a founder of the Women's Club in 1901, and corresponding secretary in 1905-07 and later a vice-president of the National Council of Women of New South Wales. She was lecturer in hygiene for the Department of Public Instruction in 1904-09, and then in 1910-12 was employed by the Victorian Department of Education to help to establish the first school medical service in that State. She published in the Transactions of the Australasian Medical Congress and of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science, and in the Australasian Medical Gazette. In 1913 she visited Britain and represented the Commonwealth government at the English-Speaking Conference on Infant Mortality, London.

Back in Sydney by 1914, Mary Booth quickly responded to the domestic problems raised by World War I; her offer to supervise refugee camps in Egypt was refused as she was too well qualified. In November she founded the Babies' Kit Society for the Allies' Babies and in June next year opened the Soldiers' Club in the Royal Hotel, George Street; she was its honorary secretary until it closed in 1923, and she ran it very strictly. From September 1915 she was a member of the executive committee of the Universal Service League and campaigned vigorously for conscription. Other war-work included organizing the Centre for Soldiers' Wives and Mothers and setting up a war widows' fund. In 1918 she was appointed O.B.E. She was defeated in 1920 for the North Shore seat in the Legislative Assembly as an independent feminist candidate and, supported by the Women's Reform League, failed after negotiations to stand for a Senate seat in 1922.

Fiercely patriotic, Dr Booth determined to promote and protect the Anzac tradition; in 1921 she founded the Anzac Fellowship of Women and remained president until 1956. It was the only civilian organization granted the right by W. M. Hughes to use the name 'Anzac'. An equally ardent advocate of increased immigration, she was an office-bearer of the New Settlers' League of Australia, and a member of the Women's Migration Council of New South Wales. When British ex-servicewomen began arriving in Sydney, mostly as assisted migrants, she founded the Ex Service Women's Club. From 1921 she looked after boys migrating under the 'Dreadnought scheme' and in 1923 set up the Empire Service Club. She raised funds, supervised the Empire Service Hostel and in 1925-44 published the monthly Boy Settler, all as a contribution to maintaining 'our own British Stock' and counteracting communism. She kept in contact with her boys and worked closely with the Department of Labour.

Incorrigibly active, Dr Booth belonged to the University of Sydney Society for Combating Venereal Diseases after the war, and in the 1920s to the League of Nations Union and the English-Speaking Union. A member of the Town Planning Association of New South Wales, in 1920 she told the royal commission on the basic wage that young families could be happily brought up in a flat if it was designed with proper space for the children; in 1929 she attended the 12th Congress of the International Federation for Housing and Town Planning in Rome, and visited Britain.

'In 1931 the Anzac Fellowship of Women set up the Anzac Festival Committee, with Dr Booth as chairman and the governor-general Lord Gowrie and Lady Gowrie as patrons, to encourage the arts rather than sport in the 'Anzac Season'... Her last major initiative was to found in 1936 the Memorial College of Household Arts and Science, on land adjoining her home at Kirribilli; she firmly believed that 'good wives make good husbands'. In 1961 its funds were used to found the Dr Mary Booth scholarship for women economics students at the University of Sydney.

She died in the Rachel Forster Hospital for Women and Children on 28 November 1956 and was cremated with Anglican rites. Her estate was valued for probate at £14,335.

Select Bibliography
Royal Commission on the Basic Wage (Syd, 1920), Evidence
National Council of Women (New South Wales), Jubilee Report, 1896-1946
Medical Journal of Australia, 23 Feb 1957
R. F. H. Row, ‘School medical services in Victoria’, Health Bulletin (Victoria), 5 (1959)
Sydney Morning Herald, 21 Feb 1920, 26 July, 9 Nov 1929, 27 Apr 1958, 17 May 1969
I. L. Marden, Dr. Mary Booth … (1957, State Library of New South Wales)
R. Mackinnon, Mary Booth, a Biography (1969, State Library of New South Wales)
Anzac Fellowship of Women papers (National Library of Australia)
Mary Booth papers (State Library of New South Wales)
Miles Franklin correspondence, 1923-53 (State Library of New South Wales)
R. R. Garran papers (National Library of Australia).

36a. Sarah Crisp BOOTH (1844 - 1928)

Sarah Crisp BOOTH & 'Lila' Eliza White BOOTH Founders of the Y.W.C.A. in Melbourne

Born: 1844 Boston, Lincolnshire, England
Father: James BOOTH, grocer and stationmaster
Mother: Millicent HARDIWICK
Emigrated: Arrived Sept 1856 at Port Melbourne on the ship 'ZOBOA" age 11
d. Saturday 24 March 1928 in "Shirley' Inkerman Street, St Kilda East, Victoria

'Lila' Eliza White BOOTH
Born: abt 1850 Ratcliff, Nottinghamshire, England,
Father: James BOOTH, grocer and stationmaster
Mother: Millicent HARDIWICK
Emigrated: Arrived Sept 1856 at Port Melbourne on the ship 'ZOBOA" age 5
Died: 7th November 1923 at "Shirley' Inkerman Street, St Kilda East, Victoria, Australia @ 73 yrs

FROM - the Australia Women's Register; - Sarah Crisp Booth (1844-1928) was instrumental in making a success of the first Melbourne Young Women’s Christian Organisation, which was officially recognised by the Young Women’s Christian Organisation of Great Britain on the 21st May 1883.

Initially a reluctant recruit, Booth (together with her sister E. W. Booth), became the first General Secretary of the Melbourne Young Women’s Christian Organisation of Melbourne. She is listed as Honorary Secretary 1882- 1910.

As part of the ‘midnight missions’, library development, ‘gospel temperance union’ and factory visit programs, Booth – keenly aware of space restrictions – set up a building fund in 1886. This resulted in the purchase of the “Christian Home for Girls” in Jolimont in 1888.

36+. Lady Diamantina BOWEN - [Lady Diamantina CANDIANO ROMA] Greek Orthodox Christian Good Samaritan, woman of poised serenity and Christian kindness. From Zakinthos, Greece to Moreton Bay, Queensland
Lady Diamatina Roma Bowen

- From Austalia Dictionary of Biography ADB Online

Bowen, Diamantina (1833–1893)
by Hugh Gilchrist

Diamantina Bowen (1833-1893), by Johnstone, O'Shannessy & Co.
National Library of Australia, nla.pic-vn3356220

Diamantina Bowen (1833-1893), governor's wife, was born in 1833 on the island of Zante (Zakinthos), Greece, tenth of eleven children of Conte Giorgio-Candiano Roma and his wife Contessa Orsola, née di Balsamo. The family—originally named Regolo and with origins in thirteenth-century Rome—included notable men in the Venetian occupation of Corfu, the Peloponnese and Crete, and some distinguished personages in newly independent Greece. Belonging to the small aristocracy of the Ionian Islands, Diamantina enjoyed a privileged life during the British rule (1815-64). Her father was president of the Corfiot Senate and titular head of the Ionian Islands Republic. Queen Victoria appointed him the islands' poet laureate.

On 28 April 1856 in the Palace of St Michael and St George, Corfu, Contessa Diamantina Roma married (Sir) George Ferguson Bowen, government secretary of the islands. He was appointed first governor of Queensland in 1859 and Lady Bowen accompanied him to Brisbane with their daughter, arriving on 10 December. She ably fulfilled the ceremonial role of governor's wife. In 1864, with a silver spade and a cedar wheelbarrow, she turned the sod for Queensland's first railway-line, at Ipswich. An exemplary hostess at Government House and a tireless worker for charity, she gave birth to three children while in Brisbane and helped to found the Lady Bowen Lying-In Hospital in 1866. In January 1868 she and Sir George proceeded to New Zealand on his appointment as governor-general. Here their last child was born. They returned to Australia in March 1873 when Bowen was sworn in as governor of Victoria.

By then Diamantina had acquired some of the characteristics of a grande dame, and was an elegant and fascinating figure evoking popular respect. To a gossip columnist she was 'as exotic as a bird of paradise, still a beauty, with black dazzling eyes, a flawless cream complexion and a figure that, even in the dresses of the period, was the envy of many younger matrons'. Mrs Campbell Praed had described Lady Bowen's 'soft foreign accent'; in private conversation with Sir George she normally spoke Italian. Active in charitable causes and cultural events, she was dignified but also unconventional: on one occasion she went roller-skating. Attacked by a deranged woman (Esther Gray) in Collins Street in 1876, she suffered only slight injury. In February 1879 a large assemblage at a Melbourne banquet heard Marcus Clarke's poem, 'Farewell to Lady Bowen' set to music by Alfred Plumpton. Sir George was governor of Mauritius until 1882 and of Hong Kong in 1882-86.

His wife was a woman of poised serenity and kindness, with a degree of reserve. Self-disciplined, compassionate, dutiful, she was interested in garden plants, music and objets d'art, and was a fine pianist and singer. On Sir George's retirement they and their two unmarried daughters settled in London, where she worshipped at the Greek Orthodox Church in Moscow Road. She died of acute bronchitis on 17 November 1893 in Cadogan Square, and was buried in the Bowen family grave at Kensall Green. Her husband and their five children survived her.

Among many place names commemorating her are the town of Roma and the Diamantina River in Queensland. In 1953 her many letters, long preserved in a villa on Zakinthos, were destroyed after earthquakes in the Ionian Islands.

Select Bibliography
■U. G. Prentice, Diamantina, Lady Bowen, Queensland’s First Lady (Brisb, 1984)
■H. Gilchrist, Australians and Greeks, vol 1 (Syd, 1992), and for bibliography
■M. Hancock, Colonial Consorts (Melb, 2001).

37. Frank W. BOREHAM

38. Arthur BOYD – Artist, Murrumbeena, Shoalhaven

39. =Bishop BRADY

40. = Pastor Jack BRAESIDE Indulkana, Warburton Range, Fregon, Western Australia, Port Augusta, South Australia, Mildura, Victoria, Redfern NSW


Christian Aboriginal pastor - excluded from The Encylcopaedia of Aboriginal Australia 1994 (Ed Horton, David)

"THE HISTORY OF THE AEF - Pastor Jack Braeside—January 1982
‘I came to South Australia in 1967 because some friends, who were managing Tanderra Hostel in Adelaide, came back to Western Australia and told us of the spiritual need of Aboriginal people in South Australia, particularly in Adelaide. They needed someone to go around to witness among them, so a friend of mine, Jack Ridley, and I came over from Western Australia. We came to Umeewarra Mission, and then to Adelaide.
‘Later, I went up to Indulkana where I found there were some tribal boys whom their people had brought over from Warburton Ranges. They asked me to take them back to Fregon, because the people at Indulkana did not have any vehicles. I was asked by the tribal people to accompany the boys back to Warburton. Then I went on to Mt Margaret Mission, then on to Kalgoorlie where I saw Pastor Denzil Humphries We talked about
forming an Aboriginal evangelical fellowship.
‘I went on to Perth and talked to Pastor Ben Mason. He told me that there was a need for an Aboriginal fellowship. I said, “We have already talked about that”. We then talked to a United Aborigines Mission (UAM) missionary, Keith Morgan, and between us we arranged for a conference at the Keswick Convention at Orange Grove, in 1967.
‘There we contacted a number of Aboriginal Christians and we formed the Aboriginal Evangelical Fellowship in Western Australia. There was Sonny Graham from the Churches of Christ; Rev. Cedric Jacobs from the Methodist (later Uniting) Church; Pastor Denzil Humphries from the People’s Church; the late Pastor Ben Mason from Nunga Church; and Colin Green, a teacher from the Education Department. Dr Graham Miller
(Presbyterian) and Rev. Dr Geoffrey Bingham (Anglican) were our advisers who told us about fellowships being formed in other countries, such as the Maori Evangelical Fellowship.
‘We were concerned about the rise of black nationals in Australia and black power movements in America, but we didn’t want our people to be involved in the critical and destructive sides of these movements. We wanted our people to work together in an organisation that could arrange an annual convention, encourage evangelistic meetings and encourage each other in Christian ministry.

‘We couldn’t read the smoke signals from five thousand kilometres away in the eastern states, but they were also considering the same ideas over there. Later, we contacted the Aboriginal Christians in the eastern states because we heard that they had formed a similar fellowship in 1968, two weeks after us. We had learned about that through the Aboriginal Inland Mission (AIM) literature.

‘In August 1968 we had a conference at Singleton Bible College, and from there we formed a steering committee for the AEF and settled on the date of Easter 1969 to have a further conference at Brookton in Western Australia. The eastern states delegation consisted of Geoff Higgins, Lyal Browning, Pastor David Kirk, Rev. Bill Bird and Pastor Cecil Grant. There we settled on a national convention at Port Augusta in January 1970. We invited a number of Aboriginal Christians from different denominations and missions. That was the beginning of AEF in South Australia. ‘Port Augusta became the venue of the national convention from then on. The AEF work in South Australia was made possible by the Maori pastor, Pastor Keith Mildon, coming from New Zealand to start the work in Adelaide, and then I came over later to help in the city work while Keith was doing the outreach work at Murray Bridge.

‘We went around the other centres in South Australia, helping other missions and visiting the tribal people, and also the people at Copley, Nepabunna and Gerard, as well as on the West Coast. We formed an AEF committee, and they became responsible for the work in South Australia. That is how things started. ‘The first convention was at Stirling North, near Port Augusta. I was then the National Secretary and organised the first few conventions. We had two conventions at Stirling North. The first attracted about seventy delegates. This year we had over two thousand people at some meetings. We met in the hall there, but, when more people came, we shifted into the Port Augusta Town Hall.
‘The commencing year, 1970, was an interesting year. Looking back, and putting the AEF into a world perspective, we learned that the Canadian Indian Evangelical Fellowship commenced their organisation in 1970, and also in that year, there was a revival in the Solomon Islands. We also learned that the Maori Evangelical Fellowship commenced in New Zealand in 1959. Other fellowships all over the world were springing up, while we thought that we were the only ones. ‘In the first convention at Stirling, we tried to contact as many people as possible from different denominations, but only seventy responded to the invitations and came to Port Augusta. In the second year we had Maori people. We hadn’t known about their fellowship until after the first convention. Rev. Miller, the Principal of the Auckland Bible College, told us about it and we invited them.
‘The year they came, 1971, it was very hot but they worked hard to put on a Maori feast, a “hangi”, for us. About five hundred people came to it. That occasion was when they saw their first snake because apparently there are no snakes in New Zealand. The Maori people went wild and chased it until they got it, just to see their first snake in Australia.

‘The tribal people have a real contribution to make to the AEF. Three Pitjantjatjara men came to the second convention, and the numbers increased rapidly up to 1982. It was an education to the urban people just to meet tribal people. Sometimes these were the first tribal people they had met. There are few tribal people in Port Augusta and other areas they can talk to. ‘In a later convention, in 1982, they had been witnessing to the Yalata people who had come for the first time. Also they taught us about faith and simplicity in their approach to the Gospel. They were not tied up with a lot of material things, nor the necessity for logical reasoning in everything. They just accepted the simple accounts and stories, so their faith was more straightforward. They gave more Aboriginality to the meetings with their tribal ways, language and singing.’
In 1988 Jack said, ‘I would like to see more church planting right throughout the nation, and all the Aboriginal people, urban, rural and tribal, taking leadership roles in their churches. Also I would like to see the day when Aborigines form Aboriginal fellowships in the Aboriginal evangelical churches of Australia, along lines similar to what the Uniting churches are trying to do.
‘I would like to see the missions gradually contributing to that and phasing out their own work. They should be handing over to Aborigines to encourage their strength and unity and fellowship, as the political climate may change and we might be expecting persecution and hard times in the future. Aboriginal churches should come together and strengthen each other. In South Australia (1985) we had churches in Prospect, Ottoway, Salisbury, Murray Bridge, Meningie, Tailem Bend, Raukkan, Noarlunga, Port Augusta, Port Lincoln and Ceduna.

‘From the beginning we had help from the Umeewarra Mission in making their properties at Port Augusta and Stirling North available each year for the convention. We did not get any help from the government as we were a religious body. However, the army helped us by lending us tents, crockery and other equipment. People paid their own fares, and for their meals. Generally we don’t get much help from outside as we are a religious organisation. The value of the convention was that people came into a
deeper experience of God and went back to their own places contributing to their churches and fellowships. Others were being inspired to start churches of their own and became an asset to their community churches. People were being educated as Christians in organising things in the convention, contributing choir items, reaching and attending council meetings. Doing this ourselves has been an educational exercise. ‘Of course people can’t become mature Christians on just excitement;
they needed deep Bible teaching and grounding in the Word of God. I’ve seen people who go back into the bush by themselves, where they had no fellowship, and no excitement; they just fell away and lost their joy and their witness. There is need for a balanced experience.’

From CDP [Christian Democratic Party] Honours Aboriginal Heritage - Rev Fred Nile's statement to the NSW Pariliament Thursday, 21st October 2010 ' Pastor Jack Braeside from Redfern, originally from Western Australia, and one of the stolen generation... When I asked Pastor Braeside how he had acquired such a distinguished name he said that after he had been stolen he was taken to a property called Braeside and that he and all the other boys were given the surname Braeside. His non-Aboriginal name was Jack Braeside. All those men made a big impression on me ...' Rev. Fred Nile

"Pastor Jack Braeside had done Christian work in Western Australia, then
in Adelaide, and later returned to Western Australia. At present (1995) he is working in Mildura." (HART)

1.'THE STORY OF FIRE' Aboriginal Christianity - by Jack HART
2. The CDP [Christian Democratic Party] Honours Aboriginal Heritage - Rev Fred Nile's statement to the NSW Pariliament Thursday, 21st October 2010

41. Bishop William BROUGHTON C of E

41+. Missionary Dr. George BROWN (1835-1917)
Methodist Missionary to Fiji, NZ, Sydney, NSW,

Dr. George BROWN (1835-1917) Methodist Missionary, Samoa & Fiji archipelago
Birth: 7 December 1835 Barnard Castle, Durham, North of England
Cultural Influence: Mediterranean-European Judeo-Christian, Jordie English, Scottish, Southsea Islander, Australian
Christianity: Methodist, Southseas Mission Christian, Unitarian
Occupation: Missionary, Methodist minister, ethnographer, naturalist, diarist, correspondent, writer, autobiographer, memoirist
Marriage: 2 August 1860 at Raglan, New Zealand
Wife: Sarah Lydia WALLIS, [daughter of Rev. James Wallis, missionary at Whaingaroa Harbour, NZ] she died at Kinawanua on 7 August 1923.
Field: 1. New Zealand, 2. Savai'i, Samoa; 3. Fiji; 4. Tonga; 5. Sydney, NSW
Death: 7 April 1917 Gordon, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Burial: Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

From Australian Dictionary of Biography - ADB ONLINE

Brown, George (1835–1917)

by Niel Gunson

George Brown (1835-1917), Methodist missionary, was born on 7 December 1835 at Barnard Castle, Durham, England, son of George Brown, professional secretary, editor, barrister and Unitarian preacher, and his wife Elizabeth, née Dixon, sister of the wife of Rev. Thomas Buddle, missionary in New Zealand. He received his rudimentary education at a private school. Reacting to his stepmother's discipline, he proved wayward, dealt in contraband when an apprentice and attempted to run away to sea. After experience on a troopship and in Canada, he migrated to New Zealand in March 1855, attending classes held by Bishop Selwyn and Rev. J. C. Patteson on the voyage. While living with Buddle at Onehunga, Brown was influenced by leading Methodist preachers, joined the 'society', became a local preacher and was designated a missionary for Samoa in 1860. On 2 August 1860 at Raglan he married Sarah Lydia, second daughter of Rev. James Wallis, missionary at Whaingaroa Harbour; of their nine children, two sons and four daughters survived infancy.

Brown was ordained in Sydney on 19 September and soon afterward sailed to the islands. While stationed at Savai'i (Samoa), Brown urged the opening of a mission in New Britain. In 1874-75 he travelled in Victoria, New South Wales, Tasmania and New Zealand canvassing support. He then visited Fiji and Samoa for volunteer missionaries, and a station was established at Port Hunter, Duke of York Island. In October 1876 Brown arrived in Sydney and continued his deputationary work in the colonies. An entire house was built in Sydney to be transported to New Britain and the Browns settled there at the end of the missionary voyage in 1877. When a Fijian missionary and three teachers were murdered in April 1878 Brown acquiesced in a punitive expedition which caused a furore in the Australasian press (the Blanche Bay affair) and had repercussions at Exeter Hall, but which rendered the region safe for all expatriates. Seriously ill, Brown withdrew to Sydney in May 1879. In September he went to Fiji where he was virtually exonerated. Because of travel hazards he did not reach New Britain until March 1880. His wife had survived a serious illness but two of his children had died. When the Browns left the archipelago in January 1881 about twenty-nine stations had been established.

Sydney now became Brown's headquarters where he engaged in linguistic work for the mission. He had accrued additional celebrity through descriptions of his collections in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London in 1877-81, and was popular for deputationary work. In 1881-91 he did much to influence Australian public opinion about the islands by his letters to the Sydney Morning Herald under various pseudonyms, the most notable series being the Carpe Diem letters in 1883-85 which criticized British inaction and warned of German aggression. Appointed to the Bourke Street circuit, he was superintendent in 1884-85. In 1886 he visited England where he was lionized in church and scientific circles and acted as a commissioner for New South Wales at the Indian and Colonial Exhibition in London. He returned to Sydney via America in March 1887. In the interim he had been appointed general secretary of missions, an office which he held until his retirement in April 1908. His first major assignment was to act in 1888-91 as special commissioner to Tonga, where colonial mission policies had provoked the secession of the 'Free Church' in 1885 under the King and Rev. Shirley Baker. By his capable handling of the situation Brown helped to avoid dissension in the Australian colonies where active Tongan committees had been formed. While secretary, he was also responsible for pioneering two new mission fields within the Australian sphere of influence. He attended the meeting at Port Moresby on 17 June 1890 under the auspices of Sir William MacGregor when the major Protestant missions came to a mutual understanding on Papua, and in 1891 launched the Methodist mission at Dobu. After visiting the Solomon Islands in 1901, he conducted the first mission party to Roviana in May 1902. He also made many visits to Methodist missions in the western Pacific.

In 1892 Brown was awarded an honorary D.D. by McGill University. He wrote many mission pamphlets and reports and was a regular contributor to the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science. His papers included 'Conceptional theory of the origin of Totemism' and 'The necessity for a uniform system of spelling Australian proper names', and in 1911 he was responsible for an influential report on the 'Future of the Australian Aborigines'. His Carpe Diem letters were resumed briefly in 1907. He visited London in 1908 where he published George Brown, D.D., Pioneer-Missionary and Explorer: An Autobiography, much of the work being done by his daughters Elizabeth and Monica. Melanesians and Polynesians: Their Life-Histories Described and Compared followed in 1909. Brown's scientific correspondents included Ferdinand Mueller, Lorimer Fison, E. B. Tylor, Sir James Frazer, J. J. Lister and R. H. Codrington. He was a corresponding member of various societies and a fellow of the Royal Geographical Society. In 1913, when president of the Methodist General Conference, Brown went to England as special Australasian representative to the missionary centenary celebrations of British Methodism in October. When he died at his home, Kinawanua, Gordon, on 7 April 1917 he was also vice-president of the British and Foreign Bible Society and the Australian Native Races Protection Society. He was buried in the Methodist section of the Gore Hill cemetery. His wife died at Kinawanua on 7 August 1923. His estate was valued for probate at more than £16,000. His extensive collection of South Sea artefacts was bought by the Bowes Museum at Barnard Castle, and over thirty volumes of his papers are in the Mitchell Library.

At once urbane, venturous and practical, Brown earned the respect and friendship of colonial administrators such as Sir Arthur Gordon, Sir John Thurston, MacGregor and C. M. Woodford. MacGregor described him as 'the most pellucid man' he knew, and Thurston, who was not generally sympathetic to missionaries, liked him and described him as 'thoroughly trustworthy'. Though at first he seemed 'lady-like' in manners and appearance to colonial Wesleyans, his essential toughness and resilience helped him to survive all manner of obstacles. R. L. Stevenson found in him, as in James Chalmers of New Guinea, a hero, and wanted to write his biography in 1890. Brunsdon Fletcher saw him as an imperialist, though 'a Radical to his finger-tips'. Although the opponents of missions said that he 'cared more about his name being given to a new snake, bird, or insect' than for the souls of the islanders, his missionary exertions gave him little time for the scientific pursuits he enjoyed, and he had a real sympathy for the indigenous peoples.

Select Bibliography
W. Powell, Wanderings in a Wild Country (Lond, 1884)
C. B. Fletcher, The New Pacific (Lond, 1917)
W. Deane (ed), In Wild New Britain: The Story of Benjamin Danks (Syd, 1933)
C. B. Fletcher, The Black Knight of the Pacific (Syd, 1944)
Methodist (Sydney), 14 Apr 1917
Sydney Morning Herald, 3 Apr 1917
manuscript catalogue under George Brown (State Library of New South Wales).

42. James Robertson BRUCE,

James R Bruce was born in 1871 at Tower Hill (Illowa), near Warrnambool, VIC. (son of George BRUCE & Mary ROBERTSON) C.I.M. Missionary. Died by Martyrdom at Chen-Cheu, Hunan, China on 15 August 1902. Memorial fountain & Stainglass window celebrates him at the St John's Presbyterian Church hall, Warrnambool.
The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842-1954) - Wednesday 27 August 1902
MELBOURNE, Tuesday. - Mr James Robertson Bruce, one of the missionaries attached to the China Inland Mission who was beaten to death by a Chinese mob, was a native of Illowa, in the western district of Victoria, and he and all the members of his family are well known about Warrnambool. Mr Bruce was in a solicitor's office in Warrnambool for some years, and in 1896 he volunteered for service with the China Inland Mission. His family received a letter from him last week, in -which, while the possibility of an out-break appeared to be recognised there was nothing to cause special anxiety. Mr Bruce was about 30 years of age, and unmarried. He trained for missionary work under the Rev W. Lockhart Morton at Belair, South Australia. Concerning the identity of the second victim mentioned in the cable, there is some doubt. Mr J. J. Kitchen, M.B., of South Melbourne, the president of the China Inland Mission in Melbourne, is of opinion, from letters recently to hand, that it is Mr J. H. Lewis, an American missionary, who went out in 1899, and who has been of late a good deal associated with Mr Bruce. On the other hand, the latest Chinese directories available include the name of the Rev S Lewis, a missionary stationed at Chungking, ia the province of Seechuan, a province which almost adjoins Hunan.

43. + Peter BULLA NT

44. =John BULMER VIC


46. Johann BURGI, Wandin VIC

47. =Anne CAMFIELD, Albany WA

48. David CARLEY - (1821-1884) ex-convict RC, Cossack WA convict
David CARLEY (1821-1884) ex-convict, RC, Cossack, Western Australia Convict Histtory: David Carley, one of 320 convicts transported on the Clyde, 11 March 1863. Convicted at Middlesex, Clerkenwell Sessions for a term of 10 years. Sentence: 10 years. Departure date: 11th March, 1863 Place of arrival: Western Australia.
REFERENCE/ SOURCE: 1. Henry REYNOLDS - This Whispering in our Heart (1998),
2. Keith WINDSCHUTTLE - The myths of frontier massacres in Australian history, Part III
Massacre stories and the policy of separatism - in Quadrant December 2000

49. Fr P.A. CARMINE, Broken Hill, Bourke NSW

50. Robert CARTWRIGHT philanthropist C of E Vicar 1824 NSW

51. = John CASEY, ex-convict

51+. 'TAMATE' Missionary James CHALMERS- The Greatheart of New Guinea
& his first wife Jane Hercus Chalmers

'TAMATE' Missionary James CHALMERS- The Greatheart of New Guinea

Born: 4 August 1841 Ardrishaig, Argyllshire, Scotland
Training: 1864 Entered London Missionary Society college at Highgate.
Married: 17 October 1865
Wife: Miss Jane HERCUS
Wife died: 20 February 1879 Sydney, NSW, Australia
Marriage 2: 1889 Cooktown, Queensland, Australia.
Wife 2. Sarah Eliza HARRISON
Died: 8 April 1901 - Killed / eaten by cannibals at Goaribari Island, Papua

From: Christian Biography Resources ONLINE

James Chalmers (1841-1901) was a Scottish missionary-explorer who served in Rarotonga in the Cook Islands for ten years, and in New Guinea from 1877 until his brutal murder by cannibal tribesmen on April 8, 1901, during a missionary trip to Goaribari Island.

Jane Hercus Chalmers: First missionary wife of James Chalmers. "A lady of quite exceptional gifts and graces ... her early training had been an admirable discipline for the work and experience which came upon her..." A school-mistress in Leeds, Miss Hercus married James Chalmers on October 17, 1865, and faithfully served with him until her death on February 20, 1879. Chalmers said of his dear wife Jeanie, "She was a whole-hearted missionary."

FROM ADB ONLINE - Australia Dictionary of Biography

Chalmers, James (1841–1901)

by Patricia A. Prendergast

James Chalmers (1841-1901), missionary, was born 4 August 1841 in the fishing village of Ardrishaig on Loch Fyne, Scotland, the only son of an Aberdonian stonemason. When he was 7 the family moved to Inveraray where he attended the local school and then worked for some years in a solicitor's office. In his youth Chalmers was greatly impressed by an account of missionary work in Fiji but later reacted against the stern Calvinistic doctrines preached by Highland Presbyterians and drifted away from the church. In 1859 he was converted in a religious revival and two years later joined the Glasgow City Mission as an evangelist. There he met George Turner, the Samoan missionary, at whose suggestion he applied to the London Missionary Society for acceptance as a missionary candidate in 1862. He was trained at Cheshunt College and Highgate Academy and was ordained on 19 October 1865, two days after his marriage to Jane Robinson, daughter of Peter Hercus of Greenock and New Zealand.

Chalmers had hoped to work in Africa but was appointed to the Pacific, arriving with his wife at Rarotonga in the Cook Islands on 20 May 1867; there they remained for ten years. Although disappointed that his position lacked the challenge of pioneer mission work, Chalmers waged a vigorous campaign against drunkenness, reorganized the training of island evangelists and produced a monthly newspaper. Tamate, the name by which he preferred to be called, was the Rarotongan version of his surname. In 1877 his desire for pioneer work was realized when he was appointed to New Guinea, where three years earlier Rev. William Lawes had established a mission with headquarters at Port Moresby. The co-operation of these two men laid the foundation of the London Missionary Society's work in the island. Their policy was to set up a chain of mission stations along the southern coast, staffed by South Sea Island evangelists under the supervision of European missionaries. While establishing these stations Chalmers explored much of New Guinea's coastline, made several inland journeys and was the first European to contact many of the different groups of people who inhabited these areas. Although he was interested in exploration and was asked several times to lead expeditions into New Guinea he refused on the grounds that he was first and foremost a missionary. In the ceremonies associated with the declaration of the British Protectorate in 1884 Chalmers acted as official interpreter in areas outside Port Moresby. Sir Peter Scratchley was anxious to secure his services for the administration but Chalmers remained with the mission.

During his missionary career he returned to Britain in 1886-87 and 1894-95, receiving acclaim both as an explorer and as a missionary and arousing widespread interest in the island by his lectures. He published several accounts of his work: Adventures in New Guinea (1885), Pioneering in New Guinea (1887) and Pioneer Life and Work in New Guinea 1877-1894 (1895). His wife died on 20 February 1879 and in 1888 he married one of her childhood friends, a widow, Sarah Elizabeth Harrison, née Large; she died on 25 October 1900. There were no children of either marriage.

During his twenty-three years in New Guinea Chalmers resided for short periods on the east coast at Suau, Port Moresby, Motumotu and Saguane in the Fly River delta, but for long periods he had no permanent home. His last station was Daru. From there he set out with a colleague, Oliver Tompkins, to establish a mission on Goaribari Island. Their deaths at the hands of hostile islanders on 8 April 1901 resulted in the last major punitive expedition in British New Guinea. Three years later the acting administrator, Judge Christopher Robinson, set out with a party to recover the skulls of the two missionaries. Robinson's mishandling of the situation resulted in the death of a number of islanders and led to his suicide.

An eccentric, humane man of great personal charm, Chalmers numbered among his friends personalities as diverse as Robert Louis Stevenson and 'Bully' Hayes; but his talent for friendship was most evident in his relations with the New Guinea people to whom he was sincerely and unsentimentally devoted. 'He had consecrated himself to New Guinea', wrote the Methodist missionary Dr George Brown, 'and to that work he was loyal to the end'.

Select Bibliography
R. Lovett, James Chalmers: His Autobiography and Letters (Lond, 1902)
W. A. Young, Christianity and Civilization in the South Pacific (Lond, 1922)
LMS Archives (Westminster).

52. +Bertha CHAMBERS, Indooroopilly, QLD

53. John CHANDLER ~ 40yrs in the wilderness

54. Dora CHAPMAN Silvan VIC

54+. Reverend Septimus Lloyd CHASE, Church of England, Reading & Melbourne

55. Alexander Hugh (Alec) CHISOLM (1890-1977) -
Psalmist of the Australian Creation; Celebrant of Winged Creation; Singer of the Created Orders; Journalist & Naturalist
Alexander Hugh (Alec) CHISOLM (1890-1977
Parentage: Colin CHISOLM, Australian-born grocer & Scottish-born Charlotte KENNEDY
Birth: 28 March 1890 at Maryborough, Goldfields, Victoria, seventh of eight children
Education: Maryborough State School; then an Autodidact, Insatiably reading, observing & learning
Christianity: Presbyterian, Open broad-church catholic Christian
Occupation: Journalist, Sports Writer, Nature Writer, Editor, Biographer, Enclopaedia Editor -
[from Encyclopedia of Australian Science: - 'Left school at 12. Various jobs; contributed notes on bird life to the local press, then to newspapers in Melbourne; honorary nature teacher in Victorian high schools; reporter on the Maryborough and Dunolly Advertiser 1911-15; Brisbane Mail 1915-22?; honorary adviser and Lecturer on Natural History for the Queensland government 1918-22; edited a number of metropolitan daily and weekly newspapers, including Argus (Melbourne), Australasian (Melbourne) and Sunday Pictorial (Sydney); editor Who's Who in Australia 1947; Editor-in-Chief, Australian Encyclopaedia 1958. First recipient, Australian Natural History Medallion 1939. President, Queensland Field Naturalists' Club; president, Queensland Gould League of Birdlovers 1919-22; president, Queensland Naturalists' Club 1920-22; honorary editor, Queensland Naturalist 1920-22; Corresponding Fellow, American Ornithologists' Union 1922; honorary editor, The Emu 1926-28; president, Victorian Field Naturalists' Club 1937-38; president, Victorian Bird Observers' Club 1937-38; president, Royal Australasian Ornithologists' Union 1939-40; honorary editor, Victorian Naturalist 1939-48; Fellow, Royal Australian Historical Society; Fellow, Royal Historical Society of Queensland; Fellow, Royal Australasian Ornithologists' Union 1941; Corresponding Member, British Ornithologists' Union.']

Marriage : 8 November 1923 Sacred Heart Church, Rosalie, Brisbane QLD
Wife: Olive May Haseler (b. QLD d.1971) a Catholic
Achievment: Awoke awareness of beauty in Nature; pioneer conservationist; Champion of the birds
Works: - Mateship with Birds (Melbourne, 1922), Birds and Green Places (London, 1929), Nature Fantasy in Australia (London, 1932), Bird Wonders of Australia (Sydney, 1934), Strange New World (Sydney, 1941; (autobiography) The Joy of the Earth (Sydney, 1969)
Cross: Imperiousness, Querulousness, Illness: stomach ulcers & gall stones
Death: 10 July 1977 at home, Cremorne Point, Sydney, NSW
Burial: cremated with Presbyterian forms.

1. Alec Chisolm ; works
2. Australian Dictionary of Biography - ADB Online -
3. Encyclopedia of Australian Science

From Australian Dictionary of Biography - ADB Online -

Chisholm, Alexander Hugh (Alec) (1890–1977)

by Tess Kloot

Alexander Hugh (Alec) Chisholm (1890-1977), journalist, ornithologist and encyclopaedist, was born on 28 March 1890 at Maryborough, Victoria, seventh of eight children of Colin Chisholm, a native-born grocer, and his Scottish-born wife Charlotte, née Kennedy. Alec attended Maryborough State School until the age of 12. During his formative years, after work and farm chores, he educated himself, learned shorthand, wrote poetry, fossicked for gold, collected stamps and cigarette cards, and enjoyed amateur theatricals. An insatiable reading appetite and an astounding memory were to serve him well.

In his autobiography, The Joy of the Earth (Sydney, 1969), Chisholm claimed that, from early childhood, he was aware of nature surrounding him. Whenever he could, he escaped to the bush and in 1907 commenced a diary in which the entries were almost entirely devoted to birds. That year he became a member of the (Royal) Australasian Ornithologists Union and in 1908 published six articles in Emu. A conservationist long before it became fashionable to be one, he attacked the plume trade in an article in the Maryborough and Dunolly Advertiser which won him many friends, among them (Dame) Mary Gilmore; in 1911 he accepted a job as a reporter on that newspaper. An invitation to join the Bird Observers' Club led to his lifelong association with natural history societies; once nature study was accepted as a school subject, he addressed children and coached teachers.

Four major moves and the irregular hours of journalism enabled Chisholm to lead a life of varied and ceaseless activity. He often turned his experiences into books. In 1915 he moved to Queensland as a reporter on the Brisbane Daily Mail. There he contacted local birdwatchers, joined clubs, and became honorary advisor and lecturer (1918-22) on natural history to the Queensland government. In 1921 he promoted legislation protecting native fauna and made court appearances to prosecute offenders. Through journalism, he championed the causes of birds. His sustained efforts led to the rediscovery in 1922 of the Paradise Parrot (Psephotus pulcherrimus), now possibly extinct. When dignitaries went birdwatching, he was called upon to act as guide: he would count among his acquaintances Sir Philip Game, Lord Alanbrooke, Viscount Dunrossil and Sir Henry Abel Smith.

In 1922 Chisholm transferred to Sydney's Daily Telegraph. On 8 November 1923 at the Sacred Heart Church, Rosalie, Brisbane, he married a nurse Olive May Haseler (d.1970). While in Sydney he chaired (1924-26) the combined meetings of the ornithological section of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales and the State branch of the R.A.O.U., and served as a trustee (1927-32) of (Royal) National Park. From 2UW radio on 3 July 1931 he participated in the first, live broadcast of a lyrebird's calls.

Returning to Victoria in 1933, Chisholm joined the Argus and Australasian in Melbourne. An admirer of Donald Macdonald, he succeeded him as nature and sports writer. Appointed editor in 1937, he resigned next year and spent eight months lecturing in Britain, the Netherlands and Germany. Again using newspapers to achieve his aims, he sought material relating to John Gould. This highly successful plan, related in Strange New World (Sydney, 1941), led to the discovery of Gouldiana, historical documents pertaining to Australia and John Gilbert's diary. Back in Melbourne, Chisholm joined the Herald. He was press liaison officer to the governor-general, the Duke of Gloucester, for three months in 1945 and edited the 1947 edition of Who's Who in Australia.

In 1948 Chisholm resigned from the Herald and moved permanently to Sydney to undertake the single, largest assignment of his career—as editor-in-chief of the ten-volume Australian Encyclopaedia (Sydney, 1958). This achievement earned him in 1958 the O.B.E. which, with the Australian Natural History medallion (1940), became his most prized awards. He also began an association with the Sydney Morning Herald that lasted until his death.

As well as the hundreds of articles which he contributed to ornithological and natural history magazines, Chisholm published such monographs as: Mateship with Birds (Melbourne, 1922), Birds and Green Places (London, 1929), Nature Fantasy in Australia (London, 1932), Bird Wonders of Australia (Sydney, 1934), The Story of Elizabeth Gould (Melbourne, 1944), The Making of a Sentimental Bloke (Melbourne, 1946) and Scots Wha Hae (Sydney, 1950). After Edmund Banfield's death, Chisholm had edited Last Leaves from Dunk Island (Sydney, 1925). He was represented in several anthologies, and his innumerable articles appeared in a wide range of newspapers and journals, as well as in the Australian Dictionary of Biography. His forewords, introductions, reviews and obituaries provide valuable background to Australian bird-lore, history and his own life. An excellent photographer at a time when it took herculean strength to manage the equipment, he illustrated his books and articles with his work.

President of the Queensland Gould League of Bird Lovers (1920-22), the R.A.O.U. (1934), the Royal Australian Historical Society (1959-61), the B.O.C. (1937-38) and the Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria (1937-38), Chisholm edited some of their journals. He received over twenty awards and honorary fellowships in Australia and overseas; he unveiled historic markers in three States, delivered memorial lectures and was patron of various events, notably the Maryborough Golden Wattle Festival. The price of this hectic life was bouts of ill health, and operations for gall-stones and stomach ulcers.

Chisholm was short and slight, with piercing, blue eyes and a mass of wavy hair. In later years he was a familiar figure in his hat and gabardine overcoat, carrying a suitcase and walking stick. Imperious and querulous, he gained the respect—and incurred the wrath—of many people, but remained passionately faithful to the causes in which he believed. He died on 10 July 1977 in his flat at Cremorne Point and was cremated with Presbyterian forms. His daughter survived him.

Select Bibliography
H. M. Whittell, The Literature of Australian Birds (Perth, 1954)
Wild Life (Melbourne), Mar 1940
Victorian Naturalist, 75, Nov 1958, p 133, 94, Sept-Oct 1977, p 188
Emu, 77, no 4, Oct 1977, p 232
T. Kloot, 'Alexander Hugh Chisholm: 1890-1977', Australian Bird Watcher, 7, no 4, Dec 1977, p 103
Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, 63, no 3, Dec 1977, p 206
Ibis (London), 120, no 2, 1978, p 241
New South Wales Field Ornithologists Club, Newsletter, 30, Apr 1978
Chisholm file (from Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union Archives, privately held)
Chisholm collection (State Library of New South Wales).

55+. Caroline CHISOLM NSW

56. Ronald O. CLACK, Ballarat, Field Secretary of the YMCA, Adelaide. Leader of the Y.M.C.A. Melbourne - Roy C. CLACK,
- & Mr William S. 'Bill' CLACK ; & Clem CLACK, Writer and Bible Campaigner

REFERENCE; 1. The Bible in focus: A pictorial of prophecies, people and places [by] Clem Clack in association with Dawn Saward and Olive Clack, 1980
2. The Tomb Is Empty' by Clem Clack. 1988
3. Bible Mountaineering
4. Report of visit to France - by R. O. CLACK - Young Men's Christian Associations of Australia.

57. =Robert CLARK, Wybalenna, Flinders Is VDL/T & +Pinnano-bathae (Bessy Clark) Wybalenna VDL/TASAS / martyr &

58. =Katherine Mary CLUTTERBUCK (Sister Kate) Perth WA

59. +COCHRANE , Wellington NSW

60. John Cowley COLES, radical evangelist, Wesley Church, Melbourne ( Wesleyan Convert of Talbot goldfield, missionary to poor Lonsdale St & Melbourne jails Biship of a Dirty Diocese)

61. Lt General David COLLINS 1st Governor, Hobart, TAS

62. Don Angelo Bartolomeo CONFALONIERI - 9 June
= Don (Father) Angelo Bartolomeo CONFALONIERI Port Essington, NT (born June 1813, Riva del Garda, on Lake Garda, Trentino, Italy and died 9 June 1848 at 'New Victoria,' Port Essington, Cobourg Peninsula, Northern Territory, Australia).
Girola writes that Confalonieri 'was educated at various Capuchin institutes in the Trentino. To fulfil his vocation as a missionary among the Aborigines he had trained not only spiritually, at the Propaganda Fide's Urban College, but also physically, in the mountains of his region, undergoing extreme tests of withstanding fasting, the cold and intense heat.' He was the first missionary, and first Catholic missionary to work in the Northern Territory. He arrived in the remote settlement of Victoria at Port Essington in 1846, only to die two years later. It is likely that he he is a Martyr for he died of malaria as well as of exhaustion in his attempt to learn the custom and language of the Aborigines by following their harsh way of life for the sake of Christ.
'T. H. Huxley's "Diary of the Voyage of the H.M.S. Rattlesnake" tells of the ship's arrival at Port Essington on November 5th, 1848. He writes; "Several miles nearer the mouth of the harbour (below the red cliff) than Victoria and on the opposite bank of the estuary, we passed in coming up a little low solitary house that we rightly judged to be the residence of Don Angelo, the Catholic Missionary.
"When we arrived, we learned the poor man had died a short time before our arrival, of fever, under which he had laboured for a week before anyone was acquainted with the circumstances . . . Don Angela lived wholly by himself. He got the natives to build his house for him and he lived wholly in their manner - rather priding himself upon so doing, though there can be little doubt that he thereby hastened his end."'
On a new work about the Missionary, Rolando Pizzini writes:
"In his short life, Angelo Confalonieri (1813-1848) wrote an important page in the history of contacts between European and Aboriginal cultures of Australia and, more generally, between Catholic missionaries and indigenous people. The contributions collected in this volume, prepared by scholars from diverse disciplinary, revealed both whether an event of extraordinary cultural, religious and human wealth is the personality of a missionary in the first half of the Trentino that he decided to devote their lives to Aboriginal people and their evangelization." - [Nagoyo la vita di don Angelo Confalonieri fra gli Aborigeni d'Australia : 1846-1848 / a cura di Rolando Pizzini].

- Stefano Girola writes: "On the morning of 11 June 1848, something unusual happened at Port Essington, an isolated English military outpost in the Cobourg Peninsula at the far end of northern Australia. The full contingent, soldiers and officers, gave a military tribute to the body of a 35-year-old priest who had died of his exertions and malaria two days earlier. They accompanied him to his grave "with all the respect that was due to a man so highly esteemed", Commandant MacArthur assured John Bede Polding, the first Archbishop of Sydney. - The fact that Protestant soldiers were paying homage to a Catholic missionary perhaps would have passed unobserved in Australia today. But in the middle of the 19th century, many living in the British colony shared the views of John Dunmore Lang, the Presbyterian clergyman who held that the Pope was the anti-Christ and that the spread of the "papist superstition" in the new continent was a threat to be warded off at all costs. Who was the man for whom anti-Catholic prejudice was set aside?"

Father Confalonieri was a man who practiced the charism of treating the Aborigines with respect for 'The Godlike Image' in which he believed they were made. - Girola continues: ' Sharing their daily life, Confalonieri soon succeeded in acquiring a good knowledge of the language of the tribal group of the Iwaidja. In addition, he drew a map of the area in which he outlined the different tribal areas with precision. Today this map is preserved at Melbourne State Library.

Mastery of the Aboriginal languages must have seemed to the priest from Trent essential for the task of evangelization. In those very years the other Italian mission at Stradbroke Island was failing, partly because of the lack of communication between the missionaries and the Aborigines.

Confalonieri set to work on a dictionary of the Iwaidja language and also translated into this idiom prayers and readings from the New Testament. In addition, he built a basic field hospital and, in treating the Aborigines during an influenza epidemic, put into practice the medical skills he had learned in Italy.

However, nomadic life, loneliness and the difficulty of adapting to a climate and diet so different from those in Europe undermined Confalonieri's physical and moral constitution. Only two years after his arrival at Port Essington, the young priest died from a fever caused by malaria.'

Don Angelo Bartolomeo CONFALONIERI's grave is at New Victoria, Port Essington, on Cobourg Penisula, in the Northern Territory.

Father Angelo Bartolomeo CONFALONIERI - References:
1. Don Angelo Confalonieri Confalonieri's Manuscripts: Final English-Translation- Online PDF File
2. Ernest MacGregor CHRISTIE: Angelo Confalonieri : first missionary to Port Essington, North Australia, 1942 [manuscript] State Library of Victoria
3. Stefano Girola - Fr Confalonieri's Legacy in the Australian Church - An avant-garde missionary to the Aborigines.
4. Rolando Pizzini - Nagoyo la vita di don Angelo Confalonieri fra gli Aborigeni d'Australia : 1846-1848.

63. Fr Phillip CONNOLLY, Catholic Father,

64. =Captain James COOK, ???????? Navigator, Discoveer of NSW

65. Constance COOKE

66. +William COOPER, Indigenous activist, Cumerooginga, NSW. Echuca,& Footscray, VIC

67. Harold Roy COVENTRY


Father: Charles Henry Coventry 1862 – 1920
Mother: Adeline Agnes Tomkins 1863 – 1955
Cultural Heritage: Cornish, English
Birth: 3 February 1891 Athelstone, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
Upbringing: Aldgate, Adelaide, South Australia
Christianity: Disciples or Churches of Christ,
Training: The College of the Bible, Glen Iris, Victoria
Departure for India - February 1916 Fremantle WA - per "S.S. Khyber"
Field: Baramati Mission, Baramati, Maharashtra, India
Marriage: 23 November 1916 at Pune, Maharashtra, India
Wife: Ethel Emily WARMBRUNN 1892 Prahran – 1971 Ashwood, Vic.

Children: 1. Margaret Coventry 1918-2008; 2. Harold Keith Coventry 1921-1921; 3. Vera Coventry 1923; 4. Muriel Coventry 1927; Janet Coventry

Death: 28 October 1963 Mentone, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

* Stephenson. A. W. (M.A.) THE BROKEN CYCLE: - The Story of Harold Roy Coventry whose work among the Criminal Tribes of India gained for him the Kaiser-i-Hind Medal awarded by Kind George V 1934

67+. 'Syms' Simon COVINGTON, Pambula, NSW

Syms Covington

'Syms' Simon COVINGTON -

OCKAM'S RAZOR ABC Radio National - Transcript of Roger McDonald Interview: - " I had no intention of writing about Charles Darwin, but when I read about Syms Covington, Darwin's assistant on the long voyage of the 'Beagle', I was compelled into the story. The name came at me from a corner of the page. Covington.

Here was a person of little importance it seemed, a humble crew member, a walk-on extra in the life of a young gentleman naturalist, a gift for the point of view fiction often demands, the view from the underbelly.

Charles Darwin was only 23 and Syms Covington barely 15 when the 'Beagle's' voyage started at the end of 1831. The vessel's papers listed Covington as ship's fiddler and boy to poop cabin.

In a short time, however, references to a 'servant' appeared in Darwin's letters and diaries. This was Covington. He'd found himself signed over permanently to Darwin by the Captain, Robert Fitzroy. Darwin's father, the richest man in Derbyshire, footed the bill. Now whether Covington volunteered, urged for the job, or was just available, is not known. In my novel, I have him urging, strong with ambition to live life to the full.

From then on, in notes and correspondence, Darwin hardly ever referred to Covington by name, mostly just as 'my servant'. Yet they were close.Midway through the voyage Darwin wrote to his sister back in England:

'Tell my father how much obliged I am for the affectionate way he speaks about my having a servant. It has made a great difference in my comfort; there is a standing order in the ship that no-one, excepting in civilised ports, leaves the vessel by himself. By thus having a constant companion, I am rendered much more independent, in that most dependent of all lives, a life on board.'

But, Darwin added:

'My servant is an odd sort of person. I do not very much like him; but he is, perhaps from his very oddity, very well adapted to all my purposes.'

So I read on in the archive, looking for clues as to why Darwin did not like Covington, why he was odd. None emerged.

Perhaps, I thought, we all resent those we come to depend on absolutely. Or maybe this was just a class thing. If so, did Covington buck against his lowly station in life? Make himself uppity to the upper-class Darwin? Was it his looks, like Billy Budd in Herman Melville? His beliefs? An over-willingness to please? A stickiness of manner? Was it his sexuality?

What might it have been in Covington's presence that evoked this negative but needful prickliness in Darwin?

Fiction comes out of just this vacuum of explanation, charting a relationship whose inner life begs to be imagined.

At the same time, as Isaac Bashevis Singer has observed, a novel must be full of detail, just as music must be full of notes.

So I filled myself with seafaring lore and combed through Darwin's letters and diaries catching hold of clues. Covington learned collecting, preserving, shooting and packing skills from Darwin, slitting open birds' stomachs, poking through half-digested contents, digging bones of prehistoric animals from Patagonian river banks, hefting, carting, sorting, storing.

I gained a picture of Darwin enjoying himself and always collecting ahead of his ideas, as when he desperately wanted to bag a particular small ostrich he'd heard about, and then thoughtlessly cooked and ate one, realising too late it was the rare species he sought. Later it was named after him, the rhea Darwinii. Novels get written the same way, I reflected.

The two young men were to remain as close as man and wife, metaphorically speaking, in their cluttered lodgings on land and sea, almost constantly from 1832 to 1839, during the entire voyage of the 'Beagle' and for the two-and-a-half crucial years following. 'Servant' was a term covering many duties in their time together.

Covington was taxidermist, valet, trusted house-servant, clerk and copyist. He pickled fish, prepared botanical specimens, and became expert with insects and all manner of wriggling, fluttering, crawling life. As the voyage proceeded he emerged as a prodigious collector, shooting most of Darwin's birds, (including the famous finches taken on the Galapagos Islands) and being responsible, it seems, for all of Darwin's insects collected during his brief sojourn in Sydney. By the end, Covington was badly deaf from all the shooting.

Darwin's archive is an immense resource. He remains the most thoroughly documented scientific genius of the 19th century. The voyage of the 'Beagle' was a period of adventure and travel forcibly linked to an intellectual drama 'far more thrilling' (as Stephen Jay Gould has observed) than the voyage itself, thanks to 'the impact upon human history' of the religious and scientific conflict aroused by Darwin.

I wondered about that conflict cutting deep into an individual's psychological sense of himself. Covington's, that is. He was born obscurely in Bedford, the home town of John Bunyan and religious non-conformity. Building from this lone early established fact, I created him imbued with trusting faith from childhood, coming from an older England, a stranger to the Anglicanism of the ruling order. Darwin was half-heartedly planning to serve as a curate when he returned to England, if only he could find a parish with scope for nature study.

But it was not to be. As even the sketchiest reading of The Origin of Species will reveal, Darwin became remorselessly and even aggressively atheist as time went on.

While I invented no facts around the Darwin archive, I interpreted Covington for fictional purposes by taking the known facts of his life into the realm of speculation. This applies particularly to the parts of Covington's life pre-Darwin. Also to the last year of his life, 1860 through to early 1861, as Covington awaited the arrival in Australia of The Origin of Species and I strove in my writing for some sort of reconciliation between science and religion in the spirit of this one person, Covington. But to allow readers interested to see where fact and fiction vary, I appended a list of sources and acknowledgements in an author's note at the back of the book.

Covington's archive by comparison with Darwin's is tiny. It consists of a contested birth-date, a scrappy diary held in the Mitchell Library, Sydney, a few watercolours, a photograph, and scattered mentions in Darwin's letters and diaries.

The letters Darwin wrote to Covington later in life were especially useful clues to work backwards from. Blandly friendly on the surface, wearily nostalgic, they cannot be described as warm-hearted. Whimsically envious of Covington's financial success and improved station in life, and of the health of Covington's children, they are none the less, condescending, in my view, the letters of a distant master to a solid old servant. Darwin sent Covington a silver ear trumpet and asked him to collect barnacles from nearby rocks, and wrote congratulating him on how well they were packed. Was there a touch of guilt in that ear trumpet? Darwin still wanted favours from Covington, and was never known for his gratitude.

So, basing the novel on a true story, I wanted more from this relationship than there was on show. I wanted love, maybe as an antidote to Darwin's spiritual bleakness. I wanted redemption. For this Covington's nature had to be passionate all through.

When I looked at Covington's photograph taken in later life, I saw a stoic, embattled survivor, with a deaf man's look of waiting to be surprised and an air of almost spiritual expectation. There was a chord struck in some inner part of myself. What was Covington holding in? I wanted this man bursting into bloom behind Darwin's back for his whole life. And so the real Covington and the fictional Covington travel parallel, but not together, in my pages.

As for the famous finches, which play a small but crucial part in the novel, Darwin had assumed, when they were on the Galapagos, that as the islands were close together, 'no reason was possible for their harbouring different species true to their own islands', and so, as a creationist (still) he had not labelled them by island. But Covington had labelled by island the birds he had shot for his own private and potentially saleable collection. When they were back in London, Darwin called for these birds to be examined by John Gould at the Zoological Society.

There at 36 Great Marlborough Street, Darwin sorted, listed, and wrote up the immense haul of material with Covington at his side. It was during this time that he first admitted to natural selection in private notes. Thus I propose that Covington, alone, and excluding Darwin's more illustrious contemporaries in this period after the voyage, had not just an instinct for, but a knowledge of what Darwin was grappling with in his understanding.

Then came the day in 1839 when Darwin announced his impending marriage. He presented Covington with a golden guinea, dismissed him from his service, and Covington (somewhat stung, it might be imagined) took ship for New South Wales.

In Australia, Covington married, had the same number of children as Darwin, prospered financially, became innkeeper and postmaster at Pambula, in southern New South Wales. He maintained his polite correspondence with Darwin over more than 20 years. Covington's side of the correspondence has been lost.

Looking back over his life I have Covington obsessively ask a question: Had Darwin on their voyage found proof of natural selection as a theory able to explain life on earth as completely as creationism? More importantly, had Covington handed the proof over to Darwin, willingly and blindly? Had there been a violation of good will? Worse, insult, from the arrangement of reality itself? Had he thus committed, as he puts it to himself, a crime against God and his own good nature?"
Roger McDonald

Covington was also an artist. This is his sketch 'Entrance to Rio'

Syms Covington FROM Wikipedia: -

Syms Covington (1816-1861) was a fiddler and cabin boy on HMS Beagle who became an assistant to Charles Darwin and was appointed as his personal servant in 1833, continuing in Darwin's service after the voyage until 1839. Originally named Simon Covington, he was born in Bedford, Bedfordshire, England, the youngest child of Simon Covington V and Elizabeth Brown. After Covington's trip on the Beagle, he then emigrated to Australia and settled as a postmaster, marrying Eliza Twyford there.[1]

Beagle voyage

When he was fifteen years old, Syms Covington became "fiddler & boy to Poop-cabin" on the second survey expedition of HMS Beagle,[2] which left England on 27 December 1831 under the command of captain Robert FitzRoy.
Covington kept a journal of the voyage, and in September 1832 at Bahía Blanca in South America he noted wildlife found there, including a find of rhea eggs, and giant fossil bones of the megatherium which were collected and sent to England. It is not clear if he was assisting Charles Darwin with this work, but FitzRoy's later account suggests that both Darwin and Covington worked at excavating the fossils,[3] and on November 3 Darwin arranged some clothing for Covington.[4]
On 29 April 1833, Darwin and Covington landed and took up residence ashore at Maldonado, Uruguay, while the Beagle went elsewhere on survey work.[5] After an excursion into the interior lasting twelve days,[6] they spent several weeks at Maldonado preparing the collections to be sent back to England. In a letter home started on 22 May, Darwin told his father that he had decided to take Covington on as a servant –
The following business piece is to my Father: having a servant of my own would be a really great addition to my comfort,—for these two reasons; as at present, the Captain has appointed one of the men always to be with me, but I do not think it just thus to take a seaman out of the ship;—and 2nd when at sea, I am rather badly off for anyone to wait on me. The man is willing to be my servant, & ALL the expences would be under £60 per annum. I have taught him to shoot & skin birds, so that in my main object he is very useful.[6]

He had been thinking about this for some time, but had not yet consulted the captain. In an addition to the letter, dated 6 July, Darwin announced that he had FitzRoy's agreement, and an unexpected saving –
I have asked the Captain & obtained his consent respecting a servant,—but he has saved me much expence by keeping him on the books for victuals, & will write to the Admiralty for permission. So that it will not be much more than £30 per annum. I shall now make a fine collection in birds & quadrupeds, which before took up far too much time. We here got 80 birds and 20 quadrupeds.[6]

As well as working as a servant and general amanuensis, writing out Darwin's records of investigations, Covington became Darwin's assistant as a collector, hunter and taxidermist, In addition to his duties, Covington kept a personal journal regarding his impressions of the voyage. His journal includes accounts ranging from his daily mundane tasks to impressions of the lands and the people he encountered, and it provides an alternative perspective to supplement Darwin's Journal and Remarks, better known as The Voyage of the Beagle.
[edit]Return, work for Darwin and emigration

After the Beagle returned in 1836, Covington became Darwin's manservant and continued in his duties as a general amanuensis. His own collection of bird specimens was invaluable in establishing the relationship of Darwin's Finches to each of the Galapagos Islands as, unlike Darwin, he had taken care to label where each specimen had been taken.
Covington remained in Darwin's service until 25 February 1839.[1] He decided to emigrate, and was given a personal reference from Darwin in a letter dated 29 May 1839.[7]
[edit]Life in Australia

Records indicate that Covington landed in Sydney in 1840, and he married Eliza Twyford who lived at Stroud, a small town in northern New South Wales, although she had been born in London in 1821. He was able to draw on his naval connections to find employment, and by 1843 was working as a clerk at the Sydney coal depot of the Australian Agricultural Company. Around 1844 the family, with their first two sons, accepted the invitation of Captain Lloyd and moved to the South coast property at Pambula, New South Wales, which Lloyd had been given in lieu of a pension from the Royal Navy.[7]
Covington continued to correspond with Darwin, who sent him a gift of a replacement ear-trumpet to help with Covington's increasing deafness.[8] In response to Darwin's request for specimens, Covington and his eldest son collected a large number of barnacles at nearby Twofold Bay. Darwin's letter of 23 November 1850 expressed his delight at having just received the box, which included particularly unusual species. This contributed to the extensive studies of barnacles which established Darwin as a biologist.[7][9]
Covington became Postmaster of Pambula in 1854, and managed an inn called the Forest Oak Inn built on the coast road above the floodplain where the first Pambula township had been repeatedly damaged by floods.[7] His original inn was licensed in 1855, and the building which still stands was constructed on the same site about a year later.[10] By 1848 he and his wife had eight children,[11] six sons and two daughters.[12] In 1861 Covington died of 'paralysis' at only 47 years old.[7] The inn was then run by his widow, and later by her second husband Llewelyn Heaven. The license was taken over by John Behl around 1864, and the building became known as The Retreat in 1895.[10] It has been used as a doctor's surgery and more recently as a Thai restaurant, and its red tin roof and double chimneys can still be seen beside a sharp bend of the main Coast Road.[7]
[edit]Books discussing Covington

"The Journal of Syms Covington, Assistant to Charles Darwin Esq." was discussed by Jonathan Hodge and Gregory Radick in The Cambridge Companion to Darwin.
In 1998, Australian author Roger McDonald published a novel based on Syms Covington's life and his work for Darwin, called Mr Darwin's Shooter.

(Wikipedia) References

^ a b Keynes 2001, p. 449.
^ In July 1832 Darwin copied out a Watch-bill listing the crew and their positions, Keynes 2001, p. 84.
^ "The Journal of Syms Covington - Chapter Three". Retrieved 2008-07-13.
^ Keynes 2001, p. 179, Barlow, p. 169.
^ Keynes 2001, p. 152, "The Journal of Syms Covington - Chapter Four". Retrieved 2008-07-18.
^ a b c Barlow 1945, pp. 85–88.
^ a b c d e f "The Journal of Syms Covington - Chapter Eight". Retrieved 2008-07-20.
^ "Darwin Correspondence Project - Letter 700 — Darwin, C. R. to Covington, Syms, 7 Oct 1843". Retrieved 2008-07-20.
^ "Darwin Correspondence Project - Letter 1370 — Darwin, C. R. to Covington, Syms, 23 Nov 1850". Retrieved 2008-07-20.
^ a b Angela George; Pat Raymond (2006). "Discover Pambala, Walk in the Pioneers' Footsteps" (pdf). Pambula Area Progress and Planning Association Inc.. Retrieved 2008-07-21.
^ "Darwin Correspondence Project - Letter 2276 — Darwin, C. R. to Covington, Syms, 18 May [1858"]. Retrieved 2008-07-20.
^ Freeman, R. B. (2007). "Charles Darwin: A companion". The Charles Darwin Trust. pp. 61. Retrieved 2008-07-20.
Darwin, Charles. Barlow, Nora. ed. . Charles Darwin and the voyage of the Beagle. London: Pilot Press. 1945.
Desmond, Adrian; Moore, James (1991). Darwin. London: Michael Joseph, Penguin Group. ISBN 0718134303
Darwin, Charles. Keynes, Richard. ed. Charles Darwin's Beagle Diary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2001.

Syms Covington: 'Coquimbo.

from Syms Covington - BEGA VALLEY HISTORY. "One of Pambula's most interesting early identities was Syms Covington, the second postmaster a man who was privileged to go on a famous voyage round the world in H.M.S Beagle, when he acted as servant, assistant and later clerk to Charles Darwin, the great naturalist. On this voyage of almost five years duration Darwin began making the scientific observations which led to his far-reaching contribution to man's knowledge of biology and opened the way to its tremendous advances in modern times." Covington was outraged at what Darwin presented as biological 'truths' published in his book 'The Origin of Species' in 1859. Its impact was startling to Covington and shocking to many at that time, as it went against the commonly held position, based on the book of Genesis, that man and all the animals were created by God in seven days and have never altered thereafter. "

In old age Syms Covington thought Darwin to be motivated by revenge for the untimely death of his favourite, his eldest daughter, which manifest in his theory of the origin of the species in rancour against God. Covington maintained his belief in a created universe and the in the divine Mystery, rather than Darwin's athiestic rationality, in the origins of all creation.

Syms Covington: 'At Woollya'

Syms COVINGTON died at age 47 in 1861 in Pambula, Bega/Eden District, New South Wales [2865/1861] and is buried in the Pambula Cemetery.

1. Syms COVINGTON The Journal of Syms Covington Chapter by chapter - online
2. Roger McDONALD – Mr Darwin’s Shooter
3. B. J. FERGUSON – Syms Covington of Pambula 1971/1981 Merimbula NSW
4. F.W.& J.M. NICHOLS- Charles Darwin in Australia
5. Adrian DESMOND & James MOORE – Darwin 1991 London
6. Janet BROWNE – Charles Darwin: Voyaging 1995 London
7. William SWAINSON - Naturalists Guide for Collecting and Presevering Subjects of Natural History and Botany – London 1822
8. Charles DARWIN – The Voyage of the Beagle
9 Charles DARWIN- Origin of the Species 1859 London

68. William COWPER, Cof E, NSW

68+. Pastor Ben CRUSE. Father of Pastor Ossie Cruse. La Perouse and the Eden Aboriginal community.

Pastor Benjamin CRUSE. & OSsie CRUSE

Christian Aboriginal pastor - excluded from The Encylcopaedia of Aboriginal Australia 1994 (Ed Horton, David)

69. Antonio Pedro CUBILLO - b. 30 June 1875 Calape, Bohol, Visayan islands, The Philippines d. 1945 Bohol & Delfin Antonio CUBILLO (1913-1986) Darwin, Northern Territory

69+. =Edward Micklethwaite CURR, Tongala VIC

70. =Xavier DALY, Beagle Bay WA

71. =Henry Pulteny DANA, Narree NareeWarren VIC

72. Mad Tom’ Thomas DAVEY, Lieutenant Governor, Tas.

72+. 'FRANK' Francis Terrey DAVIDSON Borneo, Missionary & Missionary Prisoner of War, Prison martyr of the Japanese

'FRANK' Francis Terrey DAVIDSON

Borneo Missionary &
Missionary Prisoner of War,
Prison martyr of the Japanese

Parents: John & Frances B DAVIDSON
Born: 1902 London, England
Cultural Influence: English
Christianity: Anglican, Evangelical,
Emigration: 1917 to New Zealand, in 1919 to Victoria, Au.
Australian Link: Tongala, Victoria
Occupation: Dairy Farmer, Evangelist, Missionary, Prisoner of war Internee
Education: Anglican Sunday School, Melbourne Bible Institute
Ministry: Victorian Evangelist, Missionary with Borneo Evangelical Mission
Marriage: 7 February 1935 The Residency, Libang, Borneo
Wife: Edith - Enid Mabel GRAY (daughter of John GRAY & Annie nee GARNER)
Family: 1. John Davidson; 2. Frances Margaret Davidson
Qualities: Devout, Zeal, Intrepid, Faithful, Moral, Staunch,
Death: 27 April 1945 Internment Prison Camp, Kuching, Borneo
Burial: ? maybe Labuan War Cemetery, Borneo, Indonesia

In Memoriam: -

DAVIDSON. - In loving memory of Francis Terrey, died Kuching internment camp, Borneo, April 27, beloved son of Mrs. Frances B. Davidson, Blackburn, and late John Davidson, beloved brother of John, Violet (Hall), Hugh, Robert, Sheila, and Allister. -He that doeth the Will of God liveth for ever. [The Argus (Melbourne, Vic.) Saturday 29 September 1945]

FROM - Australian Dictionary of Evangelical Biography - Alpha Crucis Online

DAVIDSON, Francis Terrey (1902-1945)


Darrell Paproth


(b. London, England, 1902;
d. Kuching, Borneo, 27 Apr 1945).

Pioneer missionary to Borneo with the Borneo Evangelical Mission.

In 1917 Davidson's family migrated to New Zealand. Opportunities were lacking there and so after eighteen months they crossed the Tasman and began farming in Tongala, Vic. The family was devoutly Christian (his brother Hugh, for instance, became a pioneer missionary for the Assemblies of God in Papua New Guinea) and Davidson was very involved in the local Anglican church, leading a Bible class. He took an active part in CSSM work, and when he was in his twenties he and a friend, David Howell, (later a missionary in the Belgian Congo) went on an evangelistic tour of Gippsland before entering MBI in 1927. There, because of his personality and experience, he was made senior student and put in charge of the Institute's open air evangelistic work.

In May 1928 Davidson met with fellow students Carey Tolley (q.v.) and Hudson Southwell (q.v.) to pray about the needs of Borneo. In August the Borneo Evangelical Mission was formed, and in October the three sailed for Borneo via Singapore. There was already some Christian witness in Borneo but it was contained to the ports and coastal areas. Davidson and the others travelled inland and worked among the Iban, Murut and Kelabit tribes. After much difficulty success crowned their efforts, with great numbers being converted. On 7 Feb 1935 he m. Edith Gray in the Residency in Limbang, Borneo. In Dec 1942 Borneo fell to the Japanese. Davidson was interned in Kuching Civilian Internment Camp where he died a few months before it was liberated.

Davidson was a leader, an evangelist and a pastor. His faith and moral stability and character had a profound effect on his fellow prisoners in Kuching as well as on the Ibans, Muruts and Kelabits.


Electronic Version © Southern Cross College, 2004 - Content © Evangelical History Association of Australia and the author, 2004

73. Lieutenant William DAWES, 1st Fleet, NSW

74. ='Jimmy' James DAWSON Esq (1806-1900) Friend of the Aborigines, Camperdown VIC
James (Jimmy) DAWSON (1806-1900) Friend of the Aborigines, Corangamite -Warrnambool District, Victoria

Father: Adam Dawson
Mother: Frances, née McKell

Born; 5 July 1806 Bonnytoun, Linlithgowshire, Scotland
Cultural Influence: Mediterranean-European Judeo-Christianity, Scottish,

Christianity: Presbyterian, broad church muscular Good Samaritanism

Qualities: Grace, Cultural Courage, Keen Insight, Spiritual understanding,
Occupation: dairy farmer, Indigenous culture recorder, protector of Aboriginals, taxidermist
Marriage: Great Britain
Wife: Joan Anderson née Park,
Family: daughter Isabella,

Emigration: May 1840 to Melbourne

Theatre of Activity: 1. 1842 Yarra Valley, Victoria (farm at Anderson's Creek);
2. 1844 Toolong-Eumeralla, (Belfast-Port Fairy), Victoria;
3. 1866 Camperdown, Victoria

Contribution: 1. Aboriginal-European Understanding
2. Critic of native policy of Govt;
3. witness at 1877 Royal Commission into the condition of the Aborigines
4. Position 1877- Protector of Aborigines

Works: 1881 Australian Aborigines. The Languages and Customs of Several Tribes of Aborigines in the Western District of Victoria, Australia

Died: 19 April 1900 Camperdown, Victoria, Australia
Buried: Camperdown cemetery, Gnotuk, near Camperdown, Victoria, Australia

Legacy: 1. Protection of remnant Aborigines & cultural understanding
2. left a pertinent Record of the culture and language of western Victoria
3. Memorial grave of 'Eel Spear' (Wombeetch Puuyuun)(d.1883) also known as Camperdown George in a Noble Monument to the Aborigines at Camperdown cemetery, Gnotuk, near Camperdown, Victoria, Australia

From: Australian Dictionary of Biography - ADB Online -

Dawson, James (Jimmy) (1806–1900)

by Peter Corris

James (Jimmy) Dawson (1806-1900)
, pastoralist and friend of the Aboriginals, was born on 5 July 1806 at Bonnytoun, West Lothian, Scotland, the youngest son of Adam Dawson and his wife Frances, née McKell. Business reversals in London and the ill health of his wife Joan Anderson, née Park, niece of the African explorer Mungo Park, caused Dawson to migrate with her to Port Phillip. They arrived in May 1840 and Dawson bought a small property on the Yarra above Anderson's Creek. Prosperity and an expanding dairy herd caused him to move in 1844 to the Western District where he took up a cattle-run near Port Fairy. Dawson lost ground in the depression of the 1840s and, although he attempted to survive by using a boiling-down plant, he was declared bankrupt in 1845. However, he continued on the land, profited in the gold rushes and sold his station in 1866 and leased land near Camperdown where he lived for the rest of his life as a farmer, amateur taxidermist and protector, friend and student of the Aboriginals. His only child, Isabella, helped him in his studies. A Presbyterian, he died at Camperdown on 19 April 1900.

Dawson is remembered as an amateur ethnographer (his Australian Aborigines. The Languages and Customs of Several Tribes of Aborigines in the Western District of Victoria, Australia was published in Melbourne in 1881) and for his sympathetic interest in the Aboriginals. He was appointed a protector of Aborigines and gave evidence to the 1877 royal commission on their condition, severely criticizing the assumptions upon which current native policy was based and its results. He considered that the Aboriginals were entitled to government support without obligation, and that it was unfair to restrict their movements and to press unpalatable employment and religion upon them.

In the 1880s Dawson collected money from the settlers around Camperdown for a monument to the last local Aboriginals; it stands in the Camperdown cemetery. An acquaintance later recalled that, when some settlers refused to contribute, Dawson rushed to Melbourne with an account he had written of the early ill treatment of the Aboriginals. He demanded that the Argus editor, Frederick Haddon, publish this attack on the settlers but was refused: 'Dawson however insisted and, when Haddon ordered him out of the room, old Jimmy Dawson went for him with his umbrella'.

Dawson was well known locally as an irascible teller-of-tales about the maltreatment of the Aboriginals, and his book clearly reflects his sympathy for them. On some subjects, particularly on the nature of authority within the Aboriginal community, the book is unreliable, as Edward Curr was the first to show. Dawson got much of his information from the detribalized Aboriginals at the Framlingham reserve. In his desire to put them in a good light, he often pleaded their case to unsympathetic officials. He dedicated his book to this 'ill-used and interesting people', and his reputation as their sincere friend is secure.

Select Bibliography
* R. Boldrewood (T. A. Browne), Old Melbourne Memories (Melbourne, 1884)
* H. Nisbet, A Colonial Tramp (London, 1896)
* A. Henderson (ed), Early Pioneer Families of Victoria and Riverina (Melbourne, 1936)
* Portland Gazette, 9 Dec 1845
* Boyer to Stephens, manuscript catalogue under Dawson (State Library of New South Wales).

75. Christiaan Ludolph Johannes DE VILLIERS (1808 Cape Town, South Africa ~ died 1855 Dandenong, Victoria) VDL/ VIC

Christiaan Ludolph Johannes DE VILLIERS Friend of the Aborigines, Commmandant of the First Aboriginal Police at Narre Narre Warren, near Dandenong, Victoria

Father: Tobias DE VILLIERS (1778-1828) son of Jan Hendrik De Villiers & Johanne nee Van Dyk of Stellenbosch, Western Cape, Kaapkolonie, Suid Afrika
Mother: Johanne Tobia HOFFMANN (1774-1835) born Stellenbosch, daughter of emigrant Cape settlers Johann Bernhardt & Anna Elisabeth Hoffmann from Stralsund, Pomerania, Prussia.

Born: 28 August 1808 Paarl, Stellenbosch, Western Cape, South Africa
Baptised: 11 September 1808, St Johns Church, Stellenbosch, South Africa

1st Emigration: January 1832 - arrived Sydney, New South Wales

Immigration: July 1832 - Launceston, Van Dieman's Land, Australia [- sailed for Sydney, New South Wales on the schooner 'RESOLUTION']

Marriage: 24 July 1834 Launceston, Van Diemens Land
Wife: Mary COX (1816-1836) the daughter of VDL pastoral pioneer, James COX and his wife Mary nee CONNELL

Returned to Stellenbosch, South Africa
2nd Emigration: 10 December 1835 Arrived at Port Phillip, Australia in the brig 'Elizabeth Taylorson' from Cape Town, South Africa

wife Mary died: 4 January 1836 Hobart Town, Van Diemens Land

La Trobe's Special Appointee: 1837 Superintendant of Frontier Aboriginal Police

Argument with La Trobe- dismissed

Death: 1855 Eumemmering, Dandenong, Victoria, Australia

76. James DIXON

77. =Retta DIXON (Retta LONG) La Perouse Mission, NSW

78. =James DREDGE, VIC

79. =Fr William DROSE, Dampier Penninsula WA

79+. Charles Gavin DUFFY - Young Irelander, Politician, Land Reformer, Premier of Victoria

80. "TJILPI" = Dr Charles DUGUID Nhill, Victoria, Ernabella, South Australia NSW- QLD

"TJILPI" = Dr Charles DUGUID, (1884–1986) Medical Missionary, Campaigner for Aboriginal Dignity, Founder of the Ernabella Mission in the Musgrave Ranges, South Australia. Champion of the rights of the under-privileged. Called Tjilpi, or `respected old man’ by the Pitjantjatjara people.

From Australian Dictionary of Biography
- ADB Online

Duguid, Charles (1884–1986)

by W. H. Edwards

Charles Duguid (1884-1986), medical practitioner and Aboriginal rights campaigner, was born on 6 April 1884 at Saltcoats, Scotland, eldest of seven children of Charles Duguid (pronounced Dewgood), schoolteacher, and his wife Jane, née Kinnier. He attended the High School of Glasgow, and studied arts and medicine at the University of Glasgow (MA, 1905; MB, Ch.B., 1909), where he won twenty-one prizes. A full Blue, he represented the university in quarter-mile and half-mile events, his red hair earning him the nickname `the Scarlet Runner’. After graduating he practised medicine at Glasgow.

In 1911 Duguid travelled to Australia as a ship’s medical officer. On board he met and became engaged to Irene Isabella Young, an Australian returning home from England, and decided that his future lay in Australia. Back in Scotland he assisted in a practice that served four mining villages; his observations of poverty and suffering there were to influence his later concern for social justice. Next year he migrated to Australia, again working his passage as a ship’s doctor. On 23 October 1912 he and Irene married with Congregational forms at the Collins Street Independent Church, Melbourne. He practised in the Wimmera township of Minyip before moving to Adelaide in 1914.

On 5 February 1917 Duguid was appointed captain, Australian Army Medical Corps, Australian Imperial Force. He treated casualties in the Middle East (March-July) before returning to Australia in a hospital ship. His AIF appointment terminated on 5 October. He wrote about his war experiences in From the Suez Canal to Gaza with the Australian Light Horse (1917?) and The Desert Trail (1919). After a trip to Scotland in 1919 for postgraduate study he bought a house at Magill, Adelaide, where he set up practice, while also working as a surgeon at the Memorial Hospital, North Adelaide. He became active in local branches of the Returned Sailors’ and Soldiers’ Imperial League of Australia, Legacy and Toc H.

Duguid undertook further medical study in Britain in 1927. His wife, returning home separately with their son, died suddenly at sea. In 1929 he met Phyllis Evelyn Lade, daughter of Rev. Frank Lade and an English teacher at Presbyterian Girls College, of which he was a councillor (1922-34). They married on 18 December 1930 at the Kent Town Methodist Church. That year he was elected a fellow of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons. A patient, who was a missionary in the Northern Territory, had told Duguid of abuses suffered by Aborigines there. In 1934 he decided to visit Darwin and look into the situation himself. Arriving by train at Alice Springs in July, he was asked to perform emergency surgery and, having missed his connection to Darwin, stayed in the area for over three weeks. He was appalled by the treatment that he saw meted out to Aborigines, and by their poor living conditions. At Hermannsburg Mission he visited Pastor Friedrich Albrecht and met Albert Namatjira, with whom he became friends.

In 1935 Duguid was elected the first lay moderator of the Presbyterian Church in South Australia and president of the Aborigines Protection League. Albrecht had suggested that he investigate conditions in the Musgrave Ranges, in north-western South Australia. In June, with R. M. Williams, he journeyed to Ernabella, a pastoral lease, and for the first time met Pitjantjatjara people—thus beginning a relationship with them that was to last for fifty years. Gilpin, a part-Aboriginal youth, guided him farther west. Duguid was again disturbed by his observations of discrimination and of abuse of Aboriginal workers and women, and by evidence of increasing health problems. He discussed with his wife the possibility of establishing a Christian mission to serve as a `buffer between the Aborigines and the encroaching white man’. They decided that there should be `no compulsion nor imposition of our way of life on the Aborigines, nor deliberate interference with tribal custom’ and that the vernacular language should be used, medical care offered, and responsibility passed to the local people as soon as possible. In 1936 he visited Haasts Bluff, west of Hermannsburg, with Albrecht. That year, despite opposition from some influential members, including Rev. John Flynn, the general assembly of the Presbyterian Church of Australia approved Duguid’s proposal to establish a mission in the Musgrave Ranges. With support from the government of South Australia, Ernabella Mission was founded in 1937.

Duguid and his wife also took an interest in the children of mixed descent living in Cole-brook Home, Quorn, run by the United Aborigines Mission. For six weeks over Christmas 1935 thirty-four had stayed at the Duguids’ home. Duguid was to maintain contact with them into adulthood and to assist their struggle for equality with White people. In 1939 he toured the Aboriginal reserves west of Ernabella with Albrecht, Theodor Strehlow and Rev. Harry Taylor, the superintendent of Ernabella. From the Petermann Ranges they travelled on camels, guided by a Pitjantjatjara man, Tjuintjara, who became Duguid’s close friend and later lived at Ernabella.

Appointed a founding member (1940) of South Australia’s Aborigines Protection Board, Duguid inspected reserves throughout the State, noting abuses against Aborigines on pastoral properties and discrimination in education. The Duguids, with their two children and their fostered Aboriginal son, Sydney James Cook, visited Ernabella in 1946. Soon afterwards they heard of the British proposal to test guided weapons over South Australia from a base to be built at Woomera. Concerned about the impact of the rocket range on the inhabitants of the Central Australian reserves, Duguid criticised the scheme at public meetings in Adelaide and, with Donald Thomson, in Melbourne. Duguid resigned from the Aborigines Protection Board when it approved the proposal, but as a result of the protests a patrol officer, Walter MacDougall, was appointed at Woomera.

During a measles epidemic at Ernabella in 1948 Duguid helped to care for the sick. In 1951 he reported on health needs of Aborigines in the Northern Territory. President (1951-61) of the Aborigines Advancement League of South Australia, in 1953 he arranged a meeting in the Adelaide Town Hall at which five Aborigines spoke of their experiences. One told of discrimination against young Aboriginal women applying for entrance to nursing training at Royal Adelaide Hospital. The Duguids supported moves to break down this barrier. Another outcome of the meeting was the establishment in 1956 by the AAL of Wiltja Hostel at Millswood, to accommodate Aboriginal country girls attending secondary schools in Adelaide.

Duguid was president (1944-60) of the District and Bush Nursing Society of South Australia. Following a motorcar accident in 1956 he retired as a surgeon and took up an interest in geriatric medicine. Under the auspices of the AAL, he published The Central Aborigines Reserve (1957). He and his wife were leaders of a campaign that in 1958 resulted in the repealing of a clause in the Police Offences Act which had enabled police to arrest Aborigines for consorting with non-Aborigines. That year he was elected inaugural president of the Federal Council for Aboriginal Advancement. The Duguids continued to visit Ernabella, and welcomed the mission’s choir to Adelaide in 1954 and 1966. He wrote No Dying Race (1963) and an autobiography, Doctor and the Aborigines (1972).

Stubborn in defence of the rights of the under-privileged, and sometimes impetuous, Duguid fought for justice and fiercely opposed hypocrisy and incompetence in the administration of Aboriginal affairs. His concerns and actions were motivated by his Scottish Presbyterian faith and by his conviction that in this changing world one thing remains unchanged—`the astonishing power of selfless love’. By the 1960s, however, Aboriginal leaders in organisations such as the FCAA were objecting to the assimilationist approach of Duguid and other white campaigners, considering it paternalistic. For his part, Duguid was dismayed by the emergence of the `Black Power’ movement.

In 1971 Duguid was appointed OBE. Next year he received what he considered his greatest honour: a letter from the Ernabella people requesting that when he died, his body be buried at the mission, `so that the Aboriginals will always remember that he was one of us and that he faithfully helped us’. The Pitjantjatjara people called him Tjilpi, or `respected old man’. In 1980 he attended a meeting in Adelaide at which Pitjantjatjara people met with members of parliament to press their claim for recognition of their land rights, which was granted in 1981. The Ernabella choir made a special visit to Adelaide to sing at his hundredth birthday. He died on 5 December 1986 in his home at Kent Town and was buried in the Ernabella Mission cemetery. His wife (d.1993), their son and daughter, and the son of his first marriage, survived him.

Charles DUGUID: - Select Bibliography
N. Barnes, Munyi’s Daughter (2000)
S. Taffe, Black and White Together (2005)
People (Sydney), 14 Feb 1951, p 42
Advertiser (Adelaide), 2 Dec 1981, p 4
S. Kerin, `Doctor Do-good’? Charles Duguid and Aboriginal Politics, 1930s-1970s (PhD thesis, Australian National University, 2004)
Duguid papers (National Library of Australia and State Libary of South Australia)
private information.

81. William Augustine DUNCAN, Scots Highlander, Convert to Catholicism. Journalist, Newspaperman, Duncan's Weekly Register, of Politics, Facts and General Literature & The Australian Chronicle; Historian & Writer of the significant "Account of a Memorial of Voyages… by Captain Fr. Pedro Fernandez de Quiros, in search of the Southland of the Holy Spirit(Sydney, 1874); Catholic Schoolteacher, Educational Campaigner, Classicist, Anti-Plutocrat, Polemicist, Disputant, Poet, Advocate of Libraries, Christian scholar, An even-headed formative Australian Constitutionalist, and a Public Servant in the real sense.

William Augustine DUNCAN
Duncan, William Augustine (1811–1885) - by Michael Roe [ADB Online]

William Augustine Duncan (1811-1885), journalist and public servant, was born on 12 March 1811 at Bluefield, Towie, Aberdeenshire, Scotland, the son of Peter Duncan and Mary, née Macdougal. Duncan's early ability encouraged his parents to suppose that he might join the Presbyterian ministry, but in adolescence his unaided reading caused him to enter the Roman Catholic church. The Benedictine order attracted Duncan and he studied at Blairs. Having quarrelled with his teachers he withdrew, and for five years was a bookseller and publisher in Aberdeen. He agitated for the Reform Act of 1832. When his business failed he did some journalism and teaching. News of Governor Sir Richard Bourke's church and school measures prompted him to migrate to New South Wales as a Catholic schoolteacher in 1837.

Duncan taught first at Maitland, and there engaged in his first colonial controversy, repudiating an Anglican minister's designation of the Pope as 'the man of sin' (Correspondence Between the Rev. Mr Stack … and W. A. Duncan … and A Reply to the Reverend W. Stack's Attempted Defence of His Lecture, Sydney, 1839). In 1839 he became foundation editor of the Roman Catholic Australasian Chronicle, published in Sydney. Its columns ably expounded the rights, not only of the church, but of other out-groups, especially small farmers and working men. Duncan saw the established landowners as Australia's bane, falsely claiming to be an aristocracy. Against their pretensions he urged the growth of representative institutions in which the popular voice would assert itself. His chief ally among colonial politicians was the radical Henry Macdermott.

Politics never swamped Duncan's cultural interests. Adept in Latin, Greek, Italian, French and Spanish, he read widely in modern and classical literatures. In 1840 he published Aroldo and Clara, An Historical Poem. Translated from the Italian of Silvio Pellico and in 1841-42, expressing another love, wrote two patriotic songs which Isaac Nathan set to music.

Duncan's skill did not save him from conflict with his co-religionists. He disliked the ex-convict parvenu Irish who dominated the Sydney laity and financed the Chronicle. In the tension which developed between them and the English Benedictine bishop, John Bede Polding, his sympathies were strong with Polding. Polding being abroad, Duncan's critics, egged on, he alleged, by his political enemy, William Charles Wentworth, forced him from the editor's chair late in 1842, provoking his An Appeal from the Unjust Decision of the Very Rev. Vicar General (Sydney, 1843). In 1843 Duncan also published three polemical Letters, which answered Robert Allwood's criticism of Polding's assumption of a territorial title. Yet Polding did not reinstate Duncan to the Chronicle and the two thereafter were alienated.

Duncan established his own Duncan's Weekly Register, of Politics, Facts and General Literature in July 1843. Its literary columns revealed him as an intelligent critic and the patron, publisher and friend of colonial poets, especially Charles Harpur and (Sir) Henry Parkes. As editor Duncan stressed the liberal quality of his Catholicism. He deplored the tendency, strongest among the Irish but apparent even in Polding, to emphasize the alienation of Catholics from the community at large. Especially he disputed the church's antagonism to non-denominational education. Other leading articles, some reprinted as pamphlets (On Self-Supporting Agricultural Working Unions and A Practical Treatise on the … Olive-Tree, Sydney, 1844), praised close-knit rural life in a manner characteristic of much Catholic social thought. His campaign against the dominance of any narrow class interest continued, although squatters now replaced landowners as his major enemy. He stood firm, but not, as sometimes said, alone, beside Governor Sir George Gipps in the land controversy of 1844. The squatters' hostility might have contributed to financial troubles which forced the Register to close in December 1845. Gipps offered a post as customs officer at Moreton Bay and, to the cry of jobbery, Duncan accepted in May 1846.

Thereafter Duncan earned his living in the customs service. At Brisbane he filled many subsidiary posts including deputy-sheriff, immigration officer, chairman of the Steam Navigation Board, commissioner of the peace, and water police magistrate. His diligence and ability were as marked as ever, and won him appointment as the New South Wales collector of customs in May 1859. The most eventful episode in this position occurred in 1868, when Duncan left office during a complex dispute in which the Customs Department became a topic of political controversy. However, he soon returned to his post, continuing in it until 1881. On retirement he was appointed a C.M.G.

Duncan's success in an uncongenial job best proved his human quality. Moreover he always continued wider interests: anthropology, botany, literature, music, politics, philanthropy, education. His Lecture on National Education (1850) was the first pamphlet printed in Brisbane, and he was founding president of the School of Arts there (1850-54). In 1856 he published A Plea for the New South Wales Constitution, which criticized radical extremists who were already arguing for the replacement of the nominated Legislative Council by an elective body. Although denying any change of principle, Duncan now sympathized with Wentworth's plan for a local nobility. As a liberal churchman he engaged in controversies with both Polding (1858-59) and Roger Vaughan (1880), and sat on the National Board of Education and later the Council of Education. His Account of a Memorial … by Captain Pedro Fernandez de Quiros (Sydney, 1874) was the fruit of a long-standing interest in historical research, while his Memoir of … Joseph Monnier, S.M. (Sydney, 1876) translated a biographical sketch of a priest who had worked in Oceania and New South Wales. Institutions to benefit from his support and leadership included the Free Public Library of Sydney, St John's College, St Vincent's Hospital, and St Cecilia's Philharmonic Society.

Duncan died at his home, The Boulevard, Petersham, on 25 June 1885 and was buried in the Devonshire Street cemetery. At Aberdeen in 1831 he had married Mary Yates (Yeats); she died on 21 December 1880. They had a son, Lewis (1834-1845) and six daughters, one of whom, Mary, became a member of the convent of the Sisters of Charity.

Select Bibliography
W. A. Duncan, ‘Notes of a Ten years' Residence in NSW’, Hogg's Weekly Instructor (Edinburgh), 5 (1847)
W. A. Duncan, autobiography (State Library of New South Wales)
Parkes papers (State Library of New South Wales).

82. =Mary DURACK , writer, The Rock and The Sand WA

83. Charles DUTTON, Queensland

84. Fred EATON, Nepubunna SA

85. Captain ‘Ironsides’ EDWARDS Nth Melb 1880s Salvation Army

86. =Alexander ELDER SA

87. =Rev. Dr Adolphus Peter ELKIN, NSW anthropologist,

Horatio Cockburn ELLERMAN born Antwerp, Belgium. "ANTWERP Station" Wimmera, Victoria
"Horatio Ellerman had a distinguished career ministering God's word to Aboriginals in Victoria. It is interesting to speculate how much he was driven by a desire to make amends for an unfortunate event that is outlined below. "

On Wednesday March 10, 1852 an 11-year-old boy died in Reading from the effects of tuberculosis and peritonitis. Several days later his body was buried in the London Road Cemetery and a headstone placed upon his grave as a memorial by those who knew him. In part it read 'Sacred to the memory of William Wimmera an Australian boy...'
A century and a half has now elapsed since William 'Willie' Wimmera's death yet the headstone that was erected still exists and is today both a rare and poignant reminder of his short existence.
Rare, because the grave it marks shares a common history with only a handful of other known graves in cemeteries across Britain- it contains the remains of an indigenous Australian.
The oldest burial site of an indigenous Australian in Britain is the grave of Yemmerrawanie (Yemmerrawanyea), a 19-year-old native of the Eora tribe who died on May 18, 1794. With Bennelong he was one of the first two indigenous Australians to visit England. They arrived in London from the fledgling Colony of New South Wales aboard the Atlantic in 1793 and were presented to King George III. Within a year Yemmerrawanie was dead and his body interred in the churchyard of St. John the Bapfist at Eltham, Kent.
The Warstone Lane (Church of England) cemetery in Birmingham is the final resting place of Edward Warrulan (Warru-loong). He was about nine years old when he arrived in London aboard the Symmetry in 1845. Warrulan was the son of a tribal chief in the Colony of South Australia and had been brought to England by Edward John Eyre, the noted explorer. He and a companion were presented to Queen Victoria in January 1846. Following Eyre's appointment and departure to New Zealand as LieutenantGovernor, Warrulan remained in England where his benefactors placed him in an agricultural school at Sibford, in Oxfordshire. He later moved to Banbury where he learnt saddlery and harness work before joining the harness manufacturing firm of J. Middlemore in Birmingham. He also was aged about 19 years when he died from the effects of exposure on October 23.

At a park in Tower Hamlets in London's East End lies Bripumyarrinin (also known as 'King Cole', Brippokei, and Charles Rose). He was a native of the Colony of Victoria and had the distinction of being one of the members of the first all-aboriginal cricket team to visit and play in England. The team surreptitiously arrived in London aboard the Parramatta in May 1868 and had already played several matches when 'King Cole' tragically succumbed to tuberculosis within a month of their arrival and died on June 24, 1868 in Guy's Hospital, London.
William Wimmera was not a cricketer or the son of a tribal chief. Nor was he ever presented to royalty or had a well-known patron or benefactor. He was the youngest known 'Australian boy' to die and be buried so far from his land of origin. 'Willie', as he was referred to by his benefactors and acquaintances in England, was a native of the Wotjobaluk tribe who occupied lands in the Wimmera district in the Colony of New South Wales. He was born about 1840, only four years after Major Thomas Mitchell and his expedition had first traversed the region and in whose wake came the eventual demise of its native inhabitants. Illustrated London News, February 14, 1846

By the time the boy was six years of age, the Wotjobaluk country had been encroached upon by white squatters who brought with them thousands of head of sheep to graze the lands. Clashes between the Wotjobaluk and the European invaders became inevitable as both culture and commercial interests collided.
In a punitive measure for some unknown aggression or act, in February 1846, a party of white settlers set upon a camp of these aboriginal people by the banks of the Wimmera River. Amongst this native group was our six-year-old boy who, by the end of the attack, was left clinging to his dead mother - a bullet through her heart. The woman was buried on the spot and the 'orphaned' boy removed to the home of a Belgian settler, Horatio Ellerman, who had both participated in the raid and was reputed to have fired the shot that had killed the boy's mother.

At the home of Ellerman he was brought up and worked in the household as a servant. In December 1850, Willie's life took another dramatic turn. He was invited to join some men on a trip carting wood to Melbourne. But while in the city he became lost and wandered the streets.
He was soon discovered by a group of young white children and, either at the invitation of his young peers or through curiosity followed them home where he was both fed and allowed to sleep. Willie also accompanied the white children to their school and it was there he came to the attention of the 33-year-old Reverend Septimus Lloyd Chase, an Anglican clergyman and former curate of St. Johns Church, Reading.
After discovering the boy in the school it wasn't long before the Reverend Chase eventually took him into his own home. Chase was soon to return to England and so, with the thought of educating and evangelising the boy into the Christian Church, he asked Willie if he wished to accompany him. But Chase didn't realise that the boy was not an orphan, as his father and brothers were still alive in the Wimmera district, a fact that was realised many years later when his story was told to a local aboriginal congregation.
The barque Sacramento departed Melbourne on the March 29, 1851. A local newspaper recorded that among her passengers were the Reverend Chase and his 'servant'. It was a very long passage to England but it provided Chase with ample time to give the young aboriginal boy instruction in reading and writing and prayer. Following their arrival in London in September 1851 Chase and his young charge travelled to Reading, to the residence of Chase's father, Samuel. Over the next six months, the boy was cared for and educated by Chase's family and his acquaintances at Reading and at Iver nearer London. He was given lessons in writing and drawing and taught practical skills in plaiting straw and making shoes. His education into the Bible and Christianity also continued.
Whilst at Iver, the boy became ill with congestion of the lungs and so it was decided that he should return to Australia as it was considered that the English climate could prove fatal. He returned to Reading before Christmas but his condition continued to deteriorate. On January 8, 1852 Chase was married at St. Giles in Reading and because of this and other commitments was not able to provide the boy with his full attention.
Nevertheless, with Willie's understanding and acceptance of his new faith, Chase had the young Wotjobaluk boy baptized into the Church where he received the name 'William Wimmera' - a reflection of his origins because his traditional or given aboriginal name was probably never known or had been long forgotten.
Sadly, over the next few months the boy's condition scarcely improved. He lost a great deal of weight and he suffered great pain. Although his passage back to Australia in the company of Chase had been arranged Willie did not live long enough to make the journey home. Despite the efforts of his benefactor and carers he finally succumbed before dawn on that spring morning of Wednesday, March 10, 1852.

Plot 10, Row A, Section 44 of the London Road Cemetery, Reading holds more than the body of that eleven-year-old boy. It holds a glimpse into our history and although there may be none now who will mourn or mark the sesqui-centenary of his passing we can at least remember and reflect.

Aborigines' friend and colonial intelligencer, London. V. 1, No. 1, January-December 1855.
Argus, Melbourne, 1895.
Christie, M. F. / Aborigines in colonial Victoria, 1835-86. Sydney: Sydney University Press, 1979.
The Encyclopedia of Aboriginal Australia: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander history, society and culture. Canberra: Australian Studies Press for the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, 1994. Illustrated London News, London, 1846.
Massola, Aldo. Aboriginal mission stations in Victoria. Melbourne: Hawthorn, 1970.
Mulvaney, D. J. Cricket walkabout: the Australian aborigines in England. 2nd ed. South Melbourne: Macmillan in association with the Dept. of Aboriginal Affairs, 1988.Scholefield, Mrs H. A short memoir of William Wimmera: an Australian boy who sailed from Melbourne, April 1851 died at Reading, March 10 1852.

Horatio Cockburn ELLERMAN, son of Sir Abraham Danfire Ellermand and Georgina Hughes, was born in London, England.

"The children of Sir Abraham Ellerman dispersed to all parts of the globe. Whilst his son Charles Frederick Ellerman (my GG grandfather) went to England, another brother came to Australia. Here follows an account of their history.
The sons of Abraham III, Horatio (b. 1/9/1822) and Henry (b. 23/10/1827) had gone to Australia and it is possible that this decision was made as there was not sufficient room for them all in the family business. However, Horatio was not quite 17 years of age when he set sail from London on 14/8/1839 in the barque “Florentia” which arrived in Sydney 162 days later on 23/1/1840. Horatio spent about 3 years in NSW, possibly in the Goulburn, Yass and Cooma districts, and then we find him about 120 km north-west of Port Phillip (Melbourne) with 80 head of cattle. Here he became associated with overlanders Darlot and Carter with 400 head of cattle and they set off westward looking for country on to set up as squatters. They travelled with two teams of bullocks pulling wagons, with the country in a dreadful state with incessant rains and with the wagons bogged to the axles on occasions. Eventually, after about 3 months, they selected some land close by the present town of Horsham, on the Wimmera river and called the property North Brighton. About two years later, Horatio selected his own land further down (north) the Wimmera river on a property he called ‘Antwerp’ after the town of his birth. Horatio’s Antwerp was of about 128,000 acres with the river passing through its centre from south to north. About the end of 1846, Horatio was joined by his brother Henry and they operated the property together. In 1854, the brothers acquired Lake Hindmarsh station and later Henry went there to reside. In the meantime, Horatio was married on 20/3/1851 to Anne Westgarth and they subsequently had six children:-"

Horatio Ellerman was married in the Presbyterian Church Melbourne in 1851 to Anne WESTGARTH, (daughter of William Westgarth).
Their children were:
1. Clarence Henry Ellerman b. 22 September 1853 Horsham;
2. Eliza Ellerman b. 30 July 1855 Antwerp, Wimmera;
3. John Westgarth Ellerman b. 2 April 1857 Antwerp, Horsham;
4. Lydia Anne ELlerman b. ? > Antwerp,
5. Gustavus Ellerman b.1861 Antwerp, Wimmera;
6. Abraham Daniel Frederick Ellerman b.1865 Antwerp, Wimmera.

"On 2 June 1874, Horatio Snr. Received a call from the Lismore parish and he was inducted there as the minister on 4 August 1874."

Moravian Church, Dimboola, 1885 - by Samuel Roberts, 1865-1886, artist.
"The new limestone church consecrated on 1 January 1875 and the foundation stone laid by the Reverend Horatio C. Ellerman."


Horatio Cockburn ELLERMAN died at age 64 at Lismore, Victoria, in 1887.

Lismore is a small town with a large parish, about 25 miles north of Camperdown Victoria.
Horatio Snr. Continued ministering at Lismore for some 13 years until his death from pneumonia on 8 January 1887 at the age of 64 and he was buried in the Lismore cemetery.

- His wife and members of his family who had not already left to pursue their own vocations, went to live in a house in Power St in Hawthorn, (Boroondara) a Melbourne Suburb."

- Reverend Septimus Lloyd CHASE; John BATMAN; Rev. Friedrich August HAGENAUER; Charles Joseph LATROBE; John Batman; Thomas McCOMBIE; Nathaniel PEPPER; Phillip PEPPER; Friedrich SPIESEKE; William WESTGARTH.

1. Robert KENNY - The Lamb Enters The Dreaming: Nathaniel Pepper & the Ruptured World 2007 Scribe. Carlton North, Victoria. Note: Part III Chapter 9. 'The Conversions of Horatio Ellerman'

88. =Fr Nicholas M. EMO born Spain ( ? - 8 March 1915), Trappist Monk, Beagle Bay-Lombadina, died 8 March 1915 Broome, Western Australia

"Only one Trappist monk was left, Father Nicholas Emo, had been carrying on his work as parish priest in Broome. Father Nicholas, from an influential Spanish family, was eager to spend his life with the Aboriginal people. He wrote that it was “the secret attraction I felt for this unfortunate race” (A.C.A.P. Letter to the Aborigines Protection Board with 27 signatures, August 1897). This was his intention upon entering Sept Fons as a novice in 1894. - Before long Father Nicholas established a small school for the Aboriginal children and a hostel for mixed race girls. He had obtained help from a Filipino, Caprio Anabia, and his mixed race wife. Father Nicholas carved a stone cross in the sandhill near his new school and, with the help of Filipinos, put up beside it a church and small presbytery."

"... Keen to build on the work of his predecessor, Bishop Gibney negotiated for the establishment of an Aboriginal mission in the Dampierland area. A mission site was selected a few kilometres inland from Beagle Bay (Nyul Nyul country) which was a popular lay-up base for the pearling luggers. In 1890, Trappist (Cistercian) monks from Sept Fons in France founded a mission at Beagle Bay. Their activities extended into the growing metropolis of Broome in 1895. In 1901, the Pallottine Fathers from Germany took over Beagle Bay Mission with two priests and four brothers and, in 1907, they were joined by the Sisters of St. John of God from Ireland. The Sisters assisted the priests and brothers in evangelising the coastal and desert areas of the vast Kimberley.

In 1895 Father Nicholas Emo was placed in charge of the mission station in the town of Broome which was developing at a steady pace. The population of approximately 500 consisted of about 50 ‘white’ residents with the remainder being Japanese, Chinese, Malays and Filipinos.@

89. George Essex EVANS poet/ writer, Toowoomba QLD

90. =Edward John EYRE

91. John FAIRFAX, passionate preacher, founder of the Sydney Morning Herald & Fairfax, Mary Elizabeth (1858 - 1945) - Community worker, Philanthropist

92. Lady Rose Sarah HOWLETT / FENNELL / MOORE
Reverend Herbert Hortin FENNELL
& Sir Richard Greenslade MOORE

A young Rose Sarah Howlett
Lady Rose & Reverend Herbert Hortin FENNELL & Sir Richard MOORE

When Rose Sarah Howlett was born on the 1st December 1890 at Agery, near Moonta, among the saline wheat-fields and copper mines of the Yorke Penisula, South Australia, she was the seventeenth and last child of her parents. When they discovered that she was to be born, her father, Henry Howlett, himself born in South Australia, and who'd married Rose’s mother, Mary Watson from Sussex, England who'd emigrated as child with her family to settle in the Adelaide Hills, then said: ‘We will have a little girl who will look after us in our old age,’ in words that proved to be prophetic. The Howlett family were Methodists and Rose grew up in the Faith. To her local State School education was added visits to Adelaide for training in singing and music. It was while playing the organ in the Methodist Chapel at Agery that she met the new minister of the Moonta Circuit; young Reverend Herbert Hortin Fennell.

Herbert Hortin Fennell was born in early 1883 to modest prospects at Daventry, Northamptonshire, England, son of an agricultural labourer at nearby Charwelton, Joseph Fennell, and his wife, Ann Hortin, daughter of a local shepherd. But Fennell had a vigour of spirit and the call of the Gospel on young Herb’s life gripped him into a response that soon found him trained to the Faith and powered across the world, as Methodist Minister in Moonta and far-flung places of south-western Australia. Fennell had already ministered to the Methodist folk at Dowerin, Western Australia, and had been at his post at Coolgardie, before he came east to marry his former organist Rose Howlett, at the Agery Methodist Chapel on the 5th July 1917. Rose, who had cared for her aged father until he died in 1915, took her mother to the West in her care at the Manse in Coolgardie.

In Coolgardie, Rose Fennell befriended a Chinese laundryman, Joss, maybe a saint himself, for he did all the clergyman’s starch-collars in return for a few flowers from the manse’s garden, a grace in an arid zone. They lived with the wartime scarcity with shortcomings common to a desert fringe community. As Minister the Fennells had one of only two cars in Coolgardie, and it became the usual ambulance, taking patients and expectant mothers to Kalgoorlie for medical aid. By 1919 they were at the Vivian Street church in Boulder City, where their second son was born, and then, in about 1921, at Bruce Rock, where Rose’s mother died, also where their daughter Marjorie was born.

When the Western Australian Methodist Conference decided to send an Inland Missioner to the remote north of Western Australia, they asked the senior Reverend A J Barklay of Perth just who might be sent to fill that intrepid and important post. Without hesitation Barclay answered: ‘Fennell.’ So, wise man that he shows himself to be, he found himself out at Wagin to ask Rose Fennell, ‘would she be prepared to go north with husband and children. Her answer was: “If that is my husband’s calling, that is were we will go.”
The West Australian, Friday 8 April 1927 -page 12 -THE NORTH-WEST. - First Methodist Mission. Recently the General Mission Board appointed by the Methodist Conference selected the Rev. H. H. Fennell and Missioner W. J. Ormandy to open the first North-West mission to be conducted by the Methodist Church. A dedication service was held last night in the Wesley Church, the Rev. D. Dundas presiding. The general secretary for home missions (the Rev. A. J. Barclay) said that the call of settlers in the North-West was an insistent one. The missioners would carry a message to those men and women who had made their homes, in the distant parts and been forgotten. It was anticipated that within a few years a chain of 10 missions would be established from Western Australia to Queensland. Each of the missionaries would have a specially equipped motor car in which he would carry the necessaries of life, together with Bibles and good literature for the settlers. Mr. Fennell would establish his base at Meekatharra and he would traverse the country from that centre to Carnarvon, Port Hedland, and Marble Bar. Mr. Ormandy would have his headquarters at Wyndham and Derby and Daly Waters would be included in his circuit. The men were going on a great adventure, but they carried a living message and were confident of success. Representatives of the Endeavour Society and the Young Women's Auxiliary, formally bade the missionaries farewell. The members of the latter organisation presented each of the missionaries with a medical outfit, arranged by Dr. F. W. Carter.
- In the course of a brief response, Mr. Fennell said that home mission work in Western Australia could be carried on only with the cooperation of members of the metropolitan churches.
- Mr. Ormandy said that never in the history of Australia had there been such an opportunity of taking the country for Christ. People were dissatisfied with the endless struggle between capital and labour; and they longed for a settlement of issues. Satisfaction and contentment could only be created through faith in Jesus Christ. This afternoon Mr. Ormandy will leave for Wyndham by the "M.S.Koolinda." Mr. Fennell will proceed to Meekatharra early next week
So in 1927 the Fennells were at Meekatharra, Western Australia as outback Methodist Missioners. Meekatharra was hot, dusty, and the only water was mineralised with magnesia. The local Aborigines took to Rose as ‘The Nice Missus,’ and one indigenous woman, another saint maybe, took it upon herself to mend all Reverend Fennell’s clothes. Sometimes Rose went with ‘H. H.’ as he visited lonely homesteads and distant scanty-towns to bring the word of God afresh into the wilderness, from Nullagine to Marble Bar. The bush people loved a visit, hungry as they were for news, company and spiritual solace. As well as being concerned with 'Divinities' the Rev. Herbert H. Fennell was also a practical 'Water Diviner' and this became known, so that, by March 1929 he had given placements for well or water-bore digging directions on at least seventy outback stations.

Rev. Herb H. & Rose Sarah Fennell; Bill, Marjorie & John Fennell

When the children reaching high school age the Fennell’s were transferred into the city, serving over a period of a decade, variously at West Perth, Leederville, and Northam. Rev. Fennell had been an ardent footballer and sportsman as a young man in South Australia and he then got involved in arbitration among local Australian Rules Football of the Perth district. He became known for fair and sporting judgements. Then, with their children grown and become independent, Reverend Fennell accepted the position of Kalgoorlie in 1945. This time Rose took more convincing about a return to the desert. But the friendliness of the people of the goldfields, was welcome warmth at the Egan Street manse next door to the 1897 stone Wesley Church. Reverend Herbert H Fennell was also President of the Western Australian Temperence League.
In his last message, Temperance Sunday 8 September 1946, Rev. Fennell said: "No one is more enslaved than a drunkard. He is responsible for giving way to impulses that once it was in his own power to resist. He destroys his own power of resistance. Every time he takes alcohol into his system he intensifies his slavery. It is not possible for him to be saved by human means."
Rose Fennell was soon involved in the Ladies guild, the choir, and a support for her husband on his travels as Superintendent in a Goldfields-wide district circuit. It was on one of his perambulations, while on a preaching trip in Norseman, that he suffered a heart attack and suddenly died on 20 September 1946.
After the Kalgoorlie funeral the manse had to be vacated for the incoming minister, and Rose went to stay with a friend, thinking her Kalgoorlie life was over. She went to her daughter Marjorie’s wedding in Melbourne, but soon returned for the warmth of Kalgoorlie, where she offered to work in the Kalgoorlie Hospital. She eventually became ‘matron housekeeper with complete control over the hospital domestic staff.

Matron Fennell of Kalgoorlie Hospital

She then got around Kalgoorlie on her cycle, and continued her involvement at Wesley Church. It was there she met and married, widower, Richard Greenslade Moore, then Mayor of Kalgoorlie, on 31 January 1953. Richard Moore was a fellow travelling Christian whose first wife had been a Salvation Army officer.

Rose resigned her position at the hospital to take up her duties as Lady Mayoress of Kalgoorlie. Like her husband she got behind any movement working for the public good. She then became patroness of the Royal Flying Doctor service, The Pensioners Lodge, The Ladies of the YMCA, The Girl Guides Association, the Croquet Club, and the Women’s Hockey Association. The Moores were recognized for a graced humanity. Richard Moore was known with affectionate respect to the Kalgoorlians who appreciated his humanity and down-to earth approach as ‘Dickie Moore.'

Sir Dicky Moore

In 1958 Mayor Moore and his wife, welcomed Queen Elizabeth, the Duke, the Queen Mother and a whole Right Royal retinue to the grace of Kalgoorlie. Later, in the 1960 Honours list, Richard Greenslade Moore was endowed with the title ‘Knight Bachelor’ and so the ‘outback rose’ became Lady Rose Moore. Sir Richard was, like her first husband, a man of steadfast Christian faith, but also a highly respected man who was affectionately regarded for his tolerant and approachable humanity. Sir Richard Greenslade Moore died much mourned in Kalgoorlie on 15 September 1966.

Lady Rose Fennell-Moore

Lady Rose survived as a ‘relic’ of the grand old public way of life in Kalgoorlie, dying there on the 13th October 1977. Lady Rose Moore was then buried next to her first, and nearby to her second husband, in the Kalgoorlie cemetery.
All three, the Reverend Herbert Horton Fennell, Lady Rose, and Sir Richard Moore, gave a generous Christian witness and example to the people of early and remote Western Australia. *

REFERENCES: Source: - 1. LADY ROSE MOORE by June O’Brien (16 pages) Published about 1980? (after Nov 1977) Western Australia
2. MOORE, Sir Richard Greenslade (Dick) (1878–1966) Tess THOMSON, Australian Dictionary of Biography - ADB Online
3. Photos and Personal Communication courtesy of Mr Darryl Thompson.

93. 'DOC' Dr. Clyde Cornwall FENTON (1901-1982) Flying Doctor
'DOC' Dr. Clyde Cornwall FENTON

Father: George Augustus Frederick Boyd Fenton, a Victorian-born bank manager,
Mother: Kathleen Mary, née Clarke
Born: 16 May 1901 Warrnambool, Victoria, Australia
Cultural Influence: Mediteranean-European Judeo-Christian, Irish, English
Christianity: Catholic, broad church Christian, Presbyterian
Education: St Patricks Christian Brothers College, Warrnambool; Natimuk State School, Xavier College, Melbourne (dux 1917), Newman College, University of Melbourne (B.Sc., 1922.
Occupation: Medical Doctor, arialist, air force officer, aviator, flying doctor, air ambulanceman, medical administrator, autobiographer, memoirist, public servant
Qualities: Daring, Devotion to Duty, Kindness, Courage, Determination, Resoluteness, Risk-taking - `wilful disregard of personal hazard’, Unselfishness, Intrepidity, Resilience.
Death: 27 February 1982 Malvern, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Legacy: 1. unequaled medical aid and rescue on the frontier of the Top End;
2. The example and pioneering of Life-saving Medical services in the Northern Territory & Top End;
3. Fenton World War Two wartime Airfield;
4. Clyde Fenton Primary School in Katherine, NT.

From Australian Dictionary of Biography - ADB Online -

Fenton, Clyde Cornwall (1901–1982)

by Brian Reid

Clyde Cornwall Fenton (1901-1982
), flying doctor, was born on 16 May 1901 at Warrnambool, Victoria, second of four surviving children of George Augustus Frederick Boyd Fenton, a Victorian-born bank manager, and his wife Kathleen (Catherine/Katherine) Mary, née Clarke, from England.

Educated at Natimuk State School and Xavier College, Melbourne (dux 1917), Clyde acquired an early reputation as a wit and an expert with machinery and mathematics. He proceeded to Newman College, University of Melbourne (B.Sc., 1922; MB, BS, 1925).

After working as a resident medical officer at St Vincent’s Hospital, Fitzroy, and practising privately at Geelong, Fenton attempted to drive across Australia in record time with his younger brother Frederick. A motor accident in South Australia terminated this escapade and in 1927 he ended up at Wyndham, Western Australia, as district medical officer. There he purchased a small single-engine, single-seater aircraft, assembled it and taught himself to fly. After crashing his aeroplane, he sailed for Melbourne in 1928, calling at Darwin on the way. He was persuaded by the chief medical officer, C. E. A. Cook [q.v.], to remain; he spent five months in North Australia’s health service, becoming very aware of the communication problems there.

Fenton subsequently made his way to England and in October 1929 joined the Royal Air Force as a flying officer (medical). He gained navigation qualifications, but resigned in February 1930 after disputes over regulations. On 11 November 1932 at the register office, St Martin, London, he married Eve Ryan-Gallacher; they were later divorced. Back in Australia next year, he took various short-term posts while seeking flying medical positions.

He maintained contact with Cook and in March 1934 was appointed medical officer, Katherine, Northern Territory. There the attraction was the offer of mileage for the small Gipsy Moth aircraft he had acquired. Operating as pilot as well as doctor (unlike those of what was to become the Royal Flying Doctor Service), with Cook’s support he formed the Northern Territory Aerial Medical Service.

Fenton's Gypsy Moth

Over the next six years Fenton, tall, lean and bespectacled, became well known and respected by communities, pastoral properties and missions throughout the Top End. His kindness and determination to help became legendary. He also received attention from the media, both local and national, for his daring rescues, escapades, and occasional pranks, which often brought him into conflict with aviation regulatory authorities. Cook remarked on his `resolute devotion to duty’, his `compulsive acceptance of challenge’ and his `wilful disregard of personal hazard’. Fenton’s solitary, resilient figure contributed much to an enduring Northern Territory self-image. His other historical contributions to the Territory were to demonstrate the usefulness of aircraft as a means of communication in the difficult terrain and to press for the construction of rural landing strips. Awarded King George VI’s coronation medal (1937) and the Oswald Watt gold medal (1937), he was appointed OBE (1941).

On 17 June 1940 Fenton was called up for active service as a pilot officer in the Royal Australian Air Force. He completed a flying instructor’s course at Camden, New South Wales. Posted to the Northern Territory in February 1942, he was appointed commanding officer of No.6 Communication Unit in December. His group of aircraft, known as `Fenton’s Flying Freighters’, provided transport and rescue services to military bases as well as unofficial medical support to missions. In August 1943 he was promoted to temporary squadron leader. His RAAF appointment terminated on 11 January 1946.

That year Fenton joined the Commonwealth Department of Health in Brisbane. While he was there he wrote a lively and popular account of his pre-war years in the Territory, Flying Doctor (1947). At the registrar-general’s office, Sydney, on 10 October 1949 he married Sheila Ethyl Young, née Pigott, a trained nurse and a widow; they were to be divorced in October 1959. Transferring to Melbourne in 1949, he remained with the department until his retirement in March 1966.

On 29 March 1963 he married Lavinia Florence Catalano, née Robinson, a divorcee, at the Presbyterian Church, Winchelsea. He was awarded the Cilento [q.v.] medal in 1971. Survived by his wife, he died on 27 February 1982 at Malvern, Melbourne, and was cremated. He had no children.

Select Bibliography
* E. Hill, Flying Doctor Calling (1948)
* S. Baldwin (ed), Unsung Heroes & Heroines of Australia (1988)
* D. Carment et al (eds), Northern Territory Dictionary of Biography, vol 1 (1990)
* E. Kettle, Health Services in the Northern Territory: A History 1824-1970, vol 1 (1991)
* Commonwealth Dept of Health, Health, June 1966, p 27
series A1928, item 716/9, and series A9300, item Fenton C C (National Archives of Australia)
* Commonwealth Dept of Health, staff file, 1936-46 (Northern Territory Archives)
interviews with L. Lockwood, C. E. A. Cook, C. C. Fenton and B. A. Fenton (typescript, 1980-83, Northern Territory Archives).

1. FENTON, Doctor C. C - Flying Doctor, 1982
2. CARMENT, MAYNARD & POWELL - Northern Territory Dictionary of Biography, Volume One: to 1945

Fenton's first Plane in the Northern Territory aviation Museum


94+. + = William 'Bill' FERGUSON/span> Snr NSW

95. Anthony Martin FERNANDO (1864-1949) Aboriginal Christian Prophet

Portrait of Anthony Martin Fernando by Raj Nagi.
Anthony Martin FERNANDO - (1864-1949)
Believed himself 'Called' by God as proto Aboriginal Activist in Europe: -@ ..his long grey beard damp with mist, his frail elderly frame wrapped in a large overcoat'. Pinned to his coat were scores of small, white, toy skeletons and he wore a placard proclaiming: He would wear his coat sewn all over so it was covered in toy skeletons and say: 'This is what the Australian Government has done to my people.’

- from ADB Online -
Fernando, Anthony Martin (1864–1949) by Alison Holland and Fiona Paisley

Anthony Martin Fernando (1864-1949), Aboriginal activist and toymaker, was by his own account born on 6 April 1864 at Woolloomooloo, Sydney, son of an Aboriginal woman, probably of the Dharug people. He may have been descended from John Martin, an African-American convict in the First Fleet who had children with Dharug women. Separated from his clan as a child, Anthony worked as an engine driver in Sydney. By the time he returned to his people, his mother had died. The thought of her, he was to assert, was 'the guiding star' of his life. In 1887 he witnessed the murder of an Aborigine by two White men, but was refused the opportunity to give evidence; the murderers were acquitted.

Disgusted with Australia, from about 1890 he publicized the Aboriginal cause overseas. In the following decades he travelled through Asia to Europe, working as a welder, toymaker, jewellery-maker, trader and servant. He lived for a time in Italy where, out of respect for the Italian people, he adopted what he described as a plain, Italian workingman's name. By 1910 'Fernando' was in Austria. British authorities repeatedly denied his claims to be a British subject. Interned in Austria during World War I, in June 1916, stating that he had been born in Australia, he requested prison relief through the consul for the United States of America in Vienna. The British Foreign Office, describing him as 'a negro', referred the matter to the Australian government, which found no evidence of his birth, and his appeal was rejected.

After the war Fernando settled in Milan, Italy, where he worked in an engineering workshop. According to surveillance reports, he attempted to present a private petition to the Pope, interviewed members of the League of Nations in Geneva and protested in a German newspaper against Australian injustice towards Aborigines. Returning to Italy, he was arrested for distributing pamphlets declaring that the British race was exterminating his people. In 1923 he was deported to Britain.

Fernando became the servant of an English barrister who offered him a stipend to settle down and write his life story; but he preferred his independence and travelled again in Europe. By 1928 he was back in London where he continued his crusade by picketing Australia House, 'his long grey beard damp with mist, his frail elderly frame wrapped in a large overcoat'. Pinned to his coat were scores of small, white, toy skeletons and he wore a placard proclaiming: 'This is all Australia has left of my people'. He also spoke at Hyde Park. In January 1929, described as a toy hawker, he appeared at the Old Bailey, charged with drawing a revolver in response to a racial taunt. After some resistance on his part, Fernando spoke to Mary Bennett, who visited his cell while he was awaiting trial. She reported a small man with a gentle demeanour, self-educated, well spoken, with a command of many languages and a good knowledge of the Bible. Bennett found him to be sane, intelligent yet driven. The prison doctor agreed, reporting that 'although he held strong views about his race, there was no indication of any delusions', and no reason to commit him to an asylum. When Fernando appeared in court, he received a sympathetic hearing. He accused Whites of murdering and ill-treating Aborigines, adding, 'I have been boycotted everywhere . . . It is tommyrot to say that we are all savages. Whites have shot, slowly starved and hanged us'. Given a gaol sentence, suspended on two years probation, he briefly worked as a cook in the barrister's employment, then continued his agitations.

In January 1938 Fernando was back before the courts, accused of assaulting a fellow lodger. Unrepentant, once more he protested at the treatment of his people. He was sentenced to three months imprisonment. Later Fernando retired to an old men's home. He died on 9 January 1949 at Ilford, Essex.

Select Bibliography
* M. Bennett, The Australian Aboriginal as a Human Being (Lond, 1930)
* M. Brown, ‘Fernando: the story of an Aboriginal Prophet’, Aboriginal Welfare * * Bulletin, vol 4, no 1, 1964, p 7
* Aboriginal Law Bulletin, 2, no 33, 1988, p 4
* F. Paisley, ‘An education in white brutality’, in A. Coombes (ed), Making History Memorable (Manchester, England, forthcoming)
* Sydney Morning Herald, 2 Feb 1929, p 17, 21 Mar 1929, p 11, 7 Feb 1938, p 8
* GRG 52/32/31 (State Records of South Australia)
* A11803/1, 14/89/475 and D1915/0, SA608 (National Archives of Australia)
* H. Goodall, Anthony Martin Fernando: Angry Ambassador (manuscript, 1989, privately held).

In 'Fernando's Ghost', we hear about the extraordinary international career of the Aboriginal rights activist Anthony Martin Fernando, who is slowly emerging from the shadows, 60 years after his death.

He was an Aboriginal man who pinned toy skeletons to his overcoat and picketed Australia House in London in the 1920s. He tried to petition the Pope and was accused of being a German spy.

Fernando was born in Sydney in 1864, the son of an Aboriginal mother, his 'guiding star' from whom he was separated as a child. He claimed to have been brought up in the home of a white family who denied him an education and treated him like a pet. He complained bitterly about the mission system, describing its settlements as 'murderhouses' -- instead proposing that an Aboriginal state be established in Australia's north, free from British and Australian interference, under the mandate of a neutral power.

Even though Fernando is relatively unknown, he has a mythology. This program explores the documentary evidence of his random but constant political activity -- from letters he wrote, to newspaper reports and secret communiques between British and Australian authorities.

As far as historians can ascertain, Fernando was driven into self-imposed exile in the early 1900s, after being excluded from giving evidence in the trial of white men accused of the murder of Aboriginal people. He believed the only way to secure justice for his people was to go to Europe. There he believed he might confront the British, whom he accused -- through the Australian Government -- of 'systematically exterminating' Indigenous people.

A religious man who could quote tracts of the Bible, he believed that God had entrusted him with a mission to save Aboriginal people from the colonial system that oppressed them." - from Hindsight ABC

Anthony Martin Fernando, Aboriginal Australian, died 9 January 1949 at Ilford, Essex, and was buried out of London, England.

James Cowley Morgan FISHER - 'The Nunawading Messiah' (1831-1913) J C M Fisher was born on 27 November 1831 in Nailsworth, Gloucestershire, England, and married in 1858 Victoria, Australia to Emma Pickis Kefford, (1838-1910) a lass born in Lower Hamlets, Hackney, London, and with close family links the Reverend Moses Rintel, Chief Rabbi of Melbourne. Fisher died on the 20th January 1913 at Wickepin, Narrogin, Western Australia. After his marriage Fisher lived at Lilydale, Victoria, where his first child was born. Between 1860 and the 1890s he lived in the land parish of Nunawading, where he became a outdoor evangelist and bush preacher, dubbed by his enemies 'The Messiah of Nunawading.'

96. = Lorimer FISON, missionary & anthropologist

96+. Rev Tom & Pat FLEMING - Missionaries of Yuendumu

The Missionaries: Tom Fleming (1909–1990) and Pat Fleming (1914–1995)

Tom Fleming and his wife Pat were Baptist missionaries at Yuendumu for 25 years.
After theological training in Melbourne, Tom Fleming worked with the Baptist Home Mission and then when war intervened in 1939, he enlisted in the Second A.I.F., eventually transferring to the Y.M.C.A. He served with the Eighth Division, first in Malaya and then as a prisoner of war in Singapore. From there, the Japanese sent him to the Sandakan prison camp in British North Borneo (now Sabah) and then to Kuching.
Although his time in the Japanese prison camps left him in ill health for some months after the war, he became interested in inland missions, Yuendumu in particular. He applied for and was accepted for the position of Baptist missionary at Yuendumu, where Tom and Pat arrived in April 1950. They remained there until Tom’s retirement to Alice Springs in July 1975.

The Flemings were well known and respected throughout the Northern Territory for their work at Yuendumu. Their achievement at Yuendumu is the church with its stained glass windows. After Tom Fleming’s death in 1990, his widow Pat received many written tributes that express the esteem in which Tom was held. Extracts from three of these tributes follow.

By Ted Egan, Superintendent at Yuendumu 1958–62, Administrator of
The Northern Territory 2003–07

It’s not surprising that a benign man like Tom Fleming would end up being called “Tom Father”. His hair was prematurely white, no doubt one of the health-shattering results of years in a Japanese POW camp. But it was more his gentle, wise, reliable
presence that gave him the father figure stature. You always felt that here was a well of knowledge and wisdom that you could always draw from. His intelligent eyes would focus his undivided attention on you, and he made you feel you were the most important person in the world, and that your beliefs and attitudes were eminently worth his time. He had a wry sense of humour, and the sort of tolerance you would expect from a man who was truly Christ-like.

He was obviously a deeply religious man, yet I never once discussed religion with him. I feel sure his thesis on religion was that it was something you displayed by your own lifestyle and code of ethics, rather than something you tried to impose on people by rigid precepts. I met Tom, his dear wife Pat, and their boys Adrian and Jolyon at Yuendumu, where Tom was the Baptist Minister for many years, and I was the Superintendent of the Aboriginal Reserve for four of those years 1958–62.

Tom and Pat were wonderful support for me in what were often difficult times, and we developed a lifelong friendship therefrom. We shared a lot of dramas, and some parental laughs for I had young children of my own, and they and the Fleming boys mixed freely, as friends and playmates, with the local Aboriginal kids. One day we
all raised our eyebrows as five-year olds Greg Egan and Jolyon Fleming got into a dust-up and began to use language that Tom said “took him back to the war years”.

Among the Aboriginal people and the station people of Central Australia, the Reverend Tom Fleming was much-loved and deeply respected. He went slowly about the work of spreading the Christian message, for he did not seek miracles, or too forcefully proselytise, or create “rice Christians’ through gifts or coercion. His own demeanour, and his unabashed love of his fellow human-beings, unsoured by his horrible war experiences, were the attributes which caused him to have such a
profound influence on everybody he met.

While as a friend I mourn his passing, I know that men such as “Tom Father’ never really die. One of the cleverest catch-lines of advertising I have ever seen was the bye-line used to promote the film Crocodile Dundee. Above the poster of the laconic Paul Hogan was the statement “There’s a little bit of him in all of us”. Well, there’s a bit of Tom Fleming in all the people who ever met him, for he gave you all he had, and asked nothing in return.

By James Marshall, Warlpiri man from Yuendumu

We will never forget old Fleming.

He was like a father for us. He helped and guided us, and was always thinking
of the future and taught and trained us for the future.
In the early days when there was no policeman, when there was trouble and
fighting he would go and help sort it out.

Jungarrayi started everything here - the Social Club, the sports weekend, the museum. He had a lot of feeling for yapa [1. Yapa - the term for Warlpiri people. (TB)]. He wanted to help them go the right way.

He was always there in trouble. He helped me when I was in trouble and they were going to spear me. He went and talked to them in the camp for me and helped sort things out.
He was always with the old people - always helping them. He knew them.
He was always in the sorry camps with the people.
He wasn’t in a hurry to make people Christians. He didn’t force people. He thought about Christianity yapa way. He never tried to throw our culture away. He was a man of God but he was always thinking of supporting the culture.
Today there are a lot of people in this community who have been trained to
do different things because of Jungarrayi. He loved Yuendumu and Central Australia and died close to here. He knew everything about Warlpiri people. The paintings in the church window show that. When he died and they had a service for him, all the people came. People came from other places too. That is what they all thought of him.

Jolyon Fleming and Ted Egan, both of Alice Springs, permitted us to use tributes to Jolyon’s father, the late Reverend Tom Fleming, in Chapter 7. Those were among the many forwarded to the late Pat Fleming after Tom’s death in 1990. FROM - YUENDUMU : - Legacy of a Longitutinal Growth Study in central Australian - Univeristy of Adelaide

97. William Small FLEMING

Birth: 25 Sept 1867Broughty Ferry, Scotland,

Death: 4 Nov 1898 Kweichau, China,

FROM: Australian Dictionary of Evangelical Biography: -

FLEMING, William Small (1867-1898)

Don Goldney


(b. Broughty Ferry, Scotland, 25 Sept 1867;
d. Kweichau, China, 4 Nov 1898). CIM missionary.

Fleming left his native Scotland at the age of 17 for a seafaring life. After seven years at sea he landed in Adelaide. Under the influence of John Virgo of the YMCA, Fleming was converted. Despite little education he became an ardent reader of the Bible and was one of the most earnest and regular attenders of the YMCA Bible and prayer classes. The rugged experiences of sea life proved useful with rescue work in Adelaide. Through open air meetings he developed the power of simple speech and was always forceful and impressive. Linking himself with the Adelaide City Mission he assisted in the work of educating and evangelising the many Chinese then in Adelaide.

Fleming was one of the earliest students of Rev Lockhart Morton's (q.v.) Training Home, Belair. Here he spent 3 years in training before being accepted by CIM in Oct 1894. He left for China in Jan 1895 cheerfully working his own passage, for he was very strongly built. Fleming was one of the 'Special 100' sent to China from Australasia in the ten years prior to 1899.

After reaching China, Fleming worked at mastering the language. As soon as possible he was out among the people where he worked as an itinerant evangelist. Like other CIM missionaries, William Fleming wore Chinese dress to identify himself with the local people. His field appointment was to work among the aboriginal people known as the Miao. Even in his brief period of service there were about two hundred enquirers in his district. He was assisted by a native Miao evangelist.

In a nearby mission station five days journey away, sickness and isolation had taken toll of missionaries and so the young missionary went to Pang-hai to help. Fleming had already been away from his base for 16 days. The party consisted of Fleming on a mule followed by his coolie carrying a load, then the native teacher and finally the native evangelist. Suddenly the evangelist was attacked by a group of men, one with a sword. Seeing the evangelist in trouble Fleming, rather than sparing his own life, went to his aid but after a violent struggle he too was killed. During the struggle the other two escaped and reported the matter to the nearest missionaries. The reason for the planned attack from those opposing the gospel was to place the blame for the murders on the responsive Miao people.

Thus William Fleming was the first CIM missionary to have lost his life as a result of an act of determined violence. Many more were to lose their lives in the later Boxer rebellion in 1900. A colleague wrote of Fleming, 'I have seldom met anyone so hungry for the Word of God. His large heart and merry laugh and absolute willingness to spend and be spent had won William the love of so many and his heart was so right with God'. His last letter was to a YMCA friend and part of it goes as follows: 'I hope to go on a journey tomorrow. I will be going alone yet not alone. How precious is the text "Lo, I am with you alway." ... I am a bit like Paul, I like to stretch out to untouched parts'.

Following Fleming's death, the flow of candidates for China increased and the work among the Miao became one of the more responsive groups in China. The work begun by Fleming and fellow missionaries not only brought a great work among the Chinese Miao but also the Miao in Northern Thailand and Burma.

* China's Millions (China Inland Mission monthly publication);
* W Lockhart Morton, Drifting Wreckage (Adelaide, 1913);
* M Loane, The Story of the CIM in Australia and New Zealand 1890-1964 (Sydney, 1965);
* M Broomhall, Martyred Missionaries of the CIM (London, 1900);
* M Broomhall, The Jubilee Story of the CIM (London, 1915)


97+. FLYNN OF THE INLAND John FLYNN of the Inland NT

98. = Sister Peg ( Margaret Mary FLYNN), Gnowangerup WA (1921-1982)

SISTER PEG FLYNN - Sharing life with the people - by Edward Campion

" Two smiling nuns in full traditional habits walk under umbrellas through the rain on the cover of Mary Ryllis Clark’s acclaimed recent history of their order, Loreto in Australia. Inside, the book gives their names and tells you that they were on holidays at the beach, in 1968. The nun on the left is Sister Peg Flynn, who is pictured later in the book with the Loreto community at Claremont, WA, in the mid-1970s. In this picture Sister Peg looks different because she was no longer wearing an identifiable habit. By then, her life was changing.

The daughter of a doctor, Peg had been a boarder at Claremont school and then entered the Loreto order. She became a primary school teacher, serving in Adelaide, Melbourne and Sydney before returning to Claremont as principal of the junior school. She was an innovative, talented principal but increasingly she longed for more direct engagement with the problems facing Australian society. She wanted to learn more about Aborigines.

Here she was responding to the special charism of the founder of the Institute of the Blessed Virgin Mary (IBVM—the Loreto sisters), Mary Ward. As her Australian biographer Jennifer Cameron has shown, in the 17th century Mary Ward envisaged a new type of nun, one that stepped away from older models of religious life to work for God closer to the everyday lives of ordinary people. So Peg Flynn felt drawn to the Nyungars of the south-east of Western Australia. With full support of her IBVM superiors, she went to live in Gnowangerup, 350 kms from Perth.

Early on, she had glimpsed what she might be in for when she attended a meeting in the Swan valley with her chum, Sister Veronica Brady, the literary critic. At issue was the recent arrival of Nyungar residents in town. British migrants thought the Aboriginal presence would depress property values. They were very angry, hooting Veronica Brady down when she attempted to speak and bad-mouthing the Nyungars as ‘dirty, noisy’ folk given to ‘wild parties’. The air was toxic with their anger.

In Gnowangerup, Peg found a friend in the local community nurse, Ruth Hicks, with whom she stayed. This gave her a swift introduction to Aboriginal health problems. Then her brother Mick, a farmer, bought her a house of her own where people could visit her. (Mick was a sort of guardian angel in those Gnowangerup years.) Life in a religious community had not taught her to cook so her meals were somewhat basic, often consisting of bread and cheese and an apple. Later, for health reasons, she would stick to raw vegetables and fruit.

She found that there were some Aborigines in town but most Nyungars lived on a reserve out of town, where they had been placed by the state. A contemporary government report ranked reserve houses as ‘lowest on the scale of desirable dwellings’—no water laid on, with communal toilets, showers and laundries. Cats and dogs were everywhere and wet weather turned the reserve into mud that was tracked through the houses. ‘A sad picture’, she wrote in her diary, ‘women saving and slaving; men rotting away.’

Peg collected stuff in Perth—blankets, clothes, beds, washing machines—and held cut-price sales, knowing that Nyungars didn’t want to be given things, they wanted to own them. Yet Aboriginal ‘sharing’ culture meant that often her cupboards were raided or her money borrowed. She learned to accept poverty the hard way. And she worked to persuade the government to move everyone off the reserve into town, with notable success.

She found plenty to do with the children. As a teacher, she prized literacy and so she was soon teaching them reading and writing one-on-one with the cooperation of the local school principal. She made friends easily with these Nyungar children, who treated her as an elder sister. On bush walks with them she admired their knowledge of wildflowers and she praised their innate creativity.

For their part, Nyungars were awed by her religious dimension. They observed her sitting in the church, so still that they thought she might be dumb. When they asked her about prayer, she told them to listen to Jesus: ‘It won’t be a voice … perhaps an idea or thought.’ She fed her spiritual life with scripture tapes, retreat notes and Madonna given to her by brother Mick. ‘I often just sit and say nothing’, she said, ‘but God knows and he’s with me.’

Peg Flynn’s story was not a lengthy one—she died of cancer early in 1982. More recently, however, Mary Ward has inspired other Loreto sisters to venture into similar innovative ways of serving God. The charism continues. "

99. +Tom FOSTER, La Perouse, NSW

100. William Mark FORSTER (1846-1921) Melbourne Founder of the TRY EXCELSIOR SOCIETY and the City Newsboys Society which became the Gordon Institute Newsboys' Try Excelsior Class - The Gordon Institute in now R.M.I.T. The TRY Society continues in Melbourne, maybe the longest-lived charity society in Australia.
Failing health had finally curtailed Forster's active participation in his societies but his humanity, tolerance and respect for the boys had gained him a special place in their affections. Deeply religious and by creed a Presbyterian, he had great moral courage. With evangelical fervour he continually exhorted the boys to be honest, truthful, kind, courageous and hard working and, above all, to seek guidance from the Scriptures. 'If God be for us, who can be against us?' was the Try Society's motto. Forster's unswerving belief in the literal truth of what he took to be a promise, and his faith in the power of prayer, made all his achievements seem, to him, a natural outcome. Through his magnetism of personality and infectious enthusiasm he carried with him the membership of his societies, and his wife and family shared his enthusiasm in his work. His societies continue and the original Try Society's Committee of Management has never lacked an active member of the Forster family.

101. Rev Gotthard Daniel FRITZSCHE [1797-1863] Loberthal SA from Silesia & Posen Bethanien

101+. Thomas FULTON & Thomas FULTON Jnr. Christian Employer, Working Conditions Campaigners, Foundry Industrialists, Benefactors
A. Thomas FULTON Senior

Parents: Thomas FULTON & Christina BALDIE
Birth: FIfshire, Scotland

Death: 14 February 1866 At Sandhurst, Bendigo, Victoria @ 78 yrs
Burial: Melbourne General Cemetery

B. Thomas FULTON Junior

Parents: Thomas FULTON & Isabella WHEELWRIGHT
Birth: 10 September 1813 Dundee, Scotland
Died: 18 February 1859 Bendigo @ age 46 yrs

ADB ONLINE - Australian Dictionary of Biography

Fulton, Thomas (1813–1859)

by Roslyn Brereton

Thomas Fulton (1813-1859), foundry owner, was born on 10 September 1813 at Dundee, Scotland, son of Thomas Fulton (d.1866), wrought-iron worker, and his wife Isabella, née Wheelwright. He was apprenticed to a machine-maker and did well. Attracted to the Congregational Church by Dr David Russell, he became a dedicated Christian. He decided to migrate to Port Phillip in partnership with Robert Langlands, brother of George and Henry, and arrived at Melbourne with his family in February 1842. With Langlands, Fulton set up an iron foundry on swampy land in Flinders Street. At first they had only a small foot-lathe but built up their business by determination and ingenuity. They erected a steam engine for the first mill in Melbourne and turned rack woolpresses for squatters, Fulton cutting the square-threaded screws by hand as the lathe was too small. When in 1843-44 squatters slaughtered thousands of stock, Fulton developed a technique for boiling them down for tallow. He was in partnership in 1846-55 with George Annand and Robert Smith and then ran the business himself; by 1858 when the gold rush had rapidly increased its output, the firm was employing 150 men. Fulton undertook plumbing and smithy work, made dray wheels, milled flour and was a licensed merchant and insurance agent. That Fulton was well liked by his men as an upright and humane employer is shown by a letter of loyalty and a silver tray they presented him in 1858.

Fulton was the first deacon of the Congregational Church in Victoria. He paid much of the cost of setting up the Lonsdale Street and St Kilda churches and donated £1000 to a £5000 fund to bring ministers from Scotland to cope with the gold rush. In 1858 he attended a church conference in Hobart. As a speaker he was popular for his 'homely and racy eloquence', although he once stood for parliament and was defeated. He was a magistrate and a Melbourne city councillor in 1854-59. A strong advocate of temperance, he also took a prominent part in agitation for separation and abolition of transportation. He formed a land syndicate which invested extensively in Malvern and Gardiner.

On 18 February 1859 Fulton was accidentally thrown to his death down a mine-shaft in Bendigo while checking the installation of machinery. He had intended to open a branch in Bendigo to make quartz-crushing machinery of his own invention. He was survived by his wife Elizabeth, née Black, and seven of eight children. To Garryowen, 'Fulton was the sort of man for an infant settlement; skilful, and industrious, strong of mind, iron in frame, outspoken, and honest to the backbone'. His headstone was erected by his employees. He died intestate but some of his property later passed to his brothers: William (1825-1879), joiner and patternmaker; James, timber merchant; and Robert, who carried on the foundry.

Select Bibliography
J. B. Cooper, The History of St. Kilda: From its First Settlement to a City and After, 1840 to 1930, vol 1 (Melb, 1931)
J. B. Cooper, A History of Malvern (Melb, 1935)
Age (Melbourne), 16, 18 Nov 1854
Argus (Melbourne), 21 Feb 1859
'In Memoriam', My Note Book, 23 Feb 1859, p 907
Southern Spectator, Apr 1859.

102. =Joseph FURPHY, poet, writer, pilgrim Yering VIC – WA

102+. Kapiu Masi GAGAI (c.1894-1946)

Kapiu Masi GAGAI

Birth: 1894 Mabuiag Island, Queensland, Australia
Cultural Heritage: Indigenous Australian
Christianity: Anglican & Methodist
Occupation: carpenter, merchant sailor, pearler, soldier
Character: Courageous, Steely, Intrepid, Faithful, Loyal, Unselfish, kind, patient and wise
Death: 21 August 1946 Thursday Island, Queensland, Australia
Burial: Badu Island cemetery, Torres Strait, Queensland, Australia
Legacy: The Christianity & Self-Respect of his Torres Strait people

From Australian Dictionary of Biography - ADB Online

Gagai, Kapiu Masi (1894–1946)

by Jenny Rich

Kapiu Masi Gagai (c.1894-1946
, pearler, boatman, mission worker, carpenter and soldier, was born about 1894 probably on Mabuiag Island, Torres Strait, Queensland, second son of Newa Gagai and his wife Kubi. Kapiu belonged to the Kodal (crocodile) clan and the Badu tribe, and was later adopted—in the Islander way—by a married couple Nomoa and Kaidai. Taken to Badu Island as a child, he received a basic education at the local school, religious instruction from London Missionary Society and Church of England missionaries, and was trained as a carpenter. From the age of about 15 he worked as a swimmer-diver, sailing in the Islander-owned pearling lugger, Wakaid.

On 22 December 1915 at Bethlehem Church, Badu, Gagai married with Anglican rites a local woman Laina Getawan (d.1923), daughter of Getawan and Dabangai; they were to have three daughters. In June 1921 Rev. James Watson recruited him to join the staff of (South) Goulburn Island (Methodist) Mission, Northern Territory, as a boat captain and lay mission worker. Gagai's wife and children accompanied him there. He later worked at Milingimbi Mission. At Goulburn Island Mission on 26 October 1929 he married Mujerambi (Marjorie), daughter of Alfred Joseph Voules Brown, trepanger and trader, and Mumuludj, an Iwaidja-speaking Aborigine; Kapiu and Mujerambi were to have ten children.

In April 1932 Gagai took his family back to Badu where he was employed as a carpenter and went to sea in another Islander-owned pearling lugger. The anthropologist Donald Thomson hired him in May 1935 to take charge of the auxiliary ketch, St Nicholas, which he sailed off Arnhem Land. Thomson named Kapiu Point, near the entrance to the Koolatong River, in his honour, but this name has not been officially recognized. When Thomson left the Territory in 1937, Gagai resumed his former occupations at Badu before operating a punt for the Queensland Main Roads Commission.

Despite being over-age and classified as medically unfit, he enlisted in the Australian Military Forces on 27 October 1941 and immediately joined the 7th Military District's Special Reconnaissance Unit, commanded by Thomson. Gagai was boatswain of the unit's armed vessel, Aroetta, which patrolled the coast of Arnhem Land in 1942-43. He was twice placed in charge of an outpost at Caledon Bay, became an expert Vickers-gunner and was promoted acting sergeant. In recommending him for a decoration, Thomson praised his sense of responsibility, devotion to duty, leadership, loyalty, unselfishness and the example he set for others. The unit was disbanded in mid-1943 and Gagai was posted to the Torres Strait Light Infantry Battalion on Thursday Island.

In late 1943 he was seconded to the 11th Infantry Brigade and took part in a hazardous expedition led by Thomson in Netherlands New Guinea. Thomson subsequently wrote:

I well remember the quiet, steadfast courage of Sergeant Kapiu . . . [who] was a first-class waterman. He was strong and he had no nerves. He could work and when the tension was over he could sleep like a log. He did not fret and worry and waste nervous energy . . . He was powerful—massive is a better word—impassive; even stolid. But he could laugh—a laugh halfway between the angels and Rabelais.
Thomson, Gagai and another soldier were wounded when New Guineans attacked the party close to Japanese outposts on the Eilanden River. After recovering in hospital at Merauke from a deep machete cut to his neck, Gagai returned to Thursday Island. From January 1944 he was with No.14 Australian Small Ship Company, supervising Islander and Aboriginal soldiers, and occasionally piloting small craft in Torres Strait and around Cape York. He served in the Torres Strait Light Infantry Battalion from March 1945 until he was discharged on 28 March 1946.

Gagai was 'a loyal churchman' and a chorister who loved his people's traditional songs and dances. Big and strong, he was kind, patient and wise, and greatly respected by the Islanders, Aborigines and White Australians who knew him. He spoke Kala Lagaw Ya, English and some Aboriginal languages, and had a detailed knowledge of Torres Strait waters and the coasts of Cape York and Arnhem land. Like other Islanders in the A.M.F., he did not receive the same pay and conditions as his White counterparts. Gagai died of lobar pneumonia on 21 August 1946 at Thursday Island and was buried in Badu Island cemetery. His wife and seven of their children survived him, as did two daughters of his first marriage.

Select Bibliography
* L. Lamilami, Lamilami Speaks (Syd, 1974)
* J. Beckett, Torres Strait Islanders (Canb, 1987)
* Geographical Journal, 119, pt 1, Mar 1953
* J. Rich, Sergeant Kapiu (manuscript, privately held)
* D. Thomson papers (Museum Victoria)
* Methodist Overseas Mission records, Northern Australia papers (State Library of New South Wales)
* AWM 54, item 741/5/9 (Australian War Memorial)
* private information.

103. Robert Randolph GARRAN

104. George GAWLER

105. Fr. Patrick Bonaventure GEOGHEGAN, (1805–1864) Ireland, Kyneton, Melbourne,

Geoghegan, Patrick Bonaventure (1805–1864) - by Osmund Thorpe

Patrick Bonaventure Geoghegan (1805-1864), Roman Catholic bishop, was born in Dublin and baptized on 17 March 1805. He was orphaned at the age of 8 and relations of his father who were not Catholics arranged for his admission to a Protestant institution. He was rescued by a Franciscan priest and placed in an orphanage. Later the Franciscans sent Geoghegan to school at Edgeworthstown, County Longford, and then to a college in Lisbon. Eager to become a Franciscan priest he was transferred to the Franciscan training school at Coimbra, Portugal. After completing his studies he was ordained priest on 21 February 1830. He was appointed to St Francis's Church, Dublin, where in 1837 he was interviewed by Dr William Ullathorne who was recruiting priests for the Australian Catholic Mission. Geoghegan volunteered to go for seven years. Given £150 for his outfit and passage by the Colonial Office he sailed in the Francis Spaight and arrived at Sydney on 31 December. He was appointed to Bathurst but after four months Bishop John Bede Polding sent him to establish the first Catholic mission in Melbourne.

Some three thousand Catholics were then in the area out of a population of about ten thousand. Geoghegan lost no time in putting up 'almost in the open air … a poor temporary altar' and celebrated the first Mass on Pentecost Sunday, 19 May. A week later he notified his flock that 'a plain commodious church' had to be built and that they were to cultivate 'kind liberable feeling and deportment toward the members of all religious persuasions'. The government gave him a salary of £150 and a land grant at the corner of Elizabeth and Lonsdale Streets where he built a temporary church, a presbytery and a school. On 4 October 1841 he laid the foundation stone of St Francis's Church. In April-September 1842 he was in Sydney and again briefly in 1843. In Melbourne in July he narrowly escaped being hit by a bullet fired in an encounter between members of the Orange Society and Catholics, mostly Irish born, whom he was trying to restrain. He was made vicar-forane by Archbishop Polding. On 23 October 1845 he opened the completed Church of St Francis. On 30 October 1846 he left Melbourne for Hobart Town on his way, it was wrongly thought, for Ireland but was back in April 1847. Rumour then held that he was to be the first Catholic bishop of Melbourne. However, James Goold was appointed to the Melbourne see and on 6 August 1848 chose Geoghegan as his vicar-general. Early that year Geoghegan had visited the new Anglican bishop, Charles Perry, but received what even many Protestants regarded as an an ungracious rebuff. In March 1849 Geoghegan left for Ireland to recruit priests for the Australian mission. He returned in April 1851. In 1852 to the select committee on education in Victoria 'he gave a most complete exposition of Catholic views on the respective roles of the Church, the family, and the state in education'.

When Dr Francis Murphy died in 1858 Geoghegan was appointed bishop of Adelaide. He was consecrated in St Francis's, Melbourne, on 8 September 1859 and enthroned in St Francis Xavier's Cathedral, Adelaide, on 1 November. Deeply troubled by the education system in South Australia he 'exhorted pastors and their flocks to an united effort to establish Catholic schools in their respective localities'. With the help of 30,000 francs from the Propagation of the Faith, several schools were opened. He also built twenty new churches and the chancel and side altars of his cathedral. To recruit dedicated priests for the diocese he left for Europe in February 1862 but in Rome on 10 March 1864 was translated at his own request to the new see of Goulburn, New South Wales. In Dublin he was extremely ill when an old throat ailment became a cancer. He died on 9 May 1864 at Kingstown (Dunleary) and was buried in the old Church of St Francis, Merchants Quay, Dublin.

Father Geoghegan, according to one who knew him in the early days in Melbourne, was 'a round, chubby, natty little man, a perfect picture of health and cheerfulness'. At his best when faced with problems, he admitted to being very sensitive and easily hurt, a disposition which led him into errors of judgment as well as much suffering. An inclination to excessive fault-finding alienated some of the priests in Melbourne and Adelaide.

A portrait in oils is in the dining room of the Archbishop's House, West Terrace, Adelaide.

Select Bibliography
P. F. Moran, History of the Catholic Church in Australasia (Syd, 1895)
F. Byrne, History of the Catholic Church in South Australia (Adel, 1896)
F. Mackle, The Footprints of our Catholic Pioneers (Melb, 1924)
R. Fogarty, Catholic Education in Australia 1806-1950 (Melb, 1959)
Geoghegan papers (Roman Catholic Archives, Sydney, Melbourne and Adelaide).

106. + Pearl GIBBS

107. William GELLIBRAND ,South Arm, Hobart Tas & Joseph Tice GELLIBRAND VDL/TAS- Port Phillip Pioneer,

108. Rev. Joseph Tice GELLIBRAND II ~ MA from Oxford; Vicar at Sth Hobart, Missionary to the Maories

109. General John GELLIBRAND

110. = Bishop Mathew GIBNEY

111. Fr Thomas GIL O.S.B. (Order of Saint Benedict) - Killed in 27 September 1943 by Japanese Air Raid and Bombing Attack on the Drysdale River Mission, now Kalumburu Community, in The Kimberley, Western Australia.
"In February 1943, Allied signals intelligence suggested that Japanese aircraft would be built up in Timor for attacks on Darwin. Eight Beaufighters from No. 31 Squadron RAAF were despatched to Drysdale River, to prepare for a pre-emptive strike.[1] On 28 February, it was confirmed that the enemy aircraft had arrived at Penfui, near Kupang. An early morning strike destroyed 12 Japanese aircraft on the ground and damaged another 10. Two Beaufighters were damaged by Japanese fighter aircraft but returned to Drysdale River.
On 27 September 1943, the base and settlement were attacked by 21 Japanese Kawasaki Ki-48 bombers, based at Kupang, Timor, with a fighter escort. The Superior of the mission, Father Thomas Gil O.S.B, aged 45 years.and five Aboriginals ranging from the age of 1 year to 45 years were killed. This included a mother and son. All victims were buried together on mission grounds, the Aboriginals on either side of Father Thomas, following the funeral at the damaged Church. Many buildings at the mission were also destroyed or severely damaged during the raid."

[Amanda Smith: Amanda holds Graduate Diplomas in Theology and in Church History from the Melbourne College of Divinity. She is currently finishing her Master of Arts thesis on the life and work of Fr Thomas Gil OSB who was one of the missionary-monks at Kalumburu. Research for this thesis draws on Gil’s writings and other original material held in the Archives at New Norcia.

Fr Thomas Gil Museum

LEGACY: Father Thomas Gil Museum, Kalumburu, Western Australia

Inside the Fr Thomas Gil Museum - The Feast of Our Lady of the Assumption, August 15th 2008, marked the 100th Anniversary of Pago / Kalumburu Mission, known originally as Drysdale River Mission

1. The Koolama incident in the Timor Sea, 1942 Malice or Mutiny? By Bill Loane - Rosenburg Publishing 2004 Kenthurst NSW - also Google Books, online
2. Kalumburu, Western Australia - WIKIPEDIA
3. Kalumburu – 100 Years By Bill Worth - Catholic Diocese of Broome - website
4. SMITH, Amanda - Thesis on Fr Thomas Gil. MCD libraries?

112. Reverend Doctor Athol GILL baptist, new testament theologian, radical discipleship pioneer, House of the Gentle Bunyip Clifton Hill, QLD-VIC

113. Mary GILMORE, writer, NSW?

114. = Louis GIUSTINIANI, Moravian WA

115. Rev. Joseph Hunter GOBLE, Footscray VIC (Baptist)

116. =Pastor Matthias GOETHE, Melbourne, Waldau, Doncaster VIC

117. Thomas GOODWIN

118. Miss 'Annie' Mary Ann Christina GORDON, from Ipswich, Brisbane, Queensland, China Inland Missionary. Killed by the 'Vegetarian Fanatics' in Kucheng, CHINA on the 1st August 1895. MARTYR at Age 30.
Annie Gordon was born 13 September 1864 and was baptised at St Paul’s Anglican Church, Ipswich, Queensland on 30 October 1864. Her parents were Charles John Gordon, a veterinarian) and Mary Anne Devine. Annie arrived in
China in 1892, a year before the Saunders sisters, Nellie and Topsy, to work with the Church of England Zenana Missionary Society, a society organised by women to serve women abroad.

119. 'Wongamar' Pastor Cecil GRANT & Soldier, preacher, on of the 'Rats of Tobruk', Albury, NSW

& Flo GRANT Condobolin

Pastor Cecil 'Wongamar' GRANT

Born: about 1934 Condobolin, New South Wales.

Died: 23 September 2005 Albury, @ age 71 (late of Wagga Wagga) New South Wales

Christian Aboriginal pastor - excluded from The Encylcopaedia of Aboriginal Australia 1994 (Ed Horton, David)

[Newspapers: - Border Mail (Albury) 28 & 29 September 2005; Gundagai Independent- 29 September 2005; The Koori Mail; The Voice of Inigenous Australia, Lismore NSW) Wednesday 19 October 2005 page 15 - "His brother, Stan Grant said: "Pastor Cec was responible for the 'Welcome to Wiradjuri Country' signs across the region and much more... Cec was responsible for the Wiradjuri language programs around Wagga Wagga and Albury areas, working with some young people there and getting it all going.]

CECIL GRANT ‘I am a Wiradjuri Christian.' ... - ‘I belong to the Koori Church in Albury, NSW. About 1975 we started meeting together in small groups. We are supported by the Church of Christ. We ought to be developing local fellowships. The universal church consists of local churches with the ministry and the administration looked after by the local elders.

‘I was brought to the Lord by Aboriginal men and I try to maintain my Aboriginal connections and regain as much of the Aboriginal language as I can. ‘I am very much into Aboriginal philosophy and theology, and I am not in favour of following blindly in the mould of failed European Christianity.

‘All the attempts by government bodies, like the old Aboriginal Protection Board of NSW, was to assimilate Aboriginal people and destroy Aboriginality. At the moment I am reading a book by Peter Read about the hundred years’ war of the Wiradjuri people. It is about the struggle of the Wiradjuri people against the system of both Church and State to destroy the culture of the Wiradjuri people. Now I’m still trying hard to contextualise my faith to communicate it through my culture."

" ‘Jesus is a tribal man, He was of the tribe of Judah, and His lifestyle was similar to that of my people. His life-style and ministry were itinerant and, when He went walkabout, His tribe went with Him. He suffered rejection, “He was despised and rejected of men”. He also knew the pain of disposession because, although He was the Creator of the world— “the earth is the Lord’s and the fullness thereof”—yet He said, “Foxes have holes and the birds of the air have nests, but the Son of man has nowhere to lay his head”. ‘I believe these things relate our Lord very much, not only to Aboriginal people, but to all people." Cecil Grant

From' A STORY OF FIRE- Aboriginal Christianity By MAX HART - Online PDF File

Pastor Cec Grant Memorial Speech : - The Indigenous Church. Towards a Better Future. - Inaugural Lecture to Honour the Work of Pastor Cecil Grant, OAM, Wongamar. by Rev. Ray Minniecon. Canberra. April 18th 2008 - Isaiah: 65: 19-23. New Heavens and a New Earth - There is a vision of the ideal community in the Book of Isaiah 65: 18-24. A vision that feeds the faith of those willing to strive for the best that they could imagine for their families and communities. I encourage you to join with me in listening to the words of this vision in the context of our social and political struggles as Aboriginal people. Housing. Health and wellbeing. Employment. Pride. Education. Culture. All are included in this vision. I am convinced that this is a vision that Pastor Cec Grant had for our people. - For Pastor Cecil Grant, this vision meant that there would be:
1. No more premature deaths of Aboriginal babies.
2. No more young Aboriginal men or young women dying before their time from ill health, deaths in custody, alcohol and drug abuse. And all the symptoms of a broken spirit.
3. Aboriginal People will enjoy living in good homes. (How long have we waited for proper housing?)
4. Aboriginal People who are sharing and caring for each other
5. Aboriginal People who are full of pride and dignity.

It is a vision worth fighting for. It’s a vision that Pastor Cecil Grant saw for his people and was willing to put his hand to the plough in order to make this vision a reality. This vision is based on the principles, which Jesus articulated in his ministry. In fact, it is a vision that we all share in and desire because our Lord taught his disciples to pray for this vision, “Your kingdom come, your will be done on earth as in heaven.”… Pastor Grant fought for this vision because it reflected the principles of God’s kingdom among us. He prayed for it. He preached it. And he believed that it was possible to achieve this vision in his lifetime.

For Pastor Grant, the instrument he believed that would deliver the reality of this vision into our community was the development of the Indigenous Church. This is God’s instrument to display His love and presence among us. Without this instrument, Pastor Grant could see the virtual destruction of Aboriginal people and our culture. He set about early in his life, with other young Aboriginal men of like mind to make this vision a reality by pioneering and establishing the first ever, Indigenous church in Australia. It was a big vision and an even bigger task. They called that first movement, the Aboriginal Evangelical Fellowship of Australia.

Sister Flo GRANT

From: The Encylcopaedia of Aborinal Australia 1994 (Ed Horton, David) Vol 1.

GRANT, F : - by FCG

Florence Catherine Eunice (Flo) GRANT - b. 1936

born on the Willow Bend Aboriginal reserve at Condobolin, NSW of Wiradjuri descent. Grant left Griffith school, NSW at 15 to take up domestic work and left home at 17 to work in the Leeton cannery, then worked as a lady's companion on a farm. At 19 she became a Christian.

At 21 she went to Sidney where she began a career as an assistant nurse, which have her the opportunity ti fulfil her childhood ambition of travelling around Australia and then the world. In 1965 she went to the Illwawarra Bible College for a year, then to the Retta Dixon children's home in Darwin as a cottage mother. After her father's death in 1968 she returned to Bible college and graduated in 1970. In 1971 she worked for the Office of Aboriginal Affairs in Canberra.

Seeing her people's struggle against paternalism, especially in the church, made her question and for 12 years reject Christianity. For a time she travelled; then, in 1980, she returned to Canberra to undertake matriculation studies at the TAFE college. She later worked as an information officer for the federal Department of Social Security, where she became involved in radio and writing.

Having committed herself to Christ in 1984, she moved to AIATSIS (Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies) as a trainee research offficer in 1986, working on the development of Christianity in Australia and its effects on Aboriginal people. She has been secretary of the Canberra Aboriginal Church, publicity officer for the Canberra-based Hope of the People Christian Outreach, secretary of the training centre of Wiradjuri Christian Development Ministries in Wagga Wagga, NSW, and producer of the community journal Waradjuri Bawamarra. FCG

120. + Jim GRAY, Gullargambone

121. John GREEN & Mary Benton GREEN,
John GREEN & Mary Benton GREEN from Aberdeen Scotland - Missionary & Pastor to the Kulin Aborigines, Lilydale> Acheron -Healesville, Vic. and
The Greens had the gift of a timeless 'knack' or abiding 'charism,' of gaining the Aboriginal peoples trust in relational confidence and respect. Diane Barwick wrote in Chapter 4 Mr Green's Way, of her book 'Rebellion at Coranderrk' ' He (Green) disapproved of coercion and insisted that the only effective method of bringing about change was by example and explanation.' pp.68. Green was a champion of Aboriginal dignity. Green wrote: "They are very proud and sensitive, and you can work a great deal upon their pride: in that way you can make them see that it is disgraceful to take what they have not earned.' John Green conducted a Court which laid down the rules of conduct in which the Aborigines were the effective deciding jury. Barwick writesL "Green chaired these assemblies when he was at home. When he spoke and argued he usually relied upon his moral authority as a respected leader, in the traditional manner of the ngurungaeta, rather than his externally imposed powers as manager." (pp.68) Barwick continues: "The sophistication of the Kulin at Coranderrk and their determination to manage their own affairs amazed and annoyed other officials. And it impressed visitors, notably the Royal Commissioners who visited in 1877: their report commented that the Coranderrk residents' 'bearing and demeanor form a contrast with those the natives on all the other stations.' Green's methods of management had made the difference; but it roused the antagonism of other Europeans determine to impose their notions of discipline on the Kulin." pp.69. John Green and his wife Mary Green are buried in unmarked unmemorialised graves in the Protestant section of the Healesville Cemetery. One public feature remains that does memorialise their early boon and significance; Green Street traverses the centre of Healesville, being at the main traffic-lighted crossroads across the Mooroondah Highway at the heart of the town.
Further Reference: 1. Diane E. Barwick 'Rebellion At Coranderrk' Editors: Laur E. Barwick & Richard E. Barwick. Published 1998 Aboriginal History Monograph 5., Aboriginal History Inc., Canberra.
2. Shirley W. Wiencke 'When The Wattles Bloom Agian: -The Life and Times of William Barak, Last Chief of the Yarra Yarra Tribe. Published 1984 by Shirley W. Wiencke, Woori Yallock.

122. John GREEN Jnr d. 14th January 1897 Mabere, New Guinea

John GREEN jnr - Martyr 1897. Murdered as an act of violent disdain against his high Christian principles in British New Guinea. Champion of the 'The Godlike Image' in indigenous people.
John Benton Green was born in 1865 in the Yarra Valley of Victoria at Coranderrk Aboriginal Station, Healesville, the eldest surviving son of missionaries John Green and Mary Benton. His father, Missionary Green, had a Scots Highlander's tribal way of seeing Christian egalitarianism and treated the Aborigines in a way similar to modern 'community development' techniques." In her acclaimed work "Rebellion at Coranderrk" Diane Barwick writes: 'Green (senior) never would treat the Kulin (Yarra Valley Aborigines) as anything but free men and women equal to himself in all but knowledge of European ways. He eventually lost his job (white-anted and dismissed from his post by the meddling of avaricious and self-serving rogues) because he upheld this principle; his son, and namesake, later died in New Guinea because he shared his father's beliefs. Diane Barwick footnotes her comment as follows: "John Green Jr.(1865-1897) was Assistant Resident Magistrate commended by his superior Monckton, as the best man the New Guinea administration ever possessed, was renowned for his fearlessness, linguistic skills, and 'faculty of gaining the native people's confidence.' He was killed in 1897 by Binandere tribesmen who had asked him to disarm his police to show his trust." Green suffered violent death as a victim of other's evil, in part for the sheer devilment of violence on the part of the leader 'Dumain, who had no pity, and jumped for joy at the thought of fighting'; and in part as the Mambare Native's terrible act of revenge against an act where, before Green's time, the policemen guarding a party of white miners had shot four local men namely, Tage, Mendura, Ade and Nongori. Mr Green's martydom was an evil act of deliberate treachery in an attempt to foment mischief and further Bloodlust, by violent men who were targeting his seeming 'weakness' in trusting them, by way of Green's being a champion of the existence of 'The Godlike Image' in all people, including savage indigenous peoples. A Newspaper of the day reported: "Mr. Green was warned that mischief was brewing, but the warning was unheeded ; and so on the fatal day, while the party were at work, the attack was made at a time when Mr. Green was working on the roof of the house. Two spears were thrown, hitting him in the left side, when he was dragged down to the ground and there tomahawked to pieces." John Green Jnr died on the 14th January 1897 at Mambare River, in Oro Province, Papua New Guinea. But the blood of young John Green in murder and martyrdom eventually brought about good fruit. Once the fighting ceased a disquiet of hiatus reigned till Mr. Monckton came in with words of instruction against violence to the Mambare people. Monckton was able to get to the bottom of the story and many of the people then repented of their propensity violence and became Christians. Father Copland King even baptised Isaac Petari, one of the murderers.
Diane Barwick includes the following in her footnote as a 'Personal Communication from Mr John Waiko. "His (John Green's) reputation as a just man was not forgotten: in 1976 the Doepo Clan of Datama village, Ioma, Northern Provence, named their progress association 'Misi Giriri (Mr Green) Association.
Some physical commemoration of the life and sacrifice John Green was made at the Ela United church, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. Further Reference: 1. Diane E. Barwick 'Rebellion At Coranderrk' Editors: Laura E. Barwick & Richard E. Barwick. Published 1998 Aboriginal History Monograph 5, Aboriginal History Inc. Canberra.
2. Stephen BAREREBA "A Barereba Family Oral Tradition Concerning The Death of Mr.John Green, Government Agent at Tamata Junction in 1897" republished online as in Papuaweb: Documents and Readings in New Guinea History 1975- -section: 'Living Voices Of The Past' pp.12-14. First published as "How My Grandfathers Killed Mr. John Green" in 'SOUTH PACIFIC,' 1959, Vol. 10. pp.129-132;
3. Version Two: Stephen BAREREBA "How My Grandfather Killed Mr. Green" republished online as View Topic : at Ex-Kiaps Network Forum. First published as "How My Grandfathers Killed Mr.John Green" in the journal 'SOUTH PACIFIC,' 1959, Vol. 10. pp.129-132.
4. Newspaper Reports: a. b. MASSACRE BY SAVAGES OF A HEALESVILLE GENTLEMAN. - Healesville Guardian Friday 5 March 1897 – Page 2 c. The Mercury, Hobart - Wednesday 3 March 1897 d. The West Australian, Saturday 27 February 1897. e. Healesville Guardian, Friday 10 September 1897 .

123. John Brown GRIBBLE NSW, WA, QLD b.1848 Cornwall Eng; Ordained 1883 d. 3 June 1893 Age 45 Sydney & Mary Ann GRIBBLE (née BULMER) Mrs J B Gribble

124. Ernest Richard Bulmer GRIBBLE
Ernest Richard Bulmer GRIBBLE Yarrabah, QLD, Forest River, WA /
born: 23 Nov 1868 Geelong, Victoria
Ordained 1 Jan 1899/
Married: 18 April 1895 Queensland
Wife: Emilie Julia WRIEDE
1. John Wriede Bulmer Gribble born 15th January 1896 Yarrabah, QLD ;
2. Eric Livingstone Bulmer GRIBBLE - born 17th March 1898Yarrabah, QLD;
3. Ernest Yarrabah GRIBBLE - born 24th July 1901 Yarrabah, QLD

Died. 18th October 1957 Yarrabah, Queensland, Australia

125. James GRIFFITHS, Tea Merchant, Philanthropist


127. Fr Francis Xavier GSELL Western Australia

128. =Jennie GUNN (Mrs Aeneus GUNN) NT-VIC

129. James GUNTHER, CMS nsw

130. = Reverend Friedrich August HAGENAUER (1829–1909)
Born 10 March 1829 at Hohenlüben, Sachsen
Mission; Ebenezer Mission, Lake Boga & Dimboola; Ramahuack & Lake Tyers, Gippsland
Died. 28 November 1909 Lake Tyers, Victoria, Australia

- From Australia Dictionary of Biography - ADB Online : -
Hagenauer, Friedrich August (1829–1909)

by L. J. Blake

Friedrich August Hagenauer (1829-1909), Moravian missionary, was born on 10 March 1829 at Hohenleuben, Saxony, of Lutheran parents. He left school at 14, worked for two years with his father and then on railway construction. Influenced by Pastor Lohe and Dr Schmid at Greiz, he applied in 1850 to study at Herrnhut, Ebersdorf, where the Brotherhood of Moravian priests accepted him as a missionary trainee in 1851. On 27 November 1856 he was instructed to go to Victoria with F. W. Spieseke who had returned to Europe after the Lake Boga Mission, established with Charles La Trobe's help in 1851, was abandoned.

Hagenauer and Spieseke arrived at Melbourne in May 1858. By December, following Governor (Sir) Henry Barkly's suggestion, they had selected a Wimmera River site on Antwerp station, where the squatter, Horatio Spencer Ellerman, gave material assistance and the Ebenezer mission school was opened next January. In 1858 several missionaries including Spieseke and Hagenauer had given evidence to a select committee on the alleviation of Aborigines' 'absolute wants'. The Central Board appointed to watch over the interests of the Aborigines, which first met on 7 June 1860, set up two stations and planned more government depots and missions financed by various churches. In February 1862 after negotiations between the Moravians and the Presbyterian Church of Victoria Hagenauer and his wife arrived in Gippsland where the Presbyterians hoped to secure two large reserves on Green Hills station with support from the central board. Objections by squatters led the board of land and works to change the site and in August 1863 some 2356 acres (953 ha) were secured at Lake Wellington on the River Avon. The Hagenauers moved to this reserve calling it Ramahyuck. Hagenauer believed in 'kind, firm, just and business-like treatment', and used the 'patriarchal principle' to control the Aboriginals. Thanks to generous subsidies and continuous assistance by a trained teacher, Ramahyuck was described in 1877 as the most successful of all missions. The Aborigines had well-constructed homes, learned rural tasks, cultivated crops, vegetables and fruit and tended sheep and cattle. In 1872 the school, taught in 1864-66 and 1870-76 by Rev. Carl Kramer, was the first in the colony to secure 100 per cent in marks under the results system introduced in 1862-63. After the 1877 royal commission on Aborigines, Hagenauer and Kramer were asked to tour the Murray area and persuade nomads to move into the reserves and mission stations. Hagenauer was also successful in training half-castes for rural work; and the number at Ramahyuck rose to 85 but dropped to 63 in 1888 as the half-castes became independent of the mission. For the Moravian Board in Saxony Hagenauer travelled in 1885 to North Queensland investigating Aboriginal needs and his report led to new government reserves and the Mapoon mission.

Tireless in his devotion to Aboriginals Hagenauer became religious superintendent for Anglican missions at Lake Tyers and Lake Condah and for two Presbyterian missions. As director of four of the colony's six stations he had much influence but often quarrelled with the board over supervision of the secular side of the missions and complained of the 'iron rule' of the secretary, Robert Brough Smyth. On 1 July 1889 Hagenauer became acting secretary and general inspector for the board at a salary of £450. Hagenauer resigned as secretary in 1906 and died aged 80 at Lake Tyers on 28 November 1909. On 15 June 1861 at St Paul's Church, Melbourne, he had married Christiana Louisa Knobloch, a missionary from Saxony; she died on 23 October 1917. Of their nine children, seven were born at Ramahyuck. A son was acting secular manager at Ramahyuck until it closed in 1908.

A conscientious and effective administrator, Hagenauer was 'wise in counsel, patient in effort and resolute in action'. In addition to material on Aboriginal language included in Brough Smyth's Aborigines of Victoria (Melbourne, 1878), he published papers on Mission Work Among the Aborigines of Victoria (1880), Report of the Aboriginal Mission at Ramahyuck, Victoria (1885), and Notes of a Missionary Journey to North Queensland (1886).

Select Bibliography
S. L. Chase (ed), The Moravian Mission at Lake Boga (Melb, 1856)
A. Massola, Aboriginal Mission Stations in Victoria (Melb, 1970)
M. Manning, ‘Life of Ernest Albert Le Souef’, Journal and Proceedings (Royal Western Australian Historical Society), vol 6, part 4, 1965, pp 75-93
L. J. Blake, ‘Education at Ebenezer’, Educational Magazine, vol 24, no 1, Feb 1967, pp 37-48
The Gap, 7 (1969)
private information.

Rev. Friedrich August HAGENAUER was married to Christiane Luise KNOBLOCH in Melbourne, Victoria in 1861.

Their children were : -
1. Augustus Theophilus Hagenauer b. 1862 Stratford/Sale, Gippsland;
2. Marie Luise Hagenauer b. 1863 Bundalong, Vic (later Mrs Disher);
3. Ida Emilie Hagenauer b. 1865 Stratford (later Mrs Hartung);
4. Johannes Friedrich Hagenauer b. 1867 Ramahyuck, Stratford;
5. Gustave Alfred Hagenauer b. 1869 Ramahyuck, Stratford;
6. Georg Hermann Hagenauer b. 1871 Ramahyuck, Stratford;
7. Ellen Grace Hagenauer b. 1873 Ramahyuck, Stratford (later Mrs Le Souef);
8. Friedrich August Hagenauer b. 1875 Ramahyuck, Stratford; and
9. Heinrich Alexander Hagenauer b. 1878 Ramahyuck, Stratford.

1.Robert KENNY - The Lamb Enters The Dreaming: Nathaniel Pepper & the Ruptured World 2007 Scribe. Carlton North, Victoria

Friedrich August & Luise Christiane (née Knobloch) HAGENAUER by Tom Humphrey

131. Dirk Meinertz HAHN, Sea Captain,

Dirk Meinertz HAHN b. Altona, Denmark, [Captain of the 1838 religious refugee ship 'ZEBRA', Counsellor, Conciliator, self-confessed reluctant agent of God & Champion of Pilgrim Religious Refugees in the legacy of Hahndorf, South Australia] Died of disappointment in alcoholic depression, Denmark.

Extract from 'Hahndorf and It's Academy' by Dr F.J.H. Blaess

- "Captain Dirk Meinetz Hahn was born on 28 January 1804 at Westerland, on the Island of Sylt, then under Danish rule. In his Diary he says that he seriously thought of studying theology, but yielding to his father's wishes he became a sailor. At the age of 15 (1819), he had his first taste of life at sea on the 'Leitium' under Captain Dokker, but illness sent him home after seven weeks at sea. In 1820 he again joined the crew of the 'Leitium' and spent three years on the ship, trading mainly with Mediterranean ports. In 1823 he transferred to the 'Dido' (Captain Schmitt) and made his first voyage to America. From 1824 to 1833 he sailed on the 'Neptunus' under Captain Felix, from 1826 on as second mate. The 'Neptunus' was wrecked off the Dutch coast in August 1833. In 1827 he had made one unhappy trip on the 'Alwine'. In 1836 he was engaged as first mate on the 'Zebra' under Captain Stelting. When the latter died at Havana in the West Indies, Hahn was appointed to take the ship home to Altona. Here the owner, Mr Dale, engaged him as captain. On the 'Zebra' he made several voyages to North America with emigrants, also a trip to Bahia in South America, where his ship was caught up in a civil war and delayed with serious danger to itself and its captain. In the same year (1838) the 'Zebra' was chartered by Sloman & Co. to transport Lutheran emigrants to South Australia.

These Lutherans came from the eastern provinces of Prussia and were emigrating to escape the religious persecution they suffered because of their staunch Lutheran convictions and their refusal to join the Prussian king's Union Church. On 8 June 1838, they had embarked on river barges at Tschicherzig and then had travelled down the Oder, along connecting canals, and down the Elbe to Hamburg, where they boarded the 'Zebra' on 29 July. On 12 August they, 106 adults and 91 children, had left Hamburg. After a voyage of 129 days, the 'Zebra' reached Holdfast Bay, 28 December 1838, but on account of low water, did not reach Port Adelaide until 2 January 1839. Captain Hahn had become deeply concerned about the welfare of his passengers and during his stay in Adelaide exerted himself to procure for them land for a settlement and means of earning their livelihood.

He left South Australian shores on 14 February 1839 for Batavia and for the return voyage to Altona. Here the 'Zebra' was laid up for repairs. In 1841 he took command of the 'Apollo' on a voyage to South America. From 1842 to 1852 he was in charge of the 'Zodiacus', trading mainly with the West Indies. After thirty-one years at sea, he retired to spend his remaining days with his family at Westerland on Sylt. On 24 December 1831, he had married Hedwig Jens Nicolaison. His family consisted of one son and three daughters. He died on 13 August 1860."

Translation of Article 'Kapitan der Nachstenliebe' by Wolkgang Wegner ('Horzu' - German Weekly -
" It was the year 1838, and Altona belonged still to Denmark. In the harbour the 3-masted 'Zebra' was being loaded. Provisions were to last 6 months - for a journey to the end of the world: to Adelaide in South Australia. Thirty four year old Captain Dirk Meinertz Hahn from Westerland had the command. Both his mates came from the neighbouring village of Keitum: Boy Dierksen and Ingwer Lorenz Petersen.

On 28th July the passengers went on board: 35 families, altogether 199 persons. They were fugitives, Old Lutherans from Silesia and Brandenburg. Heavy-hearted they decided on emigration, because they had had to suffer many years of persecution in Prussia because of their faith.

"They were very religious", Captain Hahn describes the passengers in his journal. "An address (service) was held on deck morning(s) and evening(s) and prayers and singing, their song (singing) sounded very beautiful over harbour and town."

Hahn felt sympathy for his charges (protegees), who were so different from other emigrants he had taken on earlier voyages to America. Much gentler, more helpless, full of vehement hope for the future.

On the 12th August the 'Zebra' untied the ropes. On the shore of the Elbe stood countless people, because this was something New: the first departure of a non-English ship with German migrants to South Australia.

It was a hard journey. A dozen passengers died of typhus; as by a miracle the others were not infected.A storm east of the Cape of Good Hope shredded the 'Zebra' of five sails within a few minutes. They were mended by day and night shifts.

On 2nd January the ship ran (entered) into the harbour of Adelaide. At last after 84 days no land had been more (wecomingly) seen.

Captain Hahn's contract had been fulfilled. Yet instead of setting sail, he concerned himself further with his passengers. In the first place, he the trouble to lease land for them near Port Adelaide. By chance he came to know a Mr Dutton, who offered him 100 acres of land. The captain visited the land, and himself worked out a contract. With this the basis of subsistence for the Immigrants was assured.

But Hahn helped further. He travelled from place to place, cleared (smoothed) difficulties with the authorities on the way, 'cut down' prejudices against new comers. He was even successful in obtaining advances for future harvest returns (products) and in return to buy work tools and equipment. From ship's captain he had turned into Speaker and Leader for the Immigrants. So then they unanimously decided to name their new settlement Hahndorf.

Attempts to persuade the captain into staying, all to no avail (very loose translation!). When his charges (protegees) had their houses and fields, he considered his mission fulfilled, and sailed back to Altona. Australia never saw him again.

Hahndorf operates still today as a German smalltown. In the brewery (hotel?) there is German beer, and once a year a 'Schutzenfest (shooting match/festival). On the shop signs there are German names. In the middle of the town there is (erected) a memorial to the Captain.

Dirk Meinertz Hahn died in 1860. His grave in Sylt has long since been leveled, but the (head)stone leans on the wall of the St Niels Church in Westerland. The people of Hahndorf in distant Australia would subscribe to the epitaph on it:

Dust it is, what we are and will be,
And he (turned) became it, Oh! too soon;
But his memory lives on earth,
For his good works never die."

132. =Mathew HALE

133. Bishop HALE WA catholic

134. William HALL, Prahran 1875-1899” [Melbourne City Mission]

REFERENCE: 1. Missionaries’ Diary Journals Prahran and surrounding districts: Missionary William Hall - Melbourne University archives: MELBOURNE CITY MISSION [ACCESSION NO: 89/90; 97/129 and single item accession 95/129] 1856-1974; one item 1981; one item 1995 [In the context of the goldrush social disruption, the MCM was founded in
1855, with impetus from the philanthropist Dr John Singleton and from Mrs Hornbrook's Ladies' City Mission. With the motto "Need not Creed", it is governed by a committee comprising Church, business and professional people, and describes itself as 'an inter-denominational (or unsectarian, Christian) Institute ... operating amongst the poor outside the Churches'. In 1900 it became obvious that the Melbourne City Mission could render much more effective service to the community if it could
establish homes suited to the needs of various types of people contacted by visitation. Subsequently the Brunswick Pre-Maternity Home, Toddlers’ Home, The Haven of Hope (1926-1954), Swinborn Lodge, Pilgrims’ Rest and Judge Book Memorial Village were established. Sources: Melbourne City Mission 1855-1949; Loving Service in our
Community 1855-1962, being the story of the work of the Melbourne City Mission, by Percival Dale
2. Dr Roslyn Otzen, (1986). Charity and evangelisation: the Melbourne City Mission 1854 - 1914. PhD thesis, Arts, History, The University of Melbourne. [
It has become so commonly held as almost to be axiomatic among recent Australian historians, that the act of evangelising and giving charity to people, is essentially an act of control and discipline by powerful people in a society over those who have little power. This thesis, in making a detailed examination of the Melbourne City Mission from 1854 to 1914, along with a smaller study of the Elizabeth Fry Retreat in the late 1880s, offers a substantial challenge to any over-simple application of this concept. In addition, it provides a new assessment of the roles of women of all classes, as they are revealed in acts of charitable evangelism. The introduction establishes the state of historiography in Australia and to a lesser extent, overseas, in the field of evangelical and charity history. Chapters 1 and 2 make a general survey of the rise of evangelical charity in Great Britain and in Melbourne in the nineteenth century, and provide a detailed introduction to the City Mission movement, and the Melbourne City Mission in particular. Chapters 3, 4 and 5 offer a close investigation of the personnel involved in MCM work in Melbourne: the men and women who founded and administered the Mission, its missionaries, and its clients. Chapters 6 and 7 look at the MCM at work. Chapter 6 follows its history in the suburb of Collingwood as a succession of missionaries worked there, while Chapter 7 concentrates on the career of one missionary, William Hall in Prahran. Chapter 8 and 9 look particularly at prostitution and the lot of women who served gaol sentences. Chapter 8 describes and assesses the efforts of City Missionaries to help prostitutes in the 1870s. Chapter 9 looks at charitable responses in the 1880s, to women coming out of gaol, in the work of Sarah Swinborn and her institution, The Elizabeth Fry Retreat, and of a public charity, the Victorian Discharged Prisoners Aid Society. The conclusion offers revision of current ideas in many key aspects of charity history. PhD thesis © 1986 Dr. Roslyn Otzen]

135. =David HAMMER, Pastor, Carnavon WA

136. A.J HAMILL, C of C evangelist, Prahran, 1869 Berwick, VIC

137. William HAMILTON, Presbyterian

137+. Robert HARKNESS - musician, hymnwriter & evangelist

Robert HARKNESS - musician, hymnwriter & evangelist

Parents: Abraham HARKNESS and Jane Elizabeth NOBLE - married 1864 Victoria
Place in Family: youngest - equal tenth, or eleventh child with his twin
Born: 2 March 1880 Bendigo, Victoria - [his twin brother Joseph died at 10 weeks old]

Death: 8 May 1961 London, England


HARKNESS, Robert (1880-1961)
Keith Cole


(b. Bendigo, Vic, 2 March 1880;
d. London, 8 May 1961).
Hymnwriter and evangelist.

Robert was the son of Abraham and Jane Elizabeth Harkness, two staunch Methodists and deeply committed Christians. He was educated at Bendigo, worked for a short time in a printing firm and then in his father's foundry. At a very early age he displayed a remarkable musical ability on the piano and organ, and soon began to compose hymns. The whole direction of his life changed in 1902 when the Torrey-Alexander Mission team visited Bendigo. His brilliant piano playing immediately caught the attention of Charles M Alexander, the mission's song leader, who arranged for him to join the mission group. Several months later he dedicated his life completely to Christ during a mission at Dunedin, New Zealand. From that time onwards, for the next sixty years, he devoted the whole of his many talents, energy and expertise to the presentation of the gospel through music, song and the spoken word.

Harkness was the accompanist and composer with Alexander from 1902-16, from 1902-09 as a member of the Torrey-Alexander team and from 1910-6 with the Chapman-Alexander group. He travelled with them around the world on numerous occasions and took part in all their major missions.

During the 1909 Chapman-Alexander Mission in Australia he became engaged to Adela Ruth Langsford, and the couple were married on 16 Feb 1912 on the team's next visit to Australia. Ruth was a trained singer and after their marriage often sang at missions at which Harkness played. They had no children.

During the 1909 Australian tour Alexander used his very popular Alexander's hymns Not for the First time. This hymn book had been compiled at Alexander's Birmingham home during a break in their mission program. Harkness wrote the tunes for 61 and the Lyrics for 14 of the hymns in this book, 9 other lyrics being written by Fred P Morris, another Bendigonian.

Harkness and his wife moved to the United States after World War One where they spent the remainder of their lives giving sacred concerts and composing sacred songs. He composed, in all, over 2500 gospel hymns. They lived at Pasadena near Los Angeles on the west coast. Here he formed the Harkness Music Co by which he published three very popular correspondence courses for hymn playing; founded and edited a very popular monthly music magazine called The Sacred Musician, compiled a slender hymn book called New Harkness Hymns and Sacred Hymns; and wrote a 127 page book called Reuben Archer Torrey: the Man and his Message.

During their forty years in the United States Harkness and his wife conducted many sacred concert tours throughout North America, England, Scandinavia and the Continent. He returned to Australia and his home city of Bendigo seven times. On each occasion he gave sacred concerts and played hymns tunes on his father's foundry whistles. A feature of the concerts was his invitation to the audience to suggest a text to which immediately he would compose and play a tune.

Ruth died in the United States in 1958 and he died in a London clinic on 8 May 1961. He was buried in the Alexander family plot in Birmingham, England.

REFERENCE: Keith Cole, Robert Harkness: the Bendigo hymnwriter (Bendigo, 1988)

KEITH COLE - Electronic Version © Southern Cross College, 2004

FROM: Biography and Gospel music of Robert Harkness (1880-1961)

Robert Harkness


Born: March 2, 1880, Ben­di­go, Aus­tral­ia.
Died: May 8, 1961, Lon­don, Eng­land.
Buried: In the Al­ex­an­der fam­i­ly plot, Birm­ing­ham, Eng­land.

After at­tend­ing a re­viv­al meet­ing by Ru­ben Arch­er Tor­rey and Charles M. Al­ex­and­er, Hark­ness be­came Al­ex­and­er’s pi­an­ist. He came to Christ short­ly ther­ea­fter (“on a bi­cy­cle,” he said), and made sev­er­al round the world tours with Tor­rey and Al­ex­and­er. Hark­ness was es­pe­cial­ly well known for his prog­ram “The Mu­sic of the Cross,” and as the au­thor of cor­res­pond­ence courses in hymn play­ing. He wrote over 2,000 hymns and Gos­pel songs in his life­time.

His works in­clude: Music

At the Foot of the Cross
Carry Your Bi­ble
Far from God, Away from Jesus
He Wants a Poor Sinner Like Me
He Will Hold Me Fast
Hide God’s Word in Your Heart
I Have a Savior
I Need to Be Filled
I Would Draw Nearer to Jesus
In Jesus
Meet Me in the Homeland
Memories of Mother
No Longer Lonely
Old Time Way, The
Somebody Came and Lifted Me
Soon Will Our Savior from Heaven Appear
Such Love (© 1928)
’Tis Jesus
Traveling Home
Trusting Jesus, Wonderful Guide
When I See My Savior
When the Shadows Flee Away (© 1923)
Why Should He Love Me So (1924)
Wonderful Love (1922)

138. James HAROLD (1744-1830) banished Catholic Priest, Convict, Sydney, Norfolk Island
Father James HAROLD, banished Catholic Priest, Convict,
Sydney, Norfolk Island

Birth: 1744 Ireland
Cultural Heritage: Irish
Religious Influence: Catholic
Cross: Accused of Treason, taken Political Prisoner, Transported, Banned from Ministry
Arrived: January 1800 Sydney, NSW in the 'Minerva'
Occupation: Catholic priest, convict (political), schoolteacher
Pardon: by Governor Macquarie in June 1810,
Death: 15 August 1830 Dublin, Ireland

From ADB ONLINE - Australian Dictionary of Biography

Harold, James (1744–1830)

by Harold Perkins

James Harold (1744-1830), Catholic priest, was a member of an old family of Wicklow, Ireland, said to have been descended from King Harold of England, one of whose sons settled in the Dublin Hills. He was ordained in 1774, studied at Antwerp till 1779 and became parish priest of Rathcoole in 1794. A United Irishman, he wrote propagandist verse, but in March 1798, in obedience to Archbishop Troy, he preached restraint and bade his parishioners surrender arms and swear allegiance. However, he clashed with officers enforcing the disarmament and sheltered a wounded prisoner, Felix Rourke. When the rebel plot for the seizure of Rathcoole was discovered, Harold went to Drogheda for a written 'protection' from the commanding general. In his absence he was blamed before a military court for the treason of parishioners and his house was burned. On his return, 'protection' notwithstanding, he was arrested and imprisoned in June, and in November placed on a hulk. Thrice his friends obtained habeas corpus writs, which were ignored by his keepers. He petitioned for a trial on 28 February 1799, but whether his petition was rejected or whether he was banished under the amnesty of 22 August 1798 is not clear. Writing to relations he denied the published allegations against him, but spoke of an apostleship and of his 'persecutors' as instruments of providence.

He arrived in Sydney in the Minerva in January 1800, but as he was not permitted to minister in New South Wales he sought leave to depart. Governor John Hunter sent his petition to London. Meantime unrest among Irish convicts exposed him to suspicion, though he claimed that he 'tried at all times to prevent any disturbance and to preserve the peace of the community'. His refusal to incriminate others angered the inquiring magistrates. Several Irishmen were flogged, and Harold with others was banished to Norfolk Island. There he conducted a school when his health permitted, and lived near John Drummond, beach-master. He repeatedly petitioned Governor Philip Gidley King for permission to minister but was ignored. When Father James Dixon was released, Harold succeeded to his private ministry at Parramatta in 1808. He was among the Irishmen pardoned by Governor Macquarie in June 1810, and left the colony in the Concord in July.

In March 1811 he was with his nephew, Rev. W. V. Harold, vicar-general at Philadelphia, and became a pastor and trustee of the cathedral, but the other trustees, at variance with his nephew, never accepted him. He was old, a nervous wreck, temperamental, irrepressible. Under episcopal pressure both Harolds resigned. At the election for trustees in April 1813 only Haroldites were elected, and the notorious Trustee Schism began. Later that year the Harolds returned to Ireland. In 1815-16 James Harold served at Kilcullen, and in 1818-20 at Fairview-Clontarf. He died on 15 August 1830 and was buried in Old Richmond cemetery, Dublin.

Select Bibliography
Historical Records of New South Wales, vol 4
Historical Records of Australia, series 1, vols 2-4
P. F. Moran, Spicilegium Ossoriense. Letters and Papers Illustrative of the History of the Irish Church from the Reformation … to 1800 (Dublin, 1874-84)
P. F. Moran, History of the Catholic Church in Australasia (Syd, 1895)
T. J. Kiernan, Transportation from Ireland to Sydney: 1791-1816 (Canberra, 1954)
M. I. J. Griffin, ‘Rev James Harold’, American Catholic Historical Researches, 17 (1900)
Diocesan archives (Dublin)
Bonwick transcripts, biography (State Library of New South Wales).

139. Charles HARPUR, poet, NSW
Charles Harpur (1813-1868), poet and critic, was born on the 23rd January 1813 at Windsor on the Hawkesbury River, New South Wales, the third child and second son of Joseph Harpur, emancipist and government schoolmaster and parish clerk, and his emancipist wife Sarah, née Chidley. Both parents had been transported as convicts; his father, a native of Kinsale, County Cork, Ireland, arrived at Port Jackson, Sydney Cove in 1800, and his mother, from Somerset, in 1806.

Harpur is famous for works written from 1843 to the mid-1850s, such as 'The Dream by the Fountain', 'Glen of the White Man's Grave', 'Sonnets to Rosa', 'The Creek of the Four Graves', 'A Poet's Home', 'A Basket of Summer Fruit', and especially 'Midsummer Noon in the Australian Forest.' J. Normington Rawling writes (in ADB Online): 'Besides being a poet, Harpur saw his role as that of a patriot, not a chauvinist, whose task it was to help make his country worthy of esteem, and to lead and to warn and to strike at wickedness in high places and in low, and like some Hebrew prophet to thunder judgment. While, he said, nothing could shake his belief in God, he rejected all Christian sects, Unitarianism coming nearest to his conception of religion. But his standards were high, his standards for individual righteousness and for collective and governmental morality. He could not keep silent, whether it were friend or foe who offended. There was much to thunder about in mid-century Sydney and much to sadden a sensitive poet with the outlook of a seer and prophet.'

140. = Jack HARRADINE, Adelaide

141. + Charles HARRIS

142. = Len HARRIS NT

143. = G. R. Dick HARRIS QLD

144. Norm HARRIS, Surf-lifesaver & evangelist Woolongong NSW

144+. Fr Patrick Joseph HARTIGAN, (1878–1952)aka the poet John O'BRIEN

Poet 'John O'Brien - Fr Patrick Joseph HARTIGAN

Fr Patrick Joseph HARTIGAN, (1878–1952)

From: ADB ONLINE - Australian Dictionary of Biography

Hartigan, Patrick Joseph (1878–1952)

by G. P. Walsh

Patrick Joseph Hartigan (1878-1952), priest and poet, was born on 13 October 1878 at O'Connell Town, Yass, New South Wales, eldest surviving son of Patrick Joseph Hartigan, produce merchant, and his wife Mary, née Townsell, both from Lisseycasey, Clare, Ireland. After attending the convent school at Yass, he entered St Patrick's College, Manly, in February 1892 but, uncertain of his vocation for the priesthood, left for St Patrick's College, Goulburn, where he studied under the noted classicist Dr John Gallagher, later bishop of Goulburn.

145. Gwen HARWOOD, hymnist, poet, Qld & Tas.

146. C.L.M. HAWTERY, church historian WA

146+: "PITJIRI ’ Sister Ruth - Ruth Sabina HEATHCOCK (1909-1995) (M.B.E.) Nurse, Sister, Midwife & Missionary in South Australia & Northern Terrotory

147. Captain Mary Jane-HENDERSON, Mildura Victoria, Salvation Army, Hospital,

148. =Nicholas HEY, German moravian, Mapoon QLD

149. =Mary Ann HEY,(née Barnes), Mapoon, QLD

150. Ernst Bernhard HEYNE (1825-1881)-botanist, Thomastown VIC- Adelaide SA

151. Hans HEYSEN, artist, SA

152. Abel HOADLEY - The Violet Crumble Man (10 September 1844 Willingdon, Sussex, England - 12 May 1918 at his home, Bella Vista, Kew, Victoria) Orchardist, Jam-maker, Manufacturer, Methodist, Philanthropist

"...the Rising Sun Preserving Works, were built in 1895: jams, jellies, preserved fruits, candied peels, sauces and confectionery were made by a workforce as large as 200...Hoadley adopted a paternal attitude to his workers. The premises were praised for their cleanliness, airiness and well-equipped dining rooms. He supported wages boards, but after Federation the intensely competitive nature of business made him favour industry rather than occupational boards, and a State-wide and ultimately uniform Federal system. As a devout and active Methodist, he supported the establishment of the Central Mission in 1893, was its treasurer in 1895-1906, and an executive member thereafter. He was remembered as a prudent, independent committee-man, 'conservative without being retrogressive'. In 1903 when the mission decided to extend its boy rescue work by establishing a country home, Hoadley offered his 38-acre (15 ha) Burwood orchard for £1000, some £500 less than the market price; with another property purchased on similar terms it became the nucleus of the Boys' Training Farm at Tally Ho (East Burwood).'

153. Robert HODDLEExplorer, Surveyor-Designer of Melbourne, Visionary Born 20 April 1794 in Westminster, London ~ died 24 October 1881 Melbourne.
'His designs were an innovation for Australian cities, as Melbourne and its inner suburbs were planned in the grid style.'

A younger Hoddle, maybe had some lens even more 'visionary' than his telescope, one that seemed give him a view into the future with clarity, so that he could design ahead of his time.
"After the separation of the colony in 1851 he became Victoria's first surveyor-general. To a select committee on roads and bridges he advocated the provision of three-chain (60 m) roads and the widening of all existing main roads from one (20 m) to three chains (60 m). His outspoken criticism of the manner in which streets and highways had been allowed to develop was not well received...

"...he spent his long years of retirement, tending the trees and garden he loved and enjoying the books and pictures he had collected. He played the organ and flute, and made translations from the Spanish. He was actively interested in the Old Colonists' Association of Victoria, and sometimes attended the Anglican Cathedral. His energy and resourcefulness, technical accuracy and imagination had been invaluable attributes in the pioneer conditions which he had to face, and the difficulties of his personal relationships perhaps arose because he was more able and far-sighted than his colleagues."

Robert Hoddle, painted by his daughter

154. "KAMOTO" George Hubert HOLLIS (1877~1955)South Wandin > Nyassaland-Malawi / South Africa
"KAMOTO" George Hubert HOLLIS was the son of Hubert John Hollis, who had arrived in Melbourne in 1852 at age 9 as the eldest child with his family, but who was orphaned before maturity first by the death of his father in January 1854 and then of his mother in 1860. Though an orphan in Australia, Hubert Hollis was the grandson of a yeoman Grandee and Gentleman farmer in the fertile Thames valley, northeast of Reading, Oxfordshire. In 1867, about when two cousins, his Aunt Pearman's English sons, had graduated from Oxford University to became Anglican Clergymen, and another cousin, William Pottinger Hollis, was at the Royal College of Surgeons in London, Hubert Hollis married in a Registry Office in Gertrude Street, Fitzroy to a fellow orphan, the lately arrived, Eliza SUCKLING, whose parents had died in 1848 in the epidemic about Ware, Hertfordshire. The young couple went to pioneer the rainforested wilderness of Wandin Yallock, in the Yarra Valley of Victoria. George Hubert Hollis was born on the 21st November 1877 at South Wandin. Notwithstanding his gentrified antecedants, he lived with loss and difficulty from early years. His father died when he was eleven, but his mother fought on to raise he six surviving children, and keep the hard-won selection on her own. At that time the Hollis family changed their historical connnection with the Church of England to join in fellowship with their neighbouring largely Methodist settlers, and so made many missionary connections to the Healesville Aboriginal people the Yarra valley. Maybe, as a result of suffering poverty and hardship, Hollis was later to show an 'Australian Attitude' to English Class prejudice, of independent mind awhen he became a champion of the indigenous, the poor, and the marginalised, even if it was against the Force, Conceit and Grand Assunption of Colonial British Rule, as it eventuated, in 'British' Africa.

Hollis volunteered in about 1901 for the campaign of the Boer War, where he joined up with his brother Edward Hollis, in the Bushveldt Carbineers, along with 'Breaker Morant' and co. After a period up country in the veldt of South Africa, Hollis and his brother joined the Urban Police, in Cape Town. At this time his eyes were opened and his faith quickened to the point where he felt a Divine call on his life for the African people. In 1907 he became the pioneer Churches of Christ missionary in the British territory of Nyassaland, now Malawi, central Africa. The African people of Nyassaland soon called him 'KAMOTO' (Little Fire). Hollis made friends and converts, and from the beginning encouraged the formation of an Indigenous church with Indigenous Leaders, among them, John Chilembwe, of the Baptist Providence Industrial Mission, who led an uprising against the Nyasaland government in 1915. As the First World War broke out, the neighbouring State of German East Africa, was suspected officially in enmity, Hollis refused the demand of the Authorities to give him the names of leaders who lived and moved across the borders. He was then jailed in the 'Laager' by the British, with his wife and family and their fellow missionaries. The Authorities erected gibbets in the village and began to hang the rebels. "He (Hollis) believed... that the Christian missionary must be prepared to `live rough', and had arrived at one of Booth's old stations at Chikunda with his wife (Helen née Bowles), with nothing more than an African-style mud hut to live in at first. As a European `living native' he was, from the outset of his Nyasaland experience, therefore, an object of scorn for many of the Europeans of the Shire Highlands. His pronounced outspokenness on African affairs, furthermore, was not likely to overcome their attitude." Then Hollis, like his German-Australian brother-in-law, became a pacifist, and did not join in the inimical attitude to projected 'Enemies.' "Hollis was indulgent toward the African point of view, and he gave the Africans greater responsibility in the running of mission work than many Europeans. He also had opened up some small stores and was prepared to trade at close quarters with Africans.

'Kamoto' or 'Little Fire' George Hubert & Helen Hollis

"Hollis had known Baptist Booth, and when the Chilembwe revolt took place the British authorities ordered the Hollis's, Philpotts, and Mary Bannister into laager in Zomba. The confinement continued for seven miserable weeks, ending in Hollis being deported. The authorities thought Hollis knew of the revolt, maybe even helped plan it, and had refused to inform them. The fact is, rumors had gone around, but Hollis knew no more than the British authorities themselves. And, also, the charges did not fit his character: he was a confirmed pacifist." Hollis wrote: ' I now look upon war more as a relic of barbarism than anything else. I do not see how I could take up a gun with the intention of shooting my fellow man man now I am a disciple of Him who is the Prince of Peace.
In the patriotic atmosphere of Nyasaland at that time, pacifism was the last thing to make a man popular ! Hollis, and his family, were deported and banned from returning to Nyassaland.
Thus, from the beginning, the personality of Hollis and the background of association with Booth were calculated to bring the Churches of Christ Mission in Nyasaland into disfavour.
The Church of Christ was banned by the Nyassaland government from 1915 to 1924, but the brethren continued to meet in secret for worship and baptized converts in the streams at night. Hollis lived out the rest of life involved in the church in South Africa, only visiting family in Australia, accompanied by his wife, for about a year in 1934. He died on 23 February 1955 at 'Bullwood,' Cape Town, South Africa and is buried nearby.

155. Alec Derwent HOPE -"THE VISITANT",(21 July 1907 –13 July 2000) 'A.D.HOPE' - poet, New South Wales, Tasmania, Canberra
" A D Hope was born in Cooma, New South Wales in 1907 and was educated at Sydney and Oxford Universities. He lectured at the University of Melbourne from 1945 to 1950,eventually moving to Canberra, where he was foundation professor of English at Canberra University College, later to become the Australian National University, until 1969. He was instrumental in launching the first full university course in Australian literature."

A younger Alec Hope

...'From 1929 to 1930 Hope read English at Oxford University; his teachers for language included the novelists J. R. R. Tolkien and C. S. Lewis. ' His poems include many full of the Judeo-Christian substance and hope.

... 'Hope saw the role of poetry as a means of creating new being. He saw the poet as an actor who entered a part and explored possible answers to those questions offered up by the human condition. Central to his vision is an ironic stance that teases the reader to submit to the provisional nature of knowledge though simultaneously affirming the relentless search for truth.'

'Such poems as "Imperial Adam" and "Lot and His Daughters" (The Bible), "Ascent into Hell" and "The House of God" (Boyhood), "Pyramis or The House of Ascent" (Archaeology), "The Brides" and "Toast for a Golden Age" (Society and Its Ironies), "Return of Persephone" and "The End of a Journey" (Reinvention of Myth)' join the literature of Judeo-Christian striving. ... They show 'Hope's attempt to find a principle of transcendence, reconciliation, and grace in a world that in the Nietzschean sense had lost its God.'

'Hope enjoyed taking on the scientists--whether physicists, astrologists, or biologists -because of their inability to accept the provisional nature of know-ledge. Scientific concepts themselves often served as a source of inspiration for his work. He writes of how he has never lost sight of the "awareness of the narrowness of the bases of knowledge of the world" and the way "that what we are aware of gets in the way of what we are totally unaware of...' He wants us to and feel our own longing, to see the luminous 'otherness' in a numinous actuality that we might call fact or reality is only a part, and to which death is a final entry, a bridge: -

The Gateway - by Alec Derwent Hope

Now the heart sings with all its thousand voices
To hear this city of cells, my body, sing.
The tree through the stiff clay at long last forces
Its thin strong roots and taps the secret spring.

And the sweet waters without intermission
Climb to the tips of its green tenement;
The breasts have borne the grace of their possession,
The lips have felt the pressure of content.

Here I come home: in this expected country
They know my name and speak it with delight.
I am the dream and you my gates of entry,
The means by which I waken into light.

'A. D. Hope died on 13 July 2000 in Canberra. He believed that poetry was philosophical music, and his work dramatizes the ways in which a philos-ophical argument is best represented by analogy. He believed that all great poems include within their music an argument of some kind. His preference for analogy is in line with his distrust of arguments based on the assumption that certain facts are fundamental, elemental, and axiomatic and that, in knowledge, no other facts have to be brought into consonance with them.'

"Despite Hope's scholarly engagement with metaphysics, mythology, psychology, and cultural movements, and despite his antagonism toward aspects of modernism and his fierce views about the need for the poet's personal detachment when entering into an argument of a poem, he always expresses an element of play and disinterested contemplation of the world. When questioned about if and how he might write an autobiographical work, Hope said he "would write it as a travel book under the title 'A Visit to Earth.' It would involve no pose or artifice, since I have always felt that detachment travellers feel, no matter how well they know and feel at home in their countries they visit. No matter how immersed in the life of a foreign country they may become, their first impressions are always from the outside looking in--and that has been my attitude to the world I live in and still is." In "Visitant," from Orpheus, he writes,

Yet much that I saw became dear;
Some few were close to my heart;
Although it was perfectly clear
I was a stranger here
Standing aloof and apart.'

156. Widow Hester HORNBROOK Ladies' City Mission, Melbourne
Widow Hester HORNBROOK -
Born: about 1785 Jamaica, West Indies
Work: Melbourne Ladies' City Mission. Melbourne City Mission
Died: 27th August 1862 at age 77 Melbourne
Probate: to Josselyn Forbes Forgeur of Wahgunyah

From Melbourne City Mission Website -
Hester Hornbrook
Hester Hornbrook was Melbourne Citymission's president from 1856 until her death in 1862, and one of its founders. Born in the West Indies, she had arrived in Victoria in 1849.
Among her many charitable works was her involved in establishing a 'Protestant Refuge' for prostitutes who wished to begin new lives. She was best known for founding a system of 'ragged schools' - basic education, particularly 'instructing the word of God', for children who were too poor, dirty or otherwise marginalised to attend any other type of formal education.
After her death she was remembered with respect and love by fellow committee members of Melbourne Citymission: 'In meetings of committee her firmness of purpose, purity of motive, simplicity of aim, unwavering trust in the Divine promises, prayerful dependence on God, fearlessness in encountering difficulty, excellency of wisdom, and her spirited, joyous and hopeful manner - all rendered her an invaluably councillor and guide'.
Mrs Hornbrook had worked tirelessly to raise funds for Melbourne Citymission - visiting house to house to collect money and writing letters when poor eyesight and general infirmity restricted her movements.
"This is the last Will and Testament of me Hester Hornbrook of Melbourne in the colony of Victoria, Widow. In the name of Jesus I commit my soul and body to the one living and true God, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, who has redeemed them from Death and Hell and has provided my daily wants all my life long, I give and bequeath all my real and personal Estate whatsoever and wheresoever situate to my dear Grandson Josselyn Forbes Forgeur, his heirs, executors, administrators and assigns according to their several natures and qualities thereof absolutely. And I appoint my said Grandson Josselyn Forbes Forgeur sole Executor of this my Will In Witness whereof I have to this my last Will and Testament set and subscribed my hand this thirteenth day of May, One thousand eight hundred and sixty two. From: LAST WILL and TESTAMENT of Hester Hornbrook.

Legacy: - 1. Petition Tabled in Parliament of Victoria on Tuesday 18th October 1853 coutesty of Mr. E. Parker - to move that the petition presented to him on the 13th Inst (October 1853) - from Hester Hornbrook, Isabella Singleton, and 2097 females, on the subject of Intemperance, be printed. [The Argus< Melbourne - Tues 18th October 1852 page 5]
2. Three Inner City HORNBROOK RAGGED SCHOOLS, Byron Street, St Kilda - Hornbrook ragged Schools Association 1872
3. HORNBROOK MISSION SCHOOL existing in 1911
5. Hester Mary FORGEUR - daughter of Josselyn Forbes FORGUER & Maria SANGER FORGEUR (who married 1865 Albury), born 1867 at Albury, NSW,- died 1938 at Corowa, NSW
6. Josselyn Hornbrook FORGEUR - son of Josselyn Forbes FORGUER & Maria SANGER FORGEUR, born 1872 at Wahgunyah, Victoria - died 1945 Liverpool, NSW

REFERENCE & SOURCE: - LAST WILL and TESTAMENT of Hester Hornbrook, Widow. Probate Granted 19 Sept 1862 File No.4/077 to J.F.Forgeur

156+. Rev William HORTON, Hobart

157. Pastor Gottfried HOUSMANN, Grovedale VIC

158. =William HOWITT

158+. Sir William HUDSON (1896–1978) Civil Engineer, Anglican Christian, Genius of the Snowy Mountains Scheme
Sir William HUDSON (1896–1978)
Civil Engineer, Anglican Christian, Genius of the Snowy Mountains Scheme

Australian Dictionary of Biography ADB ONLINE

Hudson, Sir William (1896–1978)

by Eric Sparke

Sir William Hudson (1896-1978), civil engineer, was born on 27 April 1896 at East Nelson, New Zealand, seventh of eleven children of James Hudson, a medical practitioner from London, and his New Zealand-born wife Beatrice Jane, née Andrew. Dr Hudson kept a tight rein on his family and expected Bill to study medicine. Bill enraged him when, in his matriculation year at Nelson College, he said that he wanted to be a civil engineer. In a classic case of parental misjudgement, the father told the son destined to become a world leader in his profession, 'Bill, that is about all you are bloody well good for'.

In 1914 Hudson left New Zealand to enter University College, University of London. A brilliant student, he won the Archibald Head medal, gained the college diploma with distinction and in 1920 graduated B.Sc.(Eng.) with first-class honours. His studies had been interrupted by service in World War I. A second lieutenant in the London Regiment, he was wounded in the thigh at Bullecourt, France, in April 1917. He emerged from hospital with a slight limp in his right leg, a limp which only became pronounced when he was tired. To further his interest in hydro-electric engineering, he took a postgraduate course at the University of Grenoble, France.

Hudson's first job was with Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. Ltd, London, but he returned to New Zealand in 1922 to join the Public Works Department as an assistant-engineer. He was initially employed on railway construction and then on the Mangahao hydro-electric scheme. Between 1924 and 1927 he again worked with Armstrong, Whitworth as engineer-in-charge of construction of the Arapuni Dam. At St Columba's Presbyterian Church, Fairlie, on 28 December 1926 he married 21-year-old Annie Eileen Trotter.

In 1928 Hudson crossed the Tasman to work first for the New South Wales Department of Public Works and then for the Sydney Metropolitan Water, Sewerage and Drainage Board. Appointed an assistant-engineer, he later took charge of construction of the Nepean Dam. In 1931 the Depression abruptly halted the project and he found himself unemployed. 'Not a man to remain idle', he moved his family to New Zealand and set off to try his luck in Britain. He was instantly rewarded. Sir Alexander Gibb & Partners offered him the post of engineer-in-charge of construction on the Galloway hydro-electric scheme in a remote corner of south-west Scotland. The largest project of its kind in Britain, the undertaking was challenging and presented, albeit on a minor scale, some of the problems he was to face in the Snowy Mountains of Australia.

Hudson notified his wife of his success in typical fashion—by a telegrammed directive, 'Come to Scotland'. Arriving at Tilbury, England, with a child in hand, she found another summons, 'Can't get away. Come to Galloway'. Husband and wife finally met at a small railway-station in Scotland. The five years he spent on the Galloway scheme (which he completed a year ahead of schedule) enhanced his growing reputation as an efficient and dedicated leader. With J. K. Hunter, he presented a paper on the scheme to the Institution of Civil Engineers in London and won the Telford premium.

Returning to Sydney in 1937, Hudson was again recruited by the water board as resident engineer for the Woronora Dam project. By 1948 he was the board's engineer-in-chief. In the following year he applied for the post of commissioner of the newly established Snowy Mountains Hydro-electric Authority. Nelson Lemmon, the Federal minister for works and housing, was attracted by Hudson's reputation for building dams on time and at fixed prices, and by the opinion of union officials that, although a 'bit of a slavedriver', Hudson was decisive and fair. When cabinet demanded the usual three nominations, Lemmon handed Prime Minister J. B. Chifley a slip of paper which read 'Hudson, Hudson, Hudson'.

Appointed on 1 August 1949, at 53 he reached the pinnacle of his career as manager of the Snowy Mountains scheme, responsible for the biggest civil engineering project ever undertaken in Australia and one which the American Society of Civil Engineers would call an engineering wonder of the world. His starting salary was the princely sum of £5000 a year and he was given considerable powers, including direct access to the responsible minister.

Although classed as a statutory body, the S.M.H.E.A. had, to a substantial degree, the freedom of private enterprise, a necessary concomitant of the great task that lay before Hudson. That task, to be performed in a harsh terrain and climate, was to direct operations which would trap the seaward-flowing waters of the Snowy and Eucumbene rivers and drive them westward through long trans-mountain tunnels to irrigate the dry inland plains. In falling through the tunnel systems, the waters would generate electricity for the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales and Victoria. Ultimately, the workforce (which peaked at 7300 in 1959) built 16 dams, 7 power stations, 50 miles (80 km) of aqueducts and 90 miles (145 km) of tunnels. Completed in 1974, ahead of schedule, and at a cost close to the 1953-54 estimate of £422 million, the scheme had a generating capacity of 3.74 million kilowatts of hydro-electric power and provided an annual average of 2.36 million megalitres of water for irrigation and other purposes.

To head this vast undertaking, Hudson was the ideal man. While reserved and even shy, he was driven by ambition, and knew how to choose men, how to inspire and how to lead them. Of middle height, lean and sharp featured, he had a full mouth, a prominent nose, bushy eyebrows and alert, steely eyes. He shouldered the responsibility with a crusading zeal which left no doubt that he saw it as the opportunity for which he had waited and prepared all his life.

Engineers and technical staff were in short supply in 1949. Hudson began at once to 'search the world' for skilled workers and found numbers of them in refugee camps in Europe. Two-thirds of all Snowy personnel were to come from overseas. The S.M.H.E.A. employed people of thirty-two nationalities on the job, some of whom had fought against each other in World War II. Hudson imbued them with an esprit de corps by extolling the overriding importance of the project—'You aren't any longer Czechs or Germans, you are men of the Snowy'. He won their respect by taking practical measures for their well-being, by ensuring that they had good pay, food and quarters, by providing housing for their families and by showing concern for their safety. To stir their pride and sense of camaraderie, he kept them informed, published a staff magazine and even promoted a song, Snowy River Roll. Alive to the problems likely to arise with an isolated army of men cut off from normal life, he encouraged sporting activity and camp concerts, and allowed wet canteens.

He ensured that, in the allotment of houses and in all else, the immigrants were given equal opportunity and status with the Australian born. His constant aim was to pre-empt anything that might impede the work. Wary of politicians, he nevertheless made strenuous efforts to keep them on side and to avoid political interference. He found a powerful ally in (Sir) Robert Menzies who had been critical of the scheme before becoming prime minister in December 1949. In addition, Hudson moved to prevent industrial troubles. One short strike, which he admitted was mainly the fault of management, taught him a valuable lesson. Instead of resorting to the industrial courts, he secured a private arbitrator Stanley Taylor who quickly settled disputes. Each month supervising engineers sat round the table with local union representatives to identify matters liable to cause unrest.

Industrial safety was another vital concern. To reduce the number of accidents causing serious injury and loss of life, Hudson initiated a joint safety campaign which resulted in a dramatic reduction in the accident rate among the authority's and contractors' personnel. He stipulated that no one would be employed unless he signed a statement agreeing to observe prescribed safety precautions and in 1958 he ordered seat belts to be worn in the S.M.H.E.A. vehicles. Failure to do so, after one warning, meant dismissal.

Everything was judged by its 'usefulness to the scheme'. Acting on this key tenet, Hudson was a hard and demanding taskmaster. 'He expected complete loyalty, complete devotion and hard work'. On the other hand, he was fair and always ready to listen to people. Good performances were rewarded with incentive payments. World tunnelling records were broken. But any sign of slackness or idleness roused his quick temper. He once approached a group of workers who appeared to be taking an unauthorised tea-break and sacked them on the spot. The men looked puzzled. One of them said: 'We don't know who you are, but we work for the Main Roads Department'.

Hudson loved work and led from the front, showing stamina, drive and extraordinary industry. He toiled seven days a week, with lights shining in his office at Cooma until the early hours of the morning. He rarely took holidays and relaxed, when he felt the need, by bushwalking. There was something evangelical about his approach to the Snowy project, which may help to explain the success of his public-relations programme. People in the media found him pleasant, quiet and direct. Thousands of Australians came on tours arranged by the authority and the 'Snowy' became a household word. The project grew to be a source of national pride, a symbol of the burgeoning Australia of the 1960s.

In 1955 Hudson had been appointed K.B.E.; in 1964 he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society, London. Sir William's tenure as commissioner was extended twice and Menzies promised that he would be allowed to finish the task, provided his health held. Menzies' successor Harold Holt did not honour the pledge and Hudson was retired in 1967, on the eve of his 71st birthday. He moved to the suburb of Garran in Canberra. In 1974 he attended a ceremony to mark the twenty-fifth anniversary of the project which had changed the face of Australia.

Among many distinctions, Hudson received the (W. C.) Kernot memorial medal (1958), the James N. Kirby medal (1962), and the James Cook medal (1966) of the Royal Society of New South Wales. He was elected a fellow (1961) of University College, London, and was a foundation fellow (1975) of the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences. Accorded honorary memberships of the Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (1961) and of the Institution of Engineers, Australia (1962), he was also an honorary fellow (1967) of the Royal Australian Institute of Architects. He was awarded an honorary LL.D. by the Australian National University (1962) and an honorary D.Eng. by Monash University (1968). The Returned Services League of Australia conferred honorary life membership (1968) on him and the Braille Library of Victoria made him a life governor (1976).

Other countries sought Hudson's guidance on water-control undertakings. He gave advice on the Volta River project in Ghana and assisted the United Nations in deciding what money to allot for similar works elsewhere. The first chairman of the Australian committee of the International Commission on Large Dams, he had attended an executive-conference in Moscow in 1962. Such a man never retires. After leaving the Snowy, he held numerous engineering consultancies and presided over organizations whose concerns ranged from inland development and research into welding to combating drug dependence. He headed the National Safety Council of Australia and the New South Wales Road Safety Council (from 1968), and served as a Commonwealth arbitrator on disputes involving engineering.

Through it all, Hudson never forgot the Snowy. He loved attending meetings of the 'Old Hands'—those who had worked on the scheme from the first year—to whom he was known as 'King Billy' or simply 'the Old Man'. Grimly fighting the pain of arthritis as he grew older, Hudson walked the hills behind Garran every day until illness overtook him. Survived by his wife and two daughters, he died on 12 September 1978 at Red Hill, Canberra, and was buried with Anglican rites in Cooma cemetery, close to the project of which he had been 'the heart, soul and inspiration'.

Select Bibliography
S. McHugh, The Snowy (Melb, 1989)
M. Unger, Voices from the Snowy (Syd, 1989)
B. Collis, Snowy (Syd, 1990)
Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society (Lond), 25, Nov 1979
Canberra Times, 14 Sept 1978
Sydney Morning Herald, 14 Sept 1978
M. Pratt, interview with William Hudson, (transcript, 1971, National Library of Australia)
M. Murphy, interview with William Flynn, (transcript, 1974, National Library of Australia)
private information.

159. Hamilton HUME - Explorer

160. + Denzil HUMPHRIES, Kimberleys WA

161. Captain, later Governor, John HUNTER,1st Fleet, NSW

162. 'Matron' Ruby May HYDE
'Matron' Ruby May HYDE was Missionary at Oodnadatta, Quorn and near Adelaide, South Australia. Ruby grew up on the old Bendigo goldfields. She was born on the 25 July 1891 Hotham East, North Melbourne, VIC and died on the 1st Jan 1982 in Adelaide, SA, having given her life as a Missionary to Aboriginal children, at Colebrook Home, first at Oodnadatta, then at Quorn and lastly at Eden Hills, near Adelaide, South Australia.
Matron Ruby-May Hyde, MBE, was born in Victoria in 1891 and studied at the Melbourne Bible Institute. After graduating in 1923, Matron Hyde studied children’s work at Bomaderry Children’s Home, New South Wales.

In December of 1925, Matron Hyde traveled to Oodnadatta and graciously replaced Miss Annie Lock and Miss Iris Harris as matron of the United Aborigines Mission (UAM) Children’s Home. In May 1927, Matron Hyde, accompanied by Sister Rutter, MBE, and the twelve Aboriginal children in their care traveled more than 600km to Quorn where they officially established the Colebrook Children’s Home; named as such in honor of South Australian UAM president, TE Colebrook. For the first 6 years of the Colebrook Home, Matron Hyde, with assistance of the UAM rented a small cottage, however due to insufficient water supplies the Colebrook Home was moved to another location within Quorn in May of 1933.
The original Quorn site for Colebrook Home was chosen because the South Australian Government refused to allow the children any closer to Adelaide. Fortunately, in 1944, the Australian Government agreed to allow Colebrook Home to be relocated to Eden Hills. Arrangements were made by the Commissioner of Public Works to secure the lease of a building and 10 acres of land for the home to be established on.

Matron Hyde’s affection for the children at Colebrook Home was only matched by her dedication to her faith. Many of the children looked back fondly on the time they spent in Quorn and Eden Hills, commonly saying they felt more like a family with two parental figures in Matron Hyde and Sister Rutter.

Matron Hyde continued as caretaker and guardian of the children at Colebrook Home until 1952. A split in the UAM caused both Matron Hyde and Sister Rutter to resign. Not long after that, the sisters open Tanderra Hostel for Girls.

In 1971, Matron Hyde and Sister Rutter were made Members of the Order of the British Empire (MBE) for their services and dedication to the care of Australian Aboriginal children. Matron Hyde died in 1982 at the age of 91.' from South Australian Museum.

"In 1944 the Home moved to Eden Hills, Adelaide. In 1952 she retired and with Sister Rutter established Tanderra Hostel for older Aboriginal girls, in Parkside, later in Torrensville, Adelaide. Colebrook children, many now professionals in high positions, witness to her faithful loving service. Her appointment as MBE (1971) was public recognition of that work."

Reference and Source : 1. Christobel MATTINGLEY - Ruby May Hyde (1891-1982) - Australian Dictionary of Evangelical Biography.

2. South Australian Museum : Provenance - AA 148 Matron Ruby-May Hyde []

- Colebrook Home, Eden Hills, South Australia -

163. +Connie ISAAC ?

164. JACKEL Brothers : -George Oliver JACKEL, Horace James JACKEL, philospher peasant, pacifist & preacher, Cockatoo, VIC, Cecil William JACKEL, Evangelist, Minister, Wallace Edgar JACKEL evangelist, apologist, preacher

165. =Thomas JAMES, Mauritious-Mologa NSW- Melbourne

166. + Thomas Shadrach Peersahib JAMES Moama, NSW
Thomas Shadrach JAMES
Parents: Samson PEERSAHIB, Interpreter & Miriam Esther THOMAS
Born: 1 September 1859 Moka, Mauritius
Heritages: Indian Tamil, French Colonial, British Indian, Australian Aboriginal
Language: 1. Tamil, 2. French, 3. English 4. Bangerang Yorta-Yorta
Education: Private school, Port Louis, Mauritius
Occupation: Schoolteacher
Position: Maloga Mission with the Matthews, Barmah, Mooroopna
Qualities: Gentleness, Sensitivity, Grace, Freedom from prejudice
Leader of Aboriginal Missionary Band
Wife: Ada Bethel COOPER , daughter of William COOPER & Kitty THOMAS of the Bangerang people, later appointed Domestic science teacher at Cumeragunga
Christianity, Methodist; Baptist, Churches of Christ.
Married; 14th May 1885 at Maloga, NSW
Children: 8: -
1. Miriam Esther James 1886 Maloga, near Moama - married William MORRIS 1905. (later Mrs MORGAN) Died 1855 Mooroopna @ 38 yrs
2. Priscella James 1888 Maloga, near Moama
3. Shadrach Livingstone James 1890 Maloga, near Moama; - married Maggie CAMPBELL 1909 in Victoria. Died 1956 Geelong age 66
4. Rebecca Edith James 1894 Maloga, near Moama (Mrs Percy Vernon COE 1918)
5. Louisa L James 1895 Maloga,
6. Garfield Cornelius James 1900 Maloga, Moama. Died 1918 Echuca, Vic. @ 17 yrs
7. Ivy Abigail James 1902 Maloga, Moama (m.1926 Mrs William LEE) Died 1938 Mooroopna Vic. @ 29 yrs
8. Thomas Carey James 1908 Maloga, near Moama. Died 1981 Mooroopna Vic. @ 72 yrs

Writings: -Thomas S. JAMES, "Heritage in Stone" -on Aboriginal culture
Correspondent with Daniel Matthews
Medical advisor; Herbalist, healer in treatment of arthritis

“The teacher is popular and esteemed. Also, he acts as medical advisor; his influence is very beneficial. There are 50 children enrolled 44% attending.

Died: 9 January 1946 at Shepparton, Victoria, age 88
Buried: Cumeroogunga Cemetery, NSW

His wife Ada Bethel COOPER JAMES predeceased him, dying at age 74 at Mooroopna in 1942.
Buried: Cumeroogunga Cemetery, NSW

From ADB Online - Australian Dictionary of Biography

Thomas Shadrach James (1859-1946)

Alternative Names: Peersahib, Shadrach James
Birth: 1 September 1859 Moka, Mauritius
Death: 9 January 1946 Shepparton, Victoria, Australia
Cultural Heritage : Mauritian
Religious Influence: Methodist
Occupation : herbalist, Methodist lay leader, schoolteacher

James, Thomas Shadrach (1859–1946)

by George E. Nelson

This is a shared entry with Shadrach Livingstone James

Thomas Shadrach James (1859-1946), schoolteacher, and Shadrach Livingstone James (1890-1956), Aboriginal activist, were father and son. Thomas was born on 1 September 1859 at Moka, Mauritius, son of Samson Peersahib, an Indian interpreter, and his wife Miriam Esther, née Thomas (d.1876). Named Shadrach James Peersahib, he received his early education at a private school in Port Louis. When his mother died and his father remarried, he boarded a boat for Australia.

Soon after he arrived, Shadrach contracted typhoid fever. He was befriended by Aboriginal people who treated him with a traditional herbal medicine (old man weed). Having recovered, he dropped the surname Peersahib in favour of James and adopted the Christian name Thomas in memory of his mother. In 1881 he met Daniel Matthews, a Cornish missionary who was conducting a revival meeting on the beach at Brighton, Melbourne. James responded to his request for a volunteer teacher at the Maloga Aboriginal School, New South Wales, where he worked for the next two years without payment. On 1 October 1883 he was appointed head teacher by the Department of Public Instruction. He married Ada Bethel Cooper on 14 May 1885 at Maloga with Presbyterian forms.

When the Maloga residents were shifted in 1888 to the government reserve, Cumeroogunga, James reopened his school there and educated a number of Aborigines who were to become active in the early political movement: they included his wife, brother-in-law William Cooper, and later Jack Patten, James's nephew (Sir) Douglas Nicholls, and Eric and William Onus, founders (1933) of the Australian Aborigines' League. James also served as a Methodist lay preacher. He conducted a dispensary on Cumeroogunga mission and assisted visiting doctors to perform minor operations.

After his retirement from teaching in 1922, James moved to Barmah, Victoria, and then to Melbourne. He set up a visiting herbal and masseur business from his North Fitzroy home and specialized in the treatment of arthritis. While in Melbourne he published a book on Aboriginal culture, Heritage in Stone. Survived by his two sons and four daughters, he died on 9 January 1946 at Shepparton and was buried in Cumeroogunga cemetery with the forms of the Churches of Christ.

Thomas's and Ada's third child and eldest son, Shadrach, was born on 15 May 1890 at Cumeroogunga. He received his early education at his father's school before passing the teachers' examination and working under him as his assistant. At Christ Church, Echuca, Victoria, on 15 December 1909 he married Maggie Campbell with Anglican rites. In their North Fitzroy home, Shadrach and his father gathered together a small pioneering group of politically minded Aboriginal people. On behalf of the group, Shadrach addressed various organizations and lobbied for improvements to the conditions under which Aborigines lived and worked.

In 1928 Shadrach moved with his family to Mooroopna, in the Goulburn Valley, to obtain employment in the fruit-picking and canning industry. He took a position at the Ardmona Fruit Products Co-operative Co. Ltd. Because of his education and capacity for public speaking, he was elected secretary of the local branch of the Food Preservers' Union and vice-president of the Goulburn district council. To the local Aboriginal people he became spokesman, lobbyist, legal adviser and representative, organizer of functions and letter writer.

As honorary secretary (1928-55) of the Aboriginal Progressive Association of Victoria, James persisted with his appeals, in copperplate handwriting. He asked for full education standards for Aborigines and the teaching of technical subjects, for land and the facilities to develop it, and for employment of Aborigines in the public service. He also advocated Federal rather than State responsibility for Aborigines, Aboriginal representation in parliament, and equal rights and citizenship for all Aborigines in the Commonwealth. He recommended payment of the maternity allowance to Aboriginal women, recognition of tribal law in the Northern Territory, and the appointment of educated Aborigines to the Department of Native Affairs. His requests were dismissed by government officials, one of whom minuted: 'S. L. James is not an Aboriginal . . . His father is an Indian and his mother is a half-caste Aboriginal'. James died of myocardial infarction on 7 August 1956 at Geelong and was buried with Presbyterian forms in Mooroopna cemetery; his wife, three sons and two of his four daughters survived him.

Select Bibliography
N. Cato, Mister Maloga (Brisb, 1976)
Historical Society of Mooroopna, Mooroopna to 1988 (Shepparton, Vic, 1989)
Aboriginal and Islander Identity, 3, Jan 1979
Australian Historical Studies, 25, no 101, Oct 1993
James letters, 1926-56, A431/1 item 49/686, and A659/1 item 45/1/4924 (National Archives of Australia)
private information.

167. Edwin JANE India-Pacific railway Chaplian Kalgoorlie WA

168. =Jean Marie JANNY, Disappointment Bay

169. "JIBANYAMA" + James JAPANMA, Roper Bar NT


From: Australian Dictionary of Evangelical Biography

JAPANMA, James (1885-1962)

John Harris


(b. Anhem Land, NT, c. 1885;
d. Roper River Mission, NT, March 1962). Aboriginal evangelist.

James Japanma was part of the first group of Aboriginal people to seek refuge at the Roper River Mission (now Ngukurr), established by CMS in 1908. In the ten years prior to 1908, most of the Aboriginal people of the region had been systematically massacred by the organised hunting gangs of the Eastern and African Cold Storage Company.

Coming to the new mission as a young man, James showed an early interest in the Christian faith. He was baptised by the Rev R Birch at the mission's first baptismal service on 11 May 1913. James profited greatly from the educational opportunities offered at the mission. Within a few years, he was acting as a teaching assistant in the school. In the 1930s, when there were severe staff shortages at the mission, James ran the school single-handedly in the absence of a trained teacher. When Helen Alder arrived to take over the school in 1941, she wrote 'James ... has been teaching them. All the older ones write well ... a foundation has already been laid.' (Open Door, Oct 1941)

James was now freed to undertake itinerant evangelism among people living in the surrounding cattle stations. In 1944, he travelled further afield, to preach the gospel to the Nunggubuyu people at Rose River. James was made a lay reader, and assumed full responsibility for church services during the frequent absences of clergy from the mission.

In 1953, James was one of four Roper River men chosen for possible ordination. Two controversies prevented this from proceeding. One was the confrontation between the evangelical CMS and the Anglo-catholic bishop of Carpentaria over the type of training; the other was the bishop's stipulation that theological training be undertaken away from the mission for six years. It is a tragedy that godly men such as James Japanma were not finally ordained, a tragedy which adversely affected spiritual growth on the CMS missions.

* Keith Cole, Roper River Mission (Melbourne, 1968);
* Keith Cole, From Mission to Church (Bendigo, 1985);
* John Harris, One Blood (Sutherland, 1990)
- by John HARRIS

* Northern Territory Dictionary of Biography Vol One:
by Keith COLE

Johannes 'John' JOBST - Luftwaffe Pilot; Bishop of Broome, W.A.

170. + Frank JOHNSON, Kimberleys WA

171. Fr Richard JOHNSON, First fleet chaplain, NSW
Richard Johnson (chaplain) (b. circa 1756 - 13 March 1827 in England)

Chaplain Richard Johnson

WIKI - Richard Johnson (b. circa 1756 - 13 March 1827 in England) was the first Christian cleric in Australia.
Johnson was the son of John and Mary Johnson. He was born in Welton, Yorkshire and educated at Hull Grammar School under Joseph Milner. In 1780 he entered Magdalene College, Cambridge as a sizar and graduated in 1784. His first post was as curate of Boldre, where William Gilpin was vicar. After about a year in Boldre, Johnson moved to London to work as assistant to Henry Foster, an itinerant evangelical preacher.
Johnson was appointed chaplain of the prison colony at New South Wales in 1788. This appointment was due, in large part, to the influence of the Eclectic Society and two notable men, John Newton and William Wilberforce, who were keen for a committed evangelical Christian to take the role of chaplain. Johnson sailed with the First Fleet and arrived in Australia in 1788.
Governor Arthur Phillip had first of all to find means of feeding and housing the soldiers and convicts and labour could not be spared for the building of a church. Services were held in the open air and even four years later, when Johnson appealed to Phillip for churches at both Sydney and Parramatta, he had no success. Under lieutenant-governors Grose and Paterson, Johnson was in even worse case. Grose made vague charges against him and Johnson made many complaints about the treatment he received.
He was given a grant of land and worked it so successfully with the help of some convict labour that, in November 1790, Captain Tench called him the best farmer in the country. He planted seeds of oranges and lemons he had obtained at Rio de Janeiro, which later on produced good crops of fruit, and occasional references are found to his having made a fortune by his farming; this is certainly an overstatement, though he sold his land and stock to good advantage when he left the colony.
In June 1793, tired of waiting on the authorities, he began to build a church himself, and by September completed a building capable of holding 500 people at a cost of about £67. Even allowing for the difference in the purchasing power of money and the comparative flimsiness of the structure, this was a remarkable achievement. This church was burnt down in 1798. Johnson, with his wife Mary, taught between 150 and 200 school children in this church.
An assistant chaplain, the Reverend Samuel Marsden, was appointed in the same year and arrived early in 1794; and henceforth Johnson had the support of a stronger personality than his own. In 1794 he published An Address to the Inhabitants of the Colonies established in New South Wales and Norfolk Island and, in 1800, obtained leave of absence to visit England. He sailed on the Buffalo in October and did not return to Australia. In June 1802 King in a dispatch said: "I understand that Rev'd Mr Johnson does not mean to return."[citation needed] Practically he retired in 1802, but so late as July 1805 he appears on a list of officers as "On leave in England, no successor or second clergyman appointed".[citation needed]
After returning to England, in about August 1801 Johnson took up a curacy with the Reverend Thomas Dykes of St John's, Hull. During this time he had opportunity to influence William Cowper, who became the third chaplain to New South Wales after being recruited by Samuel Marsden. In November 1803 Johnson was curate at Bunwell, Norfolk, a position he occupied until he moved to West Thurcock, Essex, in April 1809. In 1810 he was presented by the king to the united parishes of St Antholin and St John Baptist, in London. He never served as a curate at Ingham, despite oft-repeated claims to the contrary. The Richard Johnson who served at Ingham was a different person.
Johnson continued to take an interest in Australia, appearing before the House of Commons Select Committee on Transportation in 1812 and in 1815 he recommended John Youl to be chaplain at Port Dalrymple. He died on 13 March 1827.

Johnson preached the very first sermon on his new soil (then the colony of New South Wales) on Sunday, 3 February 1788. The sermon (commemorated by a plaque) was on Psalm 116:12; "What shall I render unto the Lord for all that he has done for me?"
Johnson is commemorated in Sydney by Richard Johnson Place, which is on the corner of Bligh and Hunter Streets in Sydney.
Richard Johnson Anglican School in Oakhurst, Sydney is named after him.
[edit]Further reading

Serle, Percival (1949). "Johnson, Richard". Dictionary of Australian Biography. Sydney: Angus and Robertson.
Richard Johnson - Chaplain to the Colony of New South Wales by Neil K. Macintosh, 1978.
Australian Christian Life from 1788 - An Introduction and an Anthology by Iain H. Murray, The Banner of Truth Trust, Edinburgh 1988.
Peter G. Bolt, The Case of the Disappearing Chaplain: Reverend Richard Johnson's "Missing Years", Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society 95.2 (2009), 176-195.

172. Seaman's Chaplain Kerr JOHNSTON , Port Melbourne

Reverend Chaplain Kerr JOHNSTON Seaman's Mission, Melbourne

Born: 26 August 1812 Greenock, Renfrew, Scotland
Cultural Heritage: Mediterranean-European Judeo-Christian, Scottish- English Anti-establishmentarianism
Christianity: Baptist, Congregational
Education: University of Glasgow; Glasgow Theological Academy under Dr Ralph Wardlaw
Ordination: as pastor, Bethel Baptist Chapel, Shipley
Occupation : Seamen's Mission Chaplain, Baptist minister, temperance advocate
Marriage: 4 August 1842 parish church, Berwick-on-Tweed, England
Wife: Eliza Denovan GOWAN
Immigration : 1852 to Hobart Town, VDL, Australia
Theatres of activity: 1. Berwick on Tweed, & Birdhopecraig, Northumberland
2. Bethel Baptist Chapel, Shipley
3. 1853 Harrington Street Particular Baptist Church, Hobart Town, VDL;
4. Hobart Bethel Union Seamen's Mission;
5. February 1857 Seamen's Mission, Port Melbourne

Children: 1. Arthur Byram Johnston 1842-1924;
2. Margaret Gowan Johnston 1844-1861;
3. Eliza Johnston b.1846;
4. Lydia Johnston b. 1857;
5. Janet Johnston married Aboriginal Maloga missionary, Daniel Matthews:
6. Mary Johnston 1850-1926;
7. Kerr Johnston (1854-1889) became a Methodist Clergyman in Canada;
8. Robert William Johnston b, 1855;
9. Isabella Delgarno Johnston b.1858 Williamstown Vic. later married journalist & arts critic, Charles Nalder Baeyertz, son of the evangelist Emilia Baeyertz.

Melbourne Residence: the Mission ship "EMILY" - 'Painted yellow, with 'Bethel Sailors Church' inscribed on each side, the Emily flew the blue Bethel flag emblazoned with a white star and dove with olive branch. A chapel with a blue-draped pulpit was created in the hold. For two and a half years, the Johnston family, with eight children, three servants and livestock, also lived in the vessel, moored between Williamstown and Sandridge (Port Melbourne).'
Qualities: Courage, Intrepid Spirit, Resourcefulness, Evangelistic Faithfulness.
Particular Contribution: attended the 'wild man' William Buckley on his deathbed
Cross: some Sectarian narrowness; Criticism; 'Romish opposition'
Death: 9 October 1887 Kew, Boroondara, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Burial: Melbourne General Cemetery
Legacy: strength of the Seaman's Mission, Bible Society, Temperance movement; the Matthews Maloga & other Murray River Aboriginal missions

From Australian Dictionary of Biography - ADB Online -

Johnston, Kerr (1812–1887)

by Walter Phillips

Kerr Johnston (1812-1887),
seamen's mission chaplain, was born on 26 August 1812 at Greenock, Renfrew, Scotland, sixth son of William Johnston, printer and publisher, and his wife Elizabeth, formerly Thomson. After his schooling, Kerr learned bookbinding in his father's business and became a member of the George Street Congregational Church, Greenock. In 1837-40, supporting himself by his trade, he took classes at the University of Glasgow and studied at Glasgow Theological Academy under Dr Ralph Wardlaw, a prominent Scottish opponent of religious establishments. Ordained on 23 January 1842, Johnston became minister of Mill Street Congregational Church, Perth. He married Eliza Denovan Gowan, daughter of a shipbuilder, on 4 August 1842 in the parish church, Berwick-on-Tweed, England. In 1847 he moved to Birdhopecraig, Northumberland. Having come to doubt the validity of infant baptism, he was baptized by his brother Robert, a Baptist minister, in Well Lane Chapel, Beverley, Yorkshire, on 9 April 1848. Johnston then became pastor of Bethel Baptist Chapel, Shipley. Late in 1852 he migrated to Australia and became pastor of the Harrington Street Particular Baptist Church in Hobart Town in May 1853.

Johnston had arrived in Van Diemen's Land in time to take part in the abortive campaign against state aid to religion, denouncing 'the unholy compact' between church and state as well as the proposal to subsidize truth and error indiscriminately. He entered wholeheartedly into evangelical inter-denominational events and agencies such as the Bible Society, the temperance movement and, it is claimed, attended the 'wild man' William Buckley on his deathbed. Johnston's particular interest was the Hobart Bethel Union Seamen's Mission, a branch of the agency that George Fife Angas helped to found. Johnston left Hobart in February 1857 to set up a mission to seamen in Melbourne.

There several retired captains and merchants as well as Bishop Charles Perry supported the proposal and the Victorian Bethel Union enjoyed the patronage of the governor and the United States consul. The colonial government provided a hulk, a former American clipper, for use as 'a floating Bethel'. Painted yellow, with 'Bethel Sailors Church' inscribed on each side, the Emily flew the blue Bethel flag emblazoned with a white star and dove with olive branch. A chapel with a blue-draped pulpit was created in the hold. For two and a half years, the Johnston family, with eight children, three servants and livestock, also lived in the vessel, moored between Williamstown and Sandridge (Port Melbourne).

The seamen's mission, essentially non-denominational but emphatically Protestant, opened in the Bethel ship on 1 July 1857; Perry delivered the sermon. Subsequently known as the Victorian Seamen's Mission, it moved ashore at Sandridge early in 1860, using a boatshed as a temporary chapel until the Mariners' Church opened in November. As well as preaching there, Johnston visited ships to distribute Bibles and evangelical tracts, particularly temperance literature, and sometimes preached to small groups. Occasionally he met with 'some Romish opposition'. Once criticized by a Church of England minister as a sectarian, he defended his position as a teacher of essential Christianity, asserting that the mission aimed to disseminate the Gospel among sailors 'apart from sectional differences'.

Johnston joined the Evangelical Alliance when it formed in Melbourne and regretted its demise in the 1860s. The interest of the Protestant churches in the mission soon waned, though he worked tirelessly, building the seamen's mission into a significant agency. He retired in December 1885 with a gift of £100 from the committee. Johnston died on 9 October 1887 at his home in Kew and was buried with Congregational forms in Melbourne general cemetery. His wife and seven of their ten children survived him; a daughter (Janet) married Daniel Matthews, missionary to Aborigines, and a son (Kerr) became a Methodist minister in Canada.

Select Bibliography
* A. E. Brown, Garnered Sheaves (Melb, 1935)
* N. Cato, Mister Maloga (Brisb, 1976)
* W. D. McNaughton, The Scottish Congregational Ministry 1794-1993 (Glasgow, Scotland, 1993)
* Victorian Seamen’s Mission, Annual Report, 1846, 1875
* Southern Cross (Melbourne), 19 Dec 1885, 14 Oct 1887
Argus (Melbourne), 2 July 1857, p 5, 19 Nov 1860, p 5, 25 Feb 1864, p 5, 29 Feb 1864, p 7
* Janet Matthews’ diaries and memoirs in Norman family papers, PRG 422 (State Library of South Australia).

172+. Sir David Fletcher JONES, Warrnambool VIC
Born: 14 August 1895 Bendigo, Victoria, Australia
Death: 22 February 1977 Warrnambool, Victoria, Australia

173. ‘Jimmy The Possum” David James JONES, 1901-1982 Wentworth NSW

174. 'The VIKING KING of VAN DIEMENS LAND' Jørgen JØRGENSEN Born 29 March 1780 Kopenhagen, Denmark – Died 20 January 1841 in the Colonial Hospital, Hobart Town, Van Diemens Land (Tasmania) - Adventurer, Emancipist, Writer of Religious Works, Dogs Days Revolutionary King of Iceland, Whaler, Sailor, Captian, Entrepreneur, Preacher,

175. +Pompo KATCHEWAN , Yarrabah, QLD

175+. 'Bob' Robert Cummin KATTER (1918-1990)

'Bob' Robert Cummin KATTER (1918-1990)
Parents: Carlyle Assad Robert Katter, Mount Lebanon-born Assyrian (Chaldean) draper & Qld-born, Bridget Mary Vivian née Warby
Born: 5 September 1918 South Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
Cultural Influence: Assyrian (Chaldean), Nestorian Christianity, Lebanese Marionite,
Christianity: Nestorian, Marionite & Catholic
Occupation: storekeeper, businessman, army lieutenant, mens' wear draper, picture theatre operator, country politician, Cloncurry Shire Councillor, local government head, Member of Lower House
Marriage: 22 April 1944 Church of the Holy Spirit, New Farm, Brisbane
Wife: Mabel Joan Horn
Remarriage: 1st wife died 1971. married 1976 'Joy' Joycelyn Marjorie Steel
Family: 1st: Norman, Bob, Geraldine. 2nd: Carl, Richard, Bernadette
Death: 18 March 1990 Mount Isa, Queensland, Australia
Burial: Sunset lawn cemetery, Mt Isa, Queensland
1. People's political policy i.e. provision of housing for pensioners
2. advocacy of Aboriginal Rights ahead of his time
3. removed steel partitions dividing Aborigines from theatre patrons.
4. practical, no-nonsense sympathetic Christian conservative political advocacy
5. son 'Bob' Katter, followed him to the House of Representatives, 1993.

From: Australian Dictionary of Biography - ADB Online -

Katter, Robert Cummin (Bob) (1918–1990)

by Paul D. William

Robert Cummin (Bob) Katter (1918-1990)
, businessman and politician, was born Cummin Katter on 5 September 1918 in South Brisbane, fourth child of Carl Robert Katter, a Lebanese draper, and his locally born wife Vivian Bridget, née Warby. He became known as Robert Cummin Katter. The family later moved to Cloncurry to run a general store. Bob was educated at Mount Carmel College, Charters Towers, where he excelled at athletics, Rugby League football and debating. On matriculation, he returned to Brisbane to enrol in law at the University of Queensland but his studies were interrupted by war. Having enlisted in the Militia in October 1936, he was appointed as a lieutenant in April 1940. He was called up for full-time duty in September 1941 and promoted to temporary captain but his appointment was terminated on medical grounds in July 1942. Returning to Cloncurry, he leased a clothing store and, later, a picture theatre. On 22 April 1944 at the Church of the Holy Spirit, New Farm, Brisbane, he married with Catholic rites Mabel Joan Horn.

Politics soon beckoned. Belonging to a family that boasted an engagement with Labor politics from the 1891 shearers’ strike, Bob joined the Australian Labor Party and later became its Cloncurry branch secretary. In 1946 he was elected to the Cloncurry Shire Council; he served as chairman in 1949-52 and again in 1964-67. As Australia’s youngest local government head, Katter oversaw numerous advances, including the provision of housing for pensioners. His advocacy of Aboriginal rights also marked him as ahead of his time; for example, he raised eyebrows when he removed from his theatre the steel partitions dividing Aborigines from other patrons. In the late 1950s he hosted his own community radio program, `Katter’s Candid Comments’.

Following a short stint as a union delegate on the Brisbane wharves, Katter moved towards Labor’s anti-communist wing. He split from the ALP in 1957 and stood, unsuccessfully, as a candidate for the breakaway Queensland Labor Party (later the Democratic Labor Party) for the State seat of Flinders (1957-58) and for the Federal electorate of Kennedy (1958). Vehemently opposed to the principle of one vote, one value, in 1964 Katter joined the Country Party, for which he won in 1966 the Federal seat of Kennedy. Re-elected, with increasing margins, a further nine times, he was a powerful advocate of northern interests.

A man of rugged appearance with at all times polished shoes, Katter soon earned a reputation as a no-nonsense member, a `blue heeler’ who `dug his teeth in’, and a `battler’ with a `gloves off’ approach. Regarded as an `old style bush politician’, he became an early hawk on the Vietnam War. Katter later served, from February to December 1972, as minister for the army and, from June 1974 to November 1975, as shadow minister for northern development and the Northern Territory. He was chairman of the parliamentary committee on road safety, and an adviser to the United Nations General Assembly in 1970 and 1984 and during the Zimbabwean elections in 1980. Later he was an inaugural director of the Australian Stockman’s Hall of Fame at Longreach.

Katter did not recontest Kennedy at the 1990 poll. After the death of his first wife in 1971, he had married Joycelyn Marjorie Steel, a secretary, on 22 May 1976 at his old school chapel. Katter was deeply committed to his family, his faith and his constituents. He died on 18 March 1990 at Mount Isa and was buried in Sunset lawn cemetery; his wife and their two sons and daughter survived him, as did the two sons and daughter of his first marriage. His eldest son, Robert, followed him into the House of Representatives in 1993.

Select Bibliography
* Parliamentary Debates (House of Representatives), 8 May 1990, p 32
* Courier-Mail (Brisbane), 8 Dec 1966, p 10, 19 Mar 1990, p 1
* Review (Melbourne), 29 Jan-4 Feb 1972, p 404
* Australian, 19 Mar 1990, p 3
* Canberra Times, 19 Mar 1990, p 2
* Katter biographical information (Parliamentary Library, Canberra)
* private information.

176. Rev August Ludwig Christian KAVEL, Klemzig- Langmeil SA [1790-1860]

177. Edward John (Ned) KELLY , [Champion of Women, Virgin] 1888 VIC

178. Charles KEMP, Sydney Morning Herald

179. A Hermann KEMPE, Missionary, Hermannsburg, NT

180. Edmund Besley Court KENNEDY, explorer and martyr. Speared by Aborigines.

From - ADB Online
KENNEDY, Edmund Besley Court (1818–1848) - by Edgar Beale

Edmund Besley Court Kennedy (1818-1848), explorer, was born on 5 September 1818 on Guernsey, Channel Islands, the sixth of eight children of Colonel Thomas Kennedy and his wife Mary Ann, daughter of Thomas Smith, sometime lord mayor of London. All his brothers later distinguished themselves in either the Church of England or the public service, and a strong parental influence in both these directions is obvious. Edmund himself was educated at Elizabeth College, Guernsey, and trained as a surveyor. Impelled by what his admiring father admitted to be an 'almost mad ambition to distinguish himself', he embarked for Australia, arriving in Sydney in 1840, and while still only 21 was appointed an assistant surveyor in the Surveyor-General's Department.

He began duty on 7 August 1840 and immediately left under Charles Tyers for the Portland Bay settlement in western Victoria. In 1841 he began general survey work there and earned some praise, but in 1842 incurred official displeasure through an altercation with a local magistrate, James Blair. It was a parochial affair and, though Kennedy's motive was protest against an injustice, his crusade was juvenile. Moreover it left him open to further adverse reports as a result of a youthful and indiscreet alliance with an immigrant Irish girl, Margaret Murphy, by whom he had a daughter. Blair's main allegations were found by Superintendent Charles La Trobe to be not borne out by the facts. However, Kennedy was recalled to Sydney, where he wrote to the governor a manly defence of his action and expressed deep contrition for his alliance with the girl.

After his return to Sydney on 12 June 1843 his duties were slight; because of the falling off in land sales, most of the surveyors were on half-pay, and Kennedy had practically nothing to do for over two years. He did, however, establish himself as a popular and charming member of society, with a rowdy, boyish sense of fun. His gifts included a pleasant singing voice and considerable skill in sketching in pencil and water-colour.

Inactivity was galling to a man of such thrusting energy, and he found an outlet in November 1845 when he was suddenly appointed second-in-command, under Sir Thomas Mitchell, of the expedition to find an overland route to the Gulf of Carpentaria. Under this leader Kennedy was kept somewhat in the background, but after minor initial criticisms Mitchell praised his 'temperate and gentlemanly way, and highly honourable principles', with frequent references to his zeal and activity. Kennedy had the difficult assignment, which he performed to the satisfaction of his exacting leader, of maintaining a base camp for over four months while Mitchell probed the central west of Queensland, discovering in excellent country a river which he named the Victoria. The party returned to Sydney in January 1847.

Mitchell felt convinced that his 'Victoria' River flowed into the gulf, but his theory had to be tested, and Kennedy volunteered to lead an expedition to do so. With a small party of eight men and an Aboriginal boy, and with pack-horses and three spring carts, he left Sydney on 13 March 1847, retraced the tracks of Mitchell to his farthest point on the 'Victoria', and followed it down its course, only to find that instead of flowing north-west to the gulf it flowed south-west to become, as he correctly deduced, part of Cooper's Creek. He renamed the 'Victoria' the Barcoo, and discovered and named the Thomson River. He then traced the Warrego River down until its waters gave out, whereupon he crossed south-east to the Culgoa, and thence back to Sydney, arriving on 7 February 1848. The result of his exploration was somewhat negative, but he had successfully overcome many difficulties and was acclaimed for his sagacity, patience, skill and perseverance.

Within a few months he was again in the field, this time on an ambitious plan of landing at Rockingham Bay to traverse Cape York Peninsula along the east coast to its most northerly point, where supplies would be replenished from a ship waiting at Albany Passage; thence he was to traverse the west coast southwards to link with the recent discoveries of Mitchell and Ludwig Leichhardt, and to return overland to Sydney. Leaving Sydney on 28 April 1848, the landing was made on 24 May. He found, however, that he was hemmed in by mangrove swamps and mountains, and two months later the party was still in about the same latitude and only about twenty miles (32 km) inland. Having ascended the mountains, progress became a little better, but misfortune had beset them: sickness, a growing shortage of stores, extreme fatigue. Yet Kennedy maintained his cheerful manner and good spirits and proved thereby his excellent qualities of leadership. Eventually on 13 November Kennedy decided to leave eight of his thirteen men at Weymouth Bay while he and four others made forced marches to the supply ship for help. Starvation now confronted them all; only two of the men at the Weymouth Bay camp ultimately survived. Meanwhile one of the advance party shot himself accidentally, and Kennedy therefore left the wounded man and two others to look after him—they too all perished—whilst he and the Aboriginal boy, Jackey Jackey, pressed on alone. With weakening strength but superb courage and endurance, they reached to within about twenty miles (32 km) of the supply ship, only to find themselves trapped by the Escape River and its crocodile-infested mangrove swamps and thick scrubs. In the second week of December Aboriginals, who had become increasingly hostile, attacked; Kennedy was speared and soon afterwards died in the arms of the devoted Jackey Jackey, who alone reached the ship and was saved.

Kennedy died unmarried. His nature was unaffected and straightforward; actuated by high ideals and a strong religious sense as he was, his character was revealed in his deeds. Thomas Huxley, who admired him and nearly joined his last expedition, later commented: 'a fine, noble fellow poor Kennedy was'.

Select Bibliography
W. Carron, Narrative of an Expedition: Undertaken Under the Direction of the Late Mr. Assistant Surveyor E.B. Kennedy, for the Exploration of the Country Lying Between Rockingham Bay and Cape York (Syd, 1849)
E. Beale, ‘Edmund Besley Court Kennedy’, Journal and Proceedings (Royal Australian Historical Society), vol 35, part 1, 1949, pp 1-25
Kennedy to Colonial Secretary, 1 Sept 1843 (State Library of New South Wales)
manuscript catalogue under Edmund Kennedy (State Library of New South Wales).

181. Lachlan KENNEDY, repentant multi-murderer, Mapoon QLD
Lachlan KENNEDY, [If this is him ? -Son of Donald KENNEDY & Mary LOVELSTONE - He died 6th June 1913 Queensland ? - Maybe? married to Maggie? - children: Rosey Kennedy born 18 April 1895; Jimmy Kennedy b. 6 June 1897 ]

182. Sister Elizabeth KENNY of Toowoomba QLD

Parents: Michael KENNY & Mary MOORE
Born: 20 September 1880 Warialda, New South Wales,
Christianity: muscular Irish-Australian Methodist
Mentors: Dr Aeneas McDonnell, of Toowoomba
Landscapes: Guyra, NSW; Darling Downs, QLD
Contribution: Nursing, Medicine, Charity, Courage, Faith
Works: Infantile Paralysis healer
Appointment. Country Women's Association, Australian Army Nursing Service
Death 30 November 1952 Toowoomba, Queensland
Works: Autobiography My Battle and Victory, by Sister Kenny

From ADB Online - Australian Dictionary of Biography

Kenny, Elizabeth (1880–1952)

by Ross Patrick

Elizabeth Kenny (1880-1952), nurse, was born on 20 September 1880 at Warialda, New South Wales, daughter of Michael Kenny, farmer from Ireland, and his native-born wife Mary, née Moore. She received limited education at small primary schools in New South Wales and Queensland. There is no official record of formal training or registration as a nurse. She probably learned by voluntary assistance at a small maternity hospital at Guyra, New South Wales. About 1910 Kenny was a self-appointed nurse, working from the family home at Nobby on the Darling Downs, riding on horseback to give her services, without pay, to any who called her. In 1911 she used hot cloth fomentations on the advice of Aeneas McDonnell, a Toowoomba surgeon, to treat symptomatically puzzling new cases, diagnosed by him telegraphically as infantile paralysis (poliomyelitis). The patients recovered. Kenny then opened a cottage hospital at Clifton.

During World War I, using a letter from McDonnell as evidence of nursing experience, she enlisted on 30 May 1915 and was appointed staff nurse in the Australian Army Nursing Service, serving on troopships bringing wounded home to Australia. On 1 November 1917 she was promoted Sister, a title she used for the rest of her life. Her army service terminated in March 1919. After the war she resumed her home nursing and became the first president of the Nobby chapter of the Country Women's Association. In 1927 she patented the 'Sylvia' ambulance stretcher designed to reduce shock in the transport of injured patients.

In 1932 Sister Kenny established a backyard clinic at Townsville to treat long-term poliomyelitis victims and cerebral palsy patients with hot baths, foments, passive movements, the discarding of braces and callipers and the encouragement of active movements. At a government-sponsored demonstration in Brisbane doctors and masseurs ridiculed her, mainly because they considered her explanations of the lesions at the site of the paralysis were bizarre. Thus began a long controversy at a time when there was no vaccination for poliomyelitis. The strong-willed Kenny, with an obsessional belief in her theory and methods, was opposed by a conservative medical profession whom she mercilessly slated and who considered her recommendation to discard immobilization to be criminal. Despite almost total medical opposition, parental and political pressure with some medical backing resulted in action by the Queensland government which was influenced by Home Secretary E. M. Hanlon and his public service adviser, C. E. Chuter. In 1934 clinics to treat long-term poliomyelitis cases were established in Townsville and later in Brisbane. The Brisbane clinic immediately attracted interstate and overseas patients. Kenny clinics in other Queensland cities and interstate followed.

In 1937 she published in Sydney Infantile Paralysis and Cerebral Diplegia, with a foreword by Herbert Wilkinson, professor of anatomy at the University of Queensland. Grateful parents having paid her fare to England, she was given two wards at Queen Mary's Hospital at Carshalton, Surrey. She shocked English doctors with her recommendations to discard splinting used to prevent deformities and her condemnation of the orthodox treatment of poliomyelitis cases. Returning to Australia, she was greeted with the report of a royal commission of leading Queensland doctors which damned her methods. However, she was given a ward at the Brisbane General Hospital and early cases of the disease to treat. Aubrey Pye, medical superintendent, stated that her patients recovered more quickly and that their limbs were more supple than those treated by the orthodox method. But the medical profession largely ignored her.

In 1940, armed with an introduction to the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, signed by six Brisbane doctors and her fare paid by the Queensland government, she arrived in the United States of America. At first most doctors rejected her theories of 'spasm', 'mental alienation', and 'incoordination' by which she explained the disability caused by poliomyelitis. However, orthopaedists Miland Knapp, John Pohl and Wallace Cole arranged for her to be given beds in the Minneapolis General Hospital. Her methods became widely accepted. She began courses for doctors and physiotherapists from many parts of the world. The Sister Kenny Institute was built in Minneapolis in 1942 and other Kenny clinics were established.

Kenny became a heroine in America and was awarded many honours. She accepted numerous invitations to lecture in other countries and received honorary degrees. Her autobiography, And They Shall Walk, written in collaboration with Martha Ostenso, was published in New York in 1943. In 1946 she was eulogized in the film, Sister Kenny. Abraham Fryberg, Queensland director-general of health and medical services, and Thomas Stubbs Brown, orthopaedic specialist, after an overseas visit recommended in 1947 that treatment based on the Kenny method be used in the early stages. They argued, however, that her concept that the disabilities in poliomyelitis were caused by the virus invading peripheral tissues, and not the central nervous system as traditionally taught, was not proven. In 1950 Congress gave her the rare honour of free access to the United States without entry formalities. Despite this success, she remained the centre of bitter controversy, partly because of her intolerance of opposition, and returned to Australia several times with little acclaim.

A big woman, with white hair which she often covered with large hats, Elizabeth Kenny was an imposing figure. She could speak gently to a patient one minute and harshly criticize a doctor the next. She gained basic knowledge as she progressed and, at times, submitted other people's ideas as though they were her own. Although her views on the pathology of the disease were generally not accepted, she made a significant contribution towards the treatment of poliomyelitis and stimulated fresh thinking. Developing Parkinson's disease, she retired to Toowoomba in 1951 and died there of cerebro-vascular disease on 30 November 1952. After a service in the Neil Street Methodist Church, she was buried in Nobby cemetery. Unmarried, she was survived by an adopted daughter. Her estate, valued for probate at £17,117, was left mainly to relatives, but a collection of memorabilia was left to the Kenny Foundation in the United States and a desk and prayer-book, belonging once to Florence Nightingale, were left to the United Nations Organization. Her book, My Battle and Victory, was published posthumously in London in 1955. A bust by L. Randolph is displayed in the Toowoomba City Art Gallery.

Select Bibliography
V. Cohn, Sister Kenny: The Woman who Challenged the Doctors (Minneapolis, Minn, USA, 1975)
Reports on Concepts and Treatment of Poliomyelitis, Parliamentary Papers (Queensland), 1947-48, 2, p 1021
Medical Journal of Australia, 1, 1938, no 5, p 187
Toowoomba Chronicle, 1 Dec 1952
Elizabeth Kenny papers (held by Queensland Country Women's Assn, Nobby Branch)
private information.

183. 'Len' Leonard Noel KENTISH - Missionary & Martyr
'Len' Leonard Noel KENTISH
- Missionary & Martyr

Born: 1907 Richmond, Melbourne, Victoria
Father: Cecil Wallace KENTISH(born Adelaide SA - married Victoria 1898)
Mother: Alice Flora JACKSON (born 1873 Ondit, Gippsland, Victoria)

Died: 5th February 1943 Dobo, Aru Islands - by Japanese beheading

From: Northern Territory Library - Characters

Len Kentish

Methodist missionary Len Kentish came to Darwin in 1935. At first his work was among the white parishioners of the town, but before long Kentish was spending most of his time among town Aborigines and the people of Kahlin, and then Bagot compounds.

Kentish was sent to Goulburn Island as Superintendent in 1938, then in 1940 he explored Croker Island for a site for a Methodist home for part Aboriginal children. The home was to be established for children who were brought to the island in late 1941, under the government’s new policy of entrusting to missions those part-Aboriginal children who had been removed from their parents.

During the war emergency from early 1942 many missionaries and the children on Croker Island were evacuated, but Kentish stayed on to supervise the continuing Methodist missions in Arnhem Land.

In January 1943 he was a passenger and pilot aboard the naval patrol and cargo vessel, HMAS Patricia Cam. The vessel was typical of the "Royal Darwin Navy". Built in Brisbane in 1940 for the Sydney fishing firm Cam & Sons, she was requisitioned by the navy in 1942 and sent to Darwin as a store carrier. The Patricia Cam and its crew of 17 men were taking supplies and materials to isolated coastwatching posts, airfields, and mission stations along the Arnhem Land coast between Bathurst Island and Groote Eylandt.

At this time Japanese reconnaissance floatplanes, based at Dobo in the Aru Islands, had been harassing shipping between Darwin and Thursday Island. Not long previously, two ships had been sunk or badly damaged with heavy casualties. The floatplanes’ tactic had been to cut engines as the Allied ships were neared, then to dive out of the sun onto the ships. Without radar, the ships' crews usually did not see the attackers until it was too late.

The Patricia Cam's last voyage was uneventful enough as far as Goulburn Island, where Kentish and the Aborigine Paddy were picked up. Kentish was bound for the most remote Methodist Mission station, Yirrkala, near the present mining town of Nhulunbuy. The Patricia Cam's crew were delighted to have the men aboard as they had unerring local navigational skills.

The Patricia Cam sailed on for Milingimbi and Elcho Island, where four young Aboriginal men desiring a lift back to their home at Yirrkala were picked up. The ship sailed from Elcho Island at midnight on 21st. January 1943. By dawn the Patricia Cam was well on the way to its next port, Cape Wessel.

Suddenly the ship was rocked by a tremendous explosion. Within moments it was sinking, and the "abandon ship" order was given. One crew member and one of the Yirrkala men had been killed on the ship. The survivors took to the water with nothing or just their Mae West vests, as there had been no time to launch life rafts. At first they thought thePatricia Cam had been torpedoed, and only when a Japanese floatplane flew over them in the water did the survivors realise that the plane had dropped a bomb down the ships’ hatch, and that this had blown out the Patricia Cam's bottom.

Several times the Japanese plane strafed the survivors in the water and once it dropped a bomb among them. This action killed or mortally wounded another four men. The floatplane then appeared to fly off. However, it banked and returned and alighted on the sea, just outside the circle of wreckage and survivors. Kentish was swimming nearest the plane. He was covered with a revolver and ordered to swim over. Then he was hauled into the plane, which took off and flew away.

Gradually the others improvised rafts from the wreckage, and late the next night most of them washed ashore on a small island, where two more men died. The floatplane attack had so far cost eight lives, but the fate of Leonard Kentish was unknown.

Only after the war did it emerge that Kentish was taken to Dobo, and on 5th. February 1943 he was beheaded, apparently in revenge for Allied air raids. Five years later three Japanese were tried in war crimes tribunals and convicted of the killing of Kentish. One, Sagejima Mangan, was hanged, and the other two served long prison sentences.

FROM - Northern Territory Dictionary of Biography - by Noel Kentish

KENTISH, Leonard Noel 'Len' (1907-1943)

Methodist Ministers, wa sborn in Melbourne 28 August 1907. Len, as he was known by his family and friends, was one of a family of eight children born to Cecil Wallce Kentish and Alice Fay, nee Jackson. Cecil's father, Henry, was only eight years of age when his family migrated to Australiam arriving at Port Adelaide on 8 May 1838.

In 19010 the Kentish family led a migratory trek of 200 Victorian families into Southern Queensland where they settled on the land as pioneer graziers at The Gums in the Tara district, near Dalby. Len attented school at The Gums and then attended Dalby State High School , passing the Junior Public Examination. Due to a series of droughts and other setbacks in the district his family was forced to move to Bundamba near Ipswich in1923. After working briefly in the town council, he volunteered to work as a Methodist Home Missionary, being stationed at Mitchell.

He became a candidate for the Ordained ministry and under the guidance of the Master of King's Colleg gained his matriculation to the University of Queensland, which he entered as an undergraduate student at the age of 18. While in residence at King's College he gained his Bachelor Degree with Honours in field of mental and moral philosophy. He also excelled in sports, being awarded college 'blues' in football, cricket, tennis and athletics. During a fourth year in King's College, he commenced work on the Bachelor of Divinity degree through the Melbourne College of Divinity, was the president of the student Club, and lectured in Greek and Hebrew. He was a member of the crew of the College's rowing four.

On completion of his studies in preparation for ordination, he married Violet May Simpson on 31 March 1934 in Maryborough (QLD) and the couple moved to the Hermit Park Methodist Circuit in Townsville. After a short time there, Len responded to a call to Overseas Missions work in the Northern Territory and began work in the joint European and Aboriginal Missions in Darwin.

In 1940 after three years of residence in Darwin he was appointed Chairman of the Methodist Overseas Missions North Australia District in which office he continued when he moved to the Mission Station on Goulburn Island. During his four years in Darwin he had completed his studies for the Batchelor of Divinity degree and had also abotain Accountancy qualifications. On Goulburn Island he commenced work as on his Master of Arts Thesis, but gave priority to the demanding work of developing a written language in the Maung dialect of the aborigines of the island. He also found time to contrubute several articles on his Territory exoeriences to Church journals. His published articles include "Sawdust in teh dinner, in teh Missionary Review, 5 April 1939, and "Sea Slugs and Crocodiels' and 'The Witness of North Australia" both in the Queensland Methodist Times, 17 March 1838 and 23 October 1941 respectively.

With the outbreak of the Second World War and the imminent threat of Japanese invasion of north Australia, Leonard Kentish became a voluntary Coast Watcher in constant radio contact with Darwin. His family travelled though Mataranka, Alice Springs, Adelaide ad Melbourne before reaching Brisbane where they lived with his mother in Paddington, as they waited for Len to join them.

One year later his plans to join them in Brisbane were interupted. The Patricia Cam, an Australian naval supply vessel on which he was travelling on a tour of his district, was attacked and sunk between Elcho Island and Cape Wessel by a Japanese float plane on 22 January 1843. He was taken prisoner and interned at Dobu in the Aru Island.s on 5 February 1943 he was beheaded by his captors but news of his fate die not reach his widow and their three children, a son and two daughters, until late in 1946. The delay, not only in the notification but in the granting of a suitable pension, gave rise to much comment in the press. Len Kentish's body was late interred at the Ambon War Cemetery by the Australian War Graves Commission. His obituary records in the minutes of the New South Wales Methodist Conference of 1947 noted, in part: 'In teh area in which he worked and under the uncertain conditions of war he stood continually in great personal danger but continued to give himself with humility and courage to befriending and protecting the aboriginals among whom he worked.'

Len Kentish's names was given to a memorial coconut grove on Goulburn Island. It is also on the Roll of Honour ar Darwin's Memorial Uniting Church and the Coastwatchers' memorial in Rabaul. It is alos listed in a memorial plaque honouring Methodist 'martyrs' in teh foyer of King's College at St Lucia at teh University of Queensland. It is also on a plaque honouring Methodist 'martyrs' (most of tem victims of teh sinking of the Montevieo Maru) located at teh Uniteing Church Centre for Ministr in North Paramatta. His photgraoh hangs in Kentish Court at Wesley Central Mission's Sinnamon Returement Village, near Jindalee in Brisbane.

Sources: -

FROM: Australia's War 1939-1945

'war crimes'

In 1946 the International Military Tribunal for the Far East began to prosecute Japanese military and civilian leaders for alleged war crimes. More than 2000 trials were held all over south-east Asia, the Pacific and in Japan. More than 5,700 men – mostly Japanese servicemen and Korean guards – were charged with murder and brutal treatment of prisoners and civilians. Many were released due to insufficient evidence but 920 were executed and about 3000 sentenced to imprisonment.

One of these Allied war crimes trials opened on 21 May 1948 at Kowloon, Hong Kong. Three Japanese prisoners (two members of the Imperial Japanese Navy and one civilian) had been charged with the murder of the Australian missionary, the Reverend Leonard Neil Kentish, on 5 February 1943.

On 29 August 1946, the Adjutant of 3 Australian Prisoner of War Contact and Enquiry Unit reported on the circumstances of the Reverend Leonard Kentish’s death at Dobo in the Aru Islands (now part of Indonesia):

1. The Rev KENTISH was taken on board a Jap float plane on Jan 22 43 after it had sunk the patrol vessel HMAS “PATRICIA CAM” off WESSEL IS.

2. Unfortunately no info can be obtained of the whereabouts of the Rev KENTISH until 13 Apr 43, when he arrived at DOBO.

3. The Rev KENTISH was held at DOBO as a prisoner till the 4 May 43. Throughout this period he was subjected to ill treatment by severe bashings, the most common being punches in the nose and eyes to such an extent that his nose was broken, and he had great difficulty in seeing. His diet, as such, was just sufficient to keep him alive.

4. On the morning of 4 May he was taken in to the scrub, (a distance of under 200 yds from the township of DOBO) where a grave had been prepared, and executed.

5. The execution was carried out by the order of 1st Lieut SAKIDJIMA.

6. The remains of the Rev KENTISH have been recovered, and handed over to Capt STOCKWELL, of the War Graves Unit. They will be transported to AMBON, and buried in the Internees cemetery there.

7. This case is now considered closed. All dates must be treated as approx.
Attached hereto copy of dental chart received with above report.

Leonard Kentish, a Methodist missionary and civilian coastwatcher, had been one of the passengers on the stores carrier, HMAS Patricia Cam as it travelled from Millingimbi towards Cape Wessel in the Northern Territory. On 22 January 1943, there was a tremendous explosion on board and the ship began to sink. Two men were killed in the explosion and the survivors leapt quickly into the water, some without even their life jackets. The Japanese floatplane, which had bombed the ship, flew over the men in the water. It strafed them and dropped another bomb into their midst killing more of the men. The aircraft landed in the water and one of the Japanese air crew ordered Kentish, who was nearest them, to swim over. He was hauled onto the aircraft and they flew away. The survivors from the Patricia Cam were rescued a week later but the fate of Kentish was not discovered until long after the Japanese had surrendered.

In 1946, it was discovered that Leonard Kentish’s Japanese captors had beheaded him on 5 February 1943. At 9.45 am on 21 May 1948, a Military Court was convened in Hong Kong and the three men accused of his murder appeared before the court.

183+. + KNIFE Kimberleys, WA (with Fr McNab) See Duncan McNAB

184. Mary KNIGHT, humility, Cockatoo, Vic 10 Jan 1929 - 17 May 1994 B. Beenak


186. Rev. Robert KNOPWOOD VDL/ TAS

187. Hans Johannes KNORR, Catholic sculptor b.1915 Bavaria > Emerald Victoria
Naturalised 1932. Interned at Murchison

& Hilde Alice (nee DENT) KNORR b. Gippsland (28 January 1917- 10th October 2009) novelist Emerald Victoria /
Hilde Alice (nee DENT) KNORR
Born: 28 January 1917 Tamjil, Gippsland, Victoria
Works: [The titles are: Fire Won't Burn Stick; Shoemakers' Children; The Mystic Lake; Group with Lady; A Private Viewing; Journey with a Stranger; Also Each Other; How Deep Is High; The Space Between; From An Australian Homestead and other Poems (lim. edition); and Merriang, An Early Victorian Homestead. Fine.]
Died: 10 October 2009@ age 92 Greensborough, Victoria
Funeral: The Funeral Service for the late Mrs Hilde Knorr was held at Inglewood Estate Chapel, 130 Eltham-Yarra Glen Rd, Kangaroo Ground (Melbourne)[Published in Herald Sun on October 15, 2009]
- from THE AGE Newspaper - obituary page
28-1-1917 - 10-10-2009

HILDE Knorr, the author of 14 published works and co-founder of the Emerald Gallery, died at a private nursing home in Greensborough, aged 92.

Born Hilde Dent, she was one of nine siblings in an exuberant family on a farm in the Tanjil Valley in Gippsland. One uncle was Sir George Bell, a hero of the Battle of Beersheeba in Palestine. He became speaker of the House of Representatives.

Of more interest to the cluster of wide-eyed children was another uncle, Will, said to have been killed by islanders in the South Pacific, a family legend which, when the story was told by historian Peter Corris in Lightning Meets the West Wind, turned out to be true.

When Hilde talked of her childhood, she reminisced about running wild along the river flats and chasing kangaroos, about watching from the hay loft as rain swept over the paddocks, sitting by the fire listening to her parents read Tennyson and Shakespeare. It was a childhood in which books and nature established themselves as the twin poles of her inner life.

She first found artistic expression in the violin. Forced by the Depression to leave school at 15, she showed early the determination that was to mark her career by gaining entry to the Conservatorium at Melbourne University, studying under renowned teacher Gertrude Healy and laying the foundations for a career in music.

Her life was transformed when she fell in love with a recently released German internee, Hans Knorr, who would go on to become one of the pre-eminent sculptors of his generation.

They married within three months of meeting, and together built the Emerald Gallery, Victoria's first privately owned rural gallery.

As documented in her memoir, Journey with a Stranger, Hilde and Hans gave each other unstinting support as they set out on that rockiest of roads, the life of the creative artist. The ebullient Hans' response to the many obstacles, financial or artistic, they encountered, was always: ''We'll just get up one hour earlier!''

The gallery became the hub of a rich circle of friends - fellow artists, academics and eccentrics, ordinary people who came simply because they admired the couple's work and personalities.

Hilde then decided to start selling Devonshire teas after calculating that they had given 162 cups of tea to visitors in the preceding month.

Despite raising four children and running the gallery, Hilde gradually found her own creative metier. Shoemaker's Children was the first in a string of published works that included novels, poetry and short fiction.

The Oxford Companion to Australian Literature said of her work: ''Concerned with the subtleties of human relationships and the equally subtle, unpredictable working of destiny, Knorr deals with a range of characters and experience in her fiction. Reconciliation, either with others or with wounding events of the past, is one of her major themes.''

Hilde was of a generation that possessed a broad range of resources and skills, as willing to turn her hand to the restoration of a piece of colonial furniture as she was to the crafting of a poem. One of the significant achievements in her life was the restoration of the Merriang Homestead in the Ovens Valley. When Hans and Hilde first came across it in the late 1970s, the buildings had deteriorated to the stage where they were used as accommodation for itinerant workers.

The couple had the insight and foresight to see that the unique dwelling, a precious reminder of Australia's pastoral heritage, was in danger of being lost. They had the drive to do something about it. Over the next 10 years, they succeeded in transforming Merriang into one of the finest surviving examples of rural Georgian architecture.

Hilde had an inherent sense of ethics and a lifelong commitment to causes such as Oxfam, the Australian Conservation Foundation and the Red Cross. Even in her last days, she bristled with anger at the treatment meted out to refugees and indigenous Australians.

Another organisation close to her heart, given that her husband spent many years in incarceration, was Amnesty International. Over the decades, she wrote hundreds of letters to dictators across the world calling for the release of political prisoners.

Hilde was blessed with a restless, creative intelligence. Born a Methodist, she converted to her husband's Catholicism...

Hilde died with ... a beautiful wood carving by her late husband at her feet. She is survived by her children, John, Michael, Andrew and Kristin, and nine grandchildren.

This tribute was prepared by Andrew and Kristin Knorr and Adrian Hyland.


189. Marion Miller KNOWLES, Singer of the "Hills, Catholic teacher, poet, writer, Champion of the Divine Mystery in Creation, from Woods Point, Alpine Victoria & Melbourne

Parents James MILLER & Anna Maria BOWEN
Born: 8 August 1865 at Woods Point, Victoria
Married:19 September 1901 St Patrick's Cathedral, Melbourne
Husband: widower, Joseph KNOWLES
Works: poems of appreciations toward Nature, children, love and death - Songs From The Hills; Shamrock and Wattle Bloom, Fronds from the Blacks' Spur (1911);
Writer in the Catholic ADVOCATE - Aunt Patsy' of the 'Children's Corner'
Teaching: Woods Point, Healesville, Box Hill, Melbourne
Death: 16 September 1949
Burial: Brighton cemetery, Victoria

From : Australian Dictionary of Biography ADB Online: -

Knowles, Marion (1865–1949)

by Cecily Close

Marion Knowles (1865-1949), writer, was born on 8 August 1865 at Woods Point, Victoria, eldest child of Irish immigrants James Miller, storekeeper, and his Catholic wife Anne Maria, née Bowen. She was educated privately until, the family's prosperity declining, she became a pupil-teacher at the local state school in December 1878. In 1886 she began a long period of relief teaching in Melbourne, in various country towns, and in remote and lonely one-teacher schools. In January 1893 she became junior assistant at Box Hill, remaining there until her marriage on 19 September 1901 at St Patrick's Cathedral to a widower, Joseph Knowles, a Melbourne city valuator.

In childhood Marion Miller learned to love poetry and soon attempted her own. Thereafter, verse came 'most naturally' to express her feelings toward Nature, children, love and death. When teaching isolated her from family and friends, she also wrote sketches of country life and characters observed and remembered. First writing as 'John Desmond', she contributed poems and sketches to the Australasian, then edited by D. Watterston whose advice and encouragement she gratefully remembered. In 1896 she published her first novel, Barbara Halliday, and two years later a book of collected verse, Songs from the Hills, both to run to four editions; in 1900 Shamrock and Wattle Bloom, a collection of tales and sketches, appeared.

In September 1899 Marion Miller commenced a women's column in the Advocate and in 1900 became 'Aunt Patsy' of the 'Children's Corner'. When a legal separation from her husband left her with a small allowance on which to bring up two boys (a daughter had died at birth), her friend Joseph Winter appointed her to the Advocate staff. Working at home but leaving household matters to a housekeeper (as she would do for the rest of her life), she remained with the Advocate after his death until obliged to retire in April 1927. Then, through the paper, a committee raised a testimonial of £334, a deposit on a house in Kew, her home thereafter.

Marion Miller Knowles played a leading part in the organization of the Catholic laity before World War I, becoming foundation president of the Catholic Women's Club in 1913, later chairing the board of directors of its hostel. Also in 1913, through the Advocate, she helped to form a social club for single Catholics. During the war she organized the dispatch of parcels to Catholic soldiers, and in 1919 chaired the committee responsible for welcoming them home. From early in the century she was honorary secretary of the committee for St Joseph's Home for Destitute Children, Surrey Hills, and after World War II, its patron. She was appointed M.B.E. in 1938.

While running her women's and children's pages, soon considerably expanded, Marion Miller Knowles published a second collection of verse, Fronds from the Blacks' Spur (1911), and further gift booklets of verse between 1913 and 1923. She continued to write serial stories for the Advocate and other Catholic papers, including the Irish Catholic (Dublin), publishing some in Melbourne in book form: Corinne of Corrall's Bluff (1912), The Little Doctor (1919), The House of the Garden of Roses (1923) and Meg of Minadong (1926). On retirement she issued through Pellegrini in Sydney Pretty Nan Hartigan and Pierce O'Grady's Daughter (1928), The wonder find at Power's Luck (a mining tale) and a second edition of The Little Doctor (1929).

In celebrating Catholicity these romances with country settings, their characters chiefly Irish-Australian, attracted only a small readership; even Catholic reviews could be lukewarm. Despairing of promotion by booksellers and critics, she advertised and distributed her books from home with some success. In retirement, her name no longer before the Catholic public, and unable to attend functions of the Australian Literary Society of which she was a long-standing member, she feared herself forgotten. However, in 1931 she was granted a Commonwealth Literary Fund pension of ten shillings a week, and in 1935 a committee of friends arranged publication of her Selected Poems, which in 1937 reappeared in two volumes: The Harp of the Hills and Lyrics of Wind and Wave.

In good health but with failing eyesight, Marion Knowles, stout and bespectacled, remained in her home until shortly before she died on 16 September 1949. Survived by her sons, she was buried in Brighton cemetery.

Select Bibliography
J. R. Stevens (compiler), Adam Lindsay Gordon and Other Australian Writers (Melb, 1937)
Weekly Times (Melbourne), 18 June 1910
Advocate (Melbourne), 23 June 1927, 22 Sept 1949
J. Booth and J. Howlett Ross papers (State Library of Victoria)
A3753 72/2760 (National Archives of Australia)
records, History Section, Dept of Education (Victoria).

190. + KORIENGBIN/ David SIMPSON of the Djadja Wurrung, Franklinford, Victoria

191. = Bro. Ernest Eugene KRAMER [Ernst Eugen KRAMER] b. Basil, Switzerland
Brother Ernest Eugene KRAMER, son of Carl Friedrich KRAMER, was born on the 10th May 1889 at Basle, Canton Basel Stadt, Switzerland.
Responding to a felt call to be a missionary in Australia Kramer emigrated out of Switzerland via Bristol, England, where he spent five weeks, and then embarked at the Port of Liverpool on the steamship 'S.S.SUEVIC' to arrive in Australia at the Port of Adelaide on the 9th September 1909. Upon disembarking Kramer lived in Adelaide and then in Melbourne for eighteen months.

Ernst Eugen KRAMER was married to Euphemia BUCHANAN in 1912 in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Euphemia BUCHANAN was born in 1897 in Clunes, near Creswick, the daughter of Ballarat-born Colin Campbell Buchanan and his wife, Geelong-born, Catherine McLeod Murchison. After they were maried the Kramers went to Central Australia as missionaries with the Aborigines. In about 1915-1918 Kramer was Registered as an Enemy Alien both in North Melbourne, Victoria, and at Port Pirie, South Australia. In 1923 the Kramers were living at Tranmere, SOuth Australia, and working as missionaries for no organisation. It was then that he took the ooath of his aliens memorial and was naturalised on the 28th February 1923 at Adelaide.

"In 1928 the missionary E.E. Kramer, guided by the late ‘Tiger’ Tjalkalyiri, gave a Christian service south of Uluru. He was the first non-Aboriginal person to record Uluru as a sacred place: ‘the most sacred spot in all the country around [where] natives come for their ceremonies and certain sections are not allowed to Aboriginal women on the pains of sure death" - Uluru- Kata Tjuta National Park Notes - [9PN.NA History carolyn 10/19/01 7:05 PM Page 2]

Kramer Children : -
1. Colin Eugene b.28th January 1913 Hotham East, North Melbourne, Victoria
2, Mary Catherine b. 9th January 1918, Farina, North Flinders Ranges, Sth Aust.
3. Euphemia Faith b. 12th June 1923 Davenport, South Australia
4. Grace Murchison b. 28th August 1926

Ernst Eugen KRAMER died at age 68 years on the 16th February 1958 at Torrens Park, Adelaide, South Australia. His wife Euphemia survived him to died at age 84 at Mitcham, Adelaide, South Australia.


Kramer, Ernest Eugene (1889–1958) - by Andrew Markus

Ernest Eugene Kramer (1889-1958), missionary, was born on 10 May 1889 at Basel, Switzerland, son of German-born parents Karl Friedrich Kramer, storekeeper, and his wife Maria Elisabeth, née Reinhardt. Educated locally, Ernst became fluent in French and German, and trained as a milling engineer. In 1909 he emigrated to South Australia where he began work in a mill at Salisbury. On 21 March 1912 at Bena, Victoria, he married Euphemia Buchanan (d.1971) with Presbyterian forms.

In 1912 Kramer became convinced of his calling to take the word of God to settlers and Aborigines in the interior. Between 1913 and 1921 he made three extended journeys on his self-appointed mission. Reputedly a fine bushman and a skilled mechanic, he travelled with his wife and infant children in a covered wagon, pulled by donkeys, over some of the driest and most isolated parts of South and Central Australia. Kramer had no regular income and was dependent on donations of food and money. He interpreted his capacity to survive as a sign of divine providence and recorded his experiences in Australian Caravan Mission to Bush People and Aboriginals (1922?).

Having visited Alice Springs, Northern Territory, on his travels, Kramer returned there in 1923. In 1925 the Aborigines' Friends' Association appointed him its missionary for Central Australia. Kramer kept the A.F.A. informed of the Aborigines' condition. Assisted by his wife and eldest daughter Mary, he ministered to the needs of Aborigines who had 'come in' from the surrounding country. He built a non-denominational church where he held regular prayer-meetings and used an Arrernte translation of the Gospels. In the cooler months he toured by camel-team and later by motorcar, proselytizing and dispensing food and medicine. In 1928-29 he supervised the Jay Creek 'half-caste' children's home. Scientists and clergymen valued his services as a guide.

Kramer was popular among the Aborigines. Rather than aiming to 'civilize' them, he brought them 'The Light of Life'—knowledge of Jesus. He did, however, urge them to cease fighting among themselves and to leave cattle alone. In 1932 he called for police intervention to protect Aboriginal women and children from the violent behaviour of their men. In preference to sentencing Aborigines to prison, he advocated the use of corporal punishment, administered under medical supervision.

At a time of extreme racism Kramer spoke for the humanity of the Aboriginal people. He entreated the government to increase its spending, and on numerous occasions drew attention to the suffering of those deprived of land and access to watering places. Professor (Sir) John Cleland praised Kramer for 'doing as much as anyone in Australia to protect' the Aborigines. Yet, Kramer also accepted the right of Europeans to appropriate land in semi-arid and arid regions, publicly supported the pastoralists' interests and tempered his criticism of the way that Aborigines were treated.

After resigning from his post in 1934, Kramer worked as a representative of the British and Foreign Bible Society, in Melbourne for fifteen years and then in Adelaide. He died of acute leukaemia on 16 February 1958 in Adelaide and was buried in Mitcham cemetery; his wife, son and three daughters survived him.

Select Bibliography
Aborigines' Friends' Assn, Annual Report, 1925-1929
Aborigines' Friends' Assn papers (State Library of South Australia).

1. KRAMER, Ernest Eugene (1889–1958) - by Andrew Markus ADB Online
2. Letter from Bro. E. E. Kramer [missionary to Aborigines]

192. Sidney Herbert KIDMAN:
Sir Sidney Herbert KIDMAN:- Champion of the Dignity of Aborigines, Treated Indigenous Peope as Equals, Moralist, Public Benefactor, Philanthropist,

Parents: George KIDMAN, farmer, & Elizabeth Mary NUNN -of Fifth Creek
Birth: 9 May 1857 Glen Stuart, Athelstone, South Australia, Australia
Cultural Heritages: Suffolk, English; Anglo-Celtic Australian, German-Australia; Australia Aboriginal
Christianity: Maverick, demanding, prophetic & moral Good Samaritanism
Qualities: Moral Courage, Christian Justice, Dignity, Fair Treatment, Charity
Marriage: 30 June 1885 @ the Residence of Mrs Will, Kapunda, northern Barossa Valley, South Australia
Wife: Isabel Brown WRIGHT, schoolteacher, daughter of John Wright
Occupation: Squatter, Grazier, Landowner, Stock Breeder, 'The Cattle King,' Benefactor
1. Annie Gertrude Kidman b.25 Feb 1887 Kapunda;
2. Elma Thomson Kidman b.18 July 1887 Kapunda;
3. Edna Gwendoline Kidman (11 June 1890 ~ 20 Dec 1895) Kapunda
4. Edith Kidman b.25 Feb 1893 Kapunda;
5. Norman Sidney Pelthorpe Kidman (20 April 1897 ~ 2 Aug 1898) Kapunda;
6. Walter Sidney Pelthorpe Kidman b. 26 June 1900 Kapunda, South Australia.
Death: 2 September 1935 Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
Burial: Mitcham cemetery, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia

From Australian Dictionary of Biography - ADB OnLine -

Kidman, Sir Sidney (1857–1935)

by Russel Ward

Sir Sidney Kidman (1857-1935), pastoralist, was born on 9 May 1857, probably at Athelstone near Adelaide, third son of George Kidman, farmer, and his wife Elizabeth Mary, née Nunn, who were married in St Mary's Church of England at Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk, England, in 1848. Next year they migrated to South Australia. George Kidman died about six months after Sidney's birth. His son was educated at private schools in suburban Norwood but left home with five shillings in his pocket and riding a one-eyed horse which he had bought with laboriously acquired savings. He stole away by night and made his way to Poolamacca station in the Barrier Range where his brother George found him a job with George Raines, a landless bushman who roamed about with his stock, squatting on the unfenced runs wherever he found good feed. This 'corner' country of New South Wales later became the heartland of Kidman's pastoral empire.

The boy shared a dug-out in the bank of a dry creek with an Aboriginal known among whites as Billy. Treating him seriously as a friend and equal, Sidney learned from him tracking and other bush skills and so became a better bushman than most white adults. He learned also to admire and exploit Aboriginals: for the rest of his life he rarely travelled in the back-country, where he was most at home, without an Aboriginal guide and offsider. When Raines moved on, Kidman worked for a year or two as a rouseabout on Mount Gipps station, the site of the fabulous silver-lead-zinc discovery at Broken Hill a decade later. When he asked for a rise he was sacked, but found work as a stockman for a neighbouring shanty-keeper, German Charlie. Here he saved enough money to buy a bullock-team. Thenceforth he worked for himself and soon employed others.

Kidman contracted to cart supplies in the country between the isolated settlements at Mount Gipps, Wilcannia, Swan Hill (Victoria), Menindee, Bourke, Tibooburra, Louth and Cobar. He also drove mobs of horses and cattle, sometimes to market in Adelaide. Following the discovery of copper at Cobar in the early 1870s he set up a butcher's shop and, like James Tyson at the Bendigo gold rush twenty years earlier, made enough money to establish himself as a large squatter. In 1878 he inherited £400 from his grandfather and traded with it successfully. He increased his capital by setting up coaching businesses in western New South Wales and in Western Australia. He supplied them with horses and began providing the British army in India with remounts. He grew richer still by continually buying cattle and selling them to his brother Sackville, who conducted a large butchering business at Broken Hill.

These activities were a means to an end. In 1886 Kidman bought his first station, Owen Springs on the Hugh River, south-west of Alice Springs. Long before his thirtieth birthday he had conceived the idea of buying a chain, later two chains, of stations stretching in nearly continuous lines from the well-watered tropical country round the Gulf of Carpentaria, south through western Queensland to Broken Hill, and across the border into South Australia within easy droving distance of Adelaide. Many stations on this 'main chain' were watered by Cooper's Creek and the Georgina and Diamantina rivers which sometimes brought northern tropical rain-waters to the centre even during droughts. By the 1890s he had begun to acquire his second chain of stations strung along the Overland Telegraph line from the Fitzroy River and Victoria River Downs in the north to Wilpena station in the Flinders Ranges near Adelaide. Thus, by moving stock from drought-stricken areas to others, by selling in markets where the price was highest, by his detailed knowledge of the country, and by his energy and bushcraft he withstood the depression of the 1890s and the great drought of 1902. By the time of World War I he controlled station country considerably greater in area than England or Tasmania and nearly as great as Victoria.

By the war's end he had become a national institution, having given fighter aeroplanes and other munificent gifts to the armed forces. In 1920 he gave to the Salvation Army £1000 and a half share in one of his cattle-stations. In 1921 he gave his country home at Kapunda, the scene of his annual horse-sales, to the South Australian government for a district high school. It may have been mere coincidence that he was knighted next day. He grew richer still by bilking the government of taxes. In August 1924 the Federal treasurer, Dr Earle Page, issued a writ for recovery of £166,067. Kidman was fined £10 with four guineas costs for having failed to furnish land tax returns, the magistrate remarking with breath-taking disingenuousness that 'a heavier penalty would serve no purpose to a man in Sir Sidney Kidman's position'. Three years later, after High Court of Australia litigation, the government accepted £25,132 in settlement of his land tax debts. By this time 'Kidman' meant in fact a complex of interlocking companies, partnerships and agencies with branches in all the mainland capital cities and some country towns. Kidman and his children seem to have controlled the whole apparatus from Adelaide. In 1927 he retired.

On 30 June 1885 he had married at Kapunda Isabel Brown Wright, a schoolteacher; they had three daughters and a son. His wife taught him much and they travelled overseas four times. Kidman was six feet (183 cm) tall and well built, with an affable manner and an easy smile. He made friends readily and was a good judge of people. Like Churchill, Napoleon and some other great achievers, he could go to sleep anywhere and in almost any position. He never touched alcohol or tobacco or was profane, even his bullock teams being abused only as 'jolly tinkers'. In the Kidman country stories of his meanness still circulate today, but in fact he was a generous employer and benefactor to many institutions. His reputation for meanness sprang from his hatred of wastefulness; he was known to sack employees he considered guilty of it. His strength had been as a dealer rather than a breeder: he exploited the pastoral areas rather than developed them. In old age he suffered from increasing deafness and rheumatism, but otherwise retained his faculties unimpaired until his death in Adelaide on 2 September 1935; he was buried in Mitcham general cemetery. Kidman's estate, amounting to some £300,000, was mostly left to his family, but much went to charities.

Select Bibliography
E. J. Brady, Australia Unlimited (Melb, 1918)
I. L. Idriess, The Cattle King (Syd, 1936)
A Hundred Famous Australian Lives (Syd, 1969)
Pastoral Review, 15 Jan, 16 Sept 1903, 15 Aug 1910, 16 Jan 1911
Observer (Adelaide), 5 Sept 1903, 17 July 1920, 4, 11 June 1921, 2 Feb 1924, 21 Mar 1925, 17 July 1926, 5 May, 23 June, 18, 28 Aug 1928
Catholic Press, 3 Nov 1904
Punch (Melbourne), 1 May 1913
Town and Country Journal, 27 July 1910, 22 May 1918
Australasian (Melbourne), 4 June 1921
Freeman's Journal (Sydney), 11 Aug 1921
Chronicle (Adelaide), 6 Nov 1930
Times (London), 3 Sept 1935
Argus (Melbourne), 9 Sept 1935
Australian Worker, 11 Sept 1935
business records of S. Kidman & Co. Pty Ltd 1886-1928 (State Records of South Australia).

192+. Rev Copland KING - Pioneer Anglican Missionary in Papua & New Guinea
Heritage: Great grandson of Philip Gidley King, Governor of NSW
Birth: 24 June 1863 Parramatta, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Occupation: Anglican Minster; Frontier Missionary
Death: 5 October 1918 Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Australian Dictionary of Biography - ADB Online:

ALPHACRUCIS - Austalian Dictionary of Evangelical Biography

193. + Dan KYLE, Palm Island

193+. "MERWULIDJI" Reverend Lazarus LAMILAMI O.B.E. (1908-1977)
'Merwulidji did much to build bridges of understanding between white and aboriginal races. He frequently said: "We must walk hand in hand together." Keith Cole

"MERWULIDJI" Rev. Lazarus LAMILAMI O.B.E.(1908-1977)

Parents: semi-nomadic Maung people, NT
Birth: 1908 Maung Country, Souwest of Goulburn Island, Northern Territory
Christianity: 1916 Methodist Mission, Goulburn Island, NT
Occupation: boatman, carpenter, preacher, pastor, lecturer
Service: Methodist Overseas Mission boatman, Croker Island; mission carpenter, Goulburn Island; local preacher & deputationist
Education: 1965 Methodist Training
Ordination: 5 November 1966
Ministry: Croker Island; Nungalinga College
Specialisation: Cross-cultural Understanding
Qualities: Grace, Humour, bridge-building, understanding
Death: 21 September 1977 Darwin Hospital, NT

193+. Gideon Scott LANG, Queensland

194. Rev. John Dunmore LANG, presbyterian

195. George LANGHORNE - missiona to port Phillip , Toorak (Botanic Gardens

195. Lilla LASHMAR of New Guinea Missionary Martyr

Lilla LASHMAR of New Guinea, Missionary Martyr - ABM Anglican

Name: Lilla Filmer LASHMAR
Born: 10 August 1895 Antechamber Bay, Kangaroo Island, Yankalilla District, South Australia
Father: 'Harry' Harold LASHMAR
Mother: Frances Ann Ladd BUICK
Cultural Influence:
Christianity: Anglican
Death: 28 August 1942 Buna Beach PNG [OR 2 September 1942 Sangara, New Guinea]

FROM: SA MEMORY The State Library of South Australia


"Lilla Lashmar of Sangara, who in her last letter to her mother a short time before the invasion, writing of the uncertainties of life then, said, 'I only want to be a good soldier of Jesus Christ'.' The Story of the New Guinea Martyrs by Revd. E. C. Rowland

Lilla Lashmar,
from Kangaroo Island, volunteered for work with the Australian Board of Missions and, after training in Sydney, travelled to New Guinea in December 1929. For 12 years Lilla taught and worked at various mission stations. Adelaide girl, Sister May Hayman, joined the mission in 1936 and became engaged to a missionary priest. In 1941 war was declared in the Pacific, and the Japanese invaded New Guinea. Bishop Philip Strong and his staff made the decision not to evacuate, but to remain with the local people. Tragically, this resulted in the execution of Lashmar and Hayman, along with priests and other mission workers including a small boy, by the Japanese on the beach at Buna in August 1942. More killings of clergymen and workers followed. To this day, the Australian Anglican Church commemorates the New Guinea Martyrs every year on 2 September.

196. =Charles Joseph LA TROBE, Melbourne VIC

196+. William George LAWES of New Guinea (1839-1907) Missionary, New Guinea.

William George LAWES (1839-1907)

Parents: Richard LAWES, tailor, and Mary, née PICKOVER
Born: 1 July 1839 Aldermaston, Thames Valley, Berkshire, England
Cultural Influence: West Country English; Londoner English; South Seas Islander, New Guinean & Papuan, Australian
Education: Village school at Mortimer West End; 2. London Missionary Society Training school at Bedford, England
Christianity: Congregationalist, Coalface Mission Christian; Southseas Christian, Pastor & Minister
Occupation: Christian Missionary; Christian Minister
Character: intrepid, pertinent,
Cross: Fever, Untimely death of son, Wife's illness, Murder of James Chalmers
Death: 6 August 1907 Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Burial: Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

From Australian Dictionary of Biography

Lawes, William George (1839–1907)

by H. J. Gibbney

William George Lawes (1839-1907), missionary, was born on 1 July 1839 at Aldermaston, Berkshire, England, son of Richard Lawes, tailor, and his wife Mary, née Pickover. Educated in a village school at Mortimer West End, he was apprenticed for six years and in 1858 volunteered for service with the London Missionary Society. He was trained at Bedford and two weeks before ordination on 8 November 1860 he married Fanny Wickham; on 23 November they sailed for the Pacific.

Lawes was posted first to Savage Island (Niue), where in 1868 he was joined by his brother Frank. On 15 January 1872 he began a furlough during which he travelled thirteen thousand miles (20,921 km) in Britain lecturing on the missions. In April 1874 he sailed for New Guinea and in November settled at Port Moresby with his wife and children as the first permanent European residents of Papua. Despite attacks of fever which decimated his Polynesian teaching staff and killed his youngest son, Lawes became an expert in the Motuan language and a respected friend of all the south coast tribes. His first European colleague, appointed in 1876, left when his wife became ill but in 1877 James Chalmers arrived, and early in 1878 Lawes left for England on furlough. In four years he had started eleven new mission stations and produced the first book in a Papuan language.

Lawes was then a public figure. Australian miners in Port Moresby in 1878 sought his return to smooth the relations with natives. From that time his unrivalled knowledge of Papua was in constant demand. Soon after his return in 1881 he helped the exploring parties of 1883, and in 1884 served as interpreter for the Protectorate proclamation by James Elphinstone Erskine. Lawes and his wife went to Sydney as Erskine's guests in H.M.S. Nelson and then toured Victoria and New South Wales. Since 1872 he had fought abuses of the Pacific labour trade and provided much of the ammunition for the work of Erskine's uncle on the subject in the House of Commons.

In 1885 Lawes travelled round the Papuan coast as unofficial adviser to Sir Peter Scratchley. Lawes's Grammar and Vocabulary of Language spoken by Motu Tribe, New Guinea was also published in 1885 and in May 1886 he went on furlough, returning in October 1887. Despite differences with the government secretary he was in demand as an adviser to the colonial government of Sir William MacGregor. Lawes had many helpers at his mission but its monopoly was soon eroded by the arrival of other sects and the delineation of spheres of influence.

In 1891 Lawes visited England and toured the Australian colonies as a lecturer in 1892. Soon after his return he decided to hand the administration of the mission to a younger colleague and to concentrate on a new training college at Vatorata where he served for ten years. In 1894 he was awarded a doctorate of divinity by the University of Glasgow on MacGregor's recommendation. The murder of Chalmers in 1901 was a serious blow and in 1906 Lawes retired. He left Port Moresby in March and settled at Sydney where he died on 6 August 1907. He was survived by his wife and three of their six children. His son Frank served as a government officer in the protectorate and colony; when he died in 1894 MacGregor described him as one who knew and sympathized with the natives.

Although Lawes travelled widely and understood his people he was more scholar and administrator than pioneer. His partnership with the adventurous Chalmers was almost an ideal combination.

Select Bibliography
J. King, W. G. Lawes of Savage Island and New Guinea (Lond, 1909)
British New Guinea, Annual Report, 1888-1905
LMS papers (National Library of Australia)
W. G. Lawes diary 1876-77, 1881-84 (State Library of New South Wales)
Protectorate and colony papers (National Archives of Papua New Guinea).

196+. Peter 'LALOR' LAWLOR, Eureka Stockade, Parliamentarian, Speaker

197. Henry Sutherland Wightman LAWSON

Premier Harry S W LAWSON

Sir Harry Sutherland Wightman LAWSON
Parents: Rev. J.W. LAWSON and Penelope Bell, nee HAWKINS
Born: 5 March 1875 Dunolly, Victoria
Marriage: 1901, Olive Adele Horwood; 4s. 4d.
Occupation: Lawyer
Religion: Presbyterian, Broad Church Christian
Education: Castlemaine Grammar School and Scotch College; matriculated 1892 and took articled clerks' course at Melbourne University
Career: Admitted Supreme Court 1908, and partner in Newell & Lawson, Castlemaine; became head of H. S. W. Lawson & Company KCMG 1933. Town councillor Castlemaine 1898-1899 and mayor of borough 1905-1906; after retirement from politics, held many public positions.
Party: National; National-Country Coalition
Appointments 1: President Board Land & Works and commissioner Crown Lands & Survey 22 Dec 1913-9 Nov 1915;
Appointments 2 :Attorney-General, Solicitor-General and Minister Public Instruction 9 Nov 1915-29 Nov 1917;
Appointments 3: Premier of Victoria 21 Mar 1918-28 Apr 1924;
Appointments 4 : Treasurer of Victoria 27 Feb 1924-28 Apr 1924.
Australian Parliamentary Service: Senator 1929-1935

Died: 12 June 1952. (East Melbourne. Springvale crematorium)

Reference: - Sir Henry Lawson: Premier and Senator - by: Lawson, Robert S

197+. John Albert LEACH - Presbyterian Christian Educationalist, Pedagog, Teacher, Scientist, Naturalist & Natural Historia. Compiler of 'The Victorian School Readers.' A founder the Gould League of Bird Lovers.

From - Australian Dictionary of Biography - ADB ONLINE
Leach, John Albert (1870–1929)

by Tess Kloot

Birth: 19 March 1870 Ballarat, Victoria, Australia

Death: 3 October 1929 Richmond, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

Cultural Heritage: English / Irish

Religious Influence: Presbyterian

Occupation: adult educator /naturalist /ornithologist /radio commentator /school inspector /schoolteacher

John Albert Leach (1870-1929), teacher and naturalist, was born on 19 March 1870 at Ballarat West, Victoria, son of William Leach, English-born coachsmith, and his wife Bedelia, née Honan, from Ireland. After matriculation from Creswick Grammar School, where he was dux, Leach worked as an unpaid student teacher at Dana Street State School, Ballarat, before gaining his trained teacher's certificate at the Melbourne Training College in 1890. He began a lifetime of professional employment with the Education Department of Victoria by teaching briefly at Mount Prospect and Footscray State schools and serving as head-teacher at Goyura (Rosebery) in the Mallee.

In 1892, before his marriage to Emily Hannah Lamert Gillman on 19 October (1892) at Christchurch, Ballarat, he received a longer-lasting appointment to Bengworden (Bairnsdale). He studied science at the Bairnsdale School of Mines, deepened his interest in natural history and pursued his hobbies of debating, cricket, tennis and horse-riding. He first became involved in adult education when in 1898 he was transferred to Moormung (Rosehill) State School where he conducted evening classes in physics. He went on to lecture to the Workers' Educational Association and was for twenty-five years a member of the University Extension Board, acting as secretary for seven years. - continued below

The children of John Albert and Emily Hannah Lamert LEACH were: -
1. John Albert Leach b. 1892 Bairnsdale;
2. Violet Eileen Leach (1894-1895) Bairnsdale;
3. Sylvia Florence Leach b. 1895 Bairnsdale;
4. Basil Wood Leach b. 1899 Bairnsdale.

- ADB Online continues
In 1901 Leach returned to Melbourne to study part time for his B.Sc. He graduated in 1904 with exhibitions in biology and geology and next year won a scholarship in biology. His great enthusiasm was the study of Nature; he gained his M.Sc. in 1906 and his D.Sc. in 1912 with a two-part thesis on the myology of Strepera and a revision of the lampreys of Victoria.

From 1904 Leach, as the Education Department's visiting teacher of nature study, was an inspiration to other teachers. His subject was soon accepted into the school curriculum and in February 1905 he became teacher of nature study and geography at the Melbourne Continuation (High) School and, in March, lecturer in nature study and botany at the Training College. He was appointed organizing inspector of nature study in 1907 and in 1911 and 1912 published a complete scheme for the teaching of the subject in the Education Gazette and Teachers' Aid. Leach led many field excursions and, although these were planned for small groups, attendance swelled and the trips soon became regular features of school life. In October 1909 Leach also helped to found the Gould League of Bird Lovers; its membership of 25,000 in its first year was a tribute to his organizing ability. He was made a senior inspector of schools in 1920, rising to assistant chief inspector in 1924.

Leach contributed monthly articles to the Education Gazette on natural history subjects from 1905 until 1919. With others he produced a series of six geography textbooks for elementary schools and a more advanced book for teachers. In 1908, assisted by Herbert Wilson, he published 'Nature-study: a descriptive list of the birds native to Victoria, Australia' as a supplement to the December issue of the Education Gazette. This was the forerunner of An Australian Bird Book (Melbourne, 1911) which ran to nine editions. His other major publication was Australian Nature Studies (Melbourne, 1922). He had two books in preparation when he died, one a collection of his weekly radio talks on natural history which he had broadcast over 3LO from the mid-1920s.

Leach was a member of the Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria and the Royal Australasian Ornithologists' Union. He was president of the R.A.O.U. in 1922-24 and a painstaking editor of the Emu in 1914-24. He was also convener of their checklist committee, a demanding position as nomenclature decisions for the revised edition of the Official Checklist of the Birds of Australia (1926) called for wise and temperate adjudication. Leach was also a colonial member of the British Ornithologists' Union and a corresponding fellow of the American Ornithologists' Union.

Of medium height and solidly built, Leach was endowed with a sober temperament but was nevertheless capable of enjoying a joke, frequently at his own expense. He died of pericarditis and pleurisy on 3 October 1929 at Richmond and was cremated with Presbyterian forms; he was survived by his wife, son and one of his two daughters. In 1930 members of his nature-study classes formed the Leach Memorial Club which met monthly for many years, participating in botanical, historical and geological excursions.

Select Bibliography
H. M. Whittell, The Literature of Australian Birds (Perth, 1954)
Education Department (Victoria), Vision and Realisation, L. J. Blake ed (Melb, 1973)
Emu, 29 Jan 1930, p 230
C. Barrett, ‘The doctor’, in J. A. Leach, An Australian Bird Book, 8th ed (Melb, 1945)
The Gap, 1965, p 34
Education Department (Victoria), Education Magazine, 28, 1971, p 423
Age (Melbourne), 4 Oct 1929
Argus (Melbourne), 4 Oct 1929.

198. = Ludwig LEICHARDT, NSW- QLD

198+. Rev Samuel LEIGH born 1 September 1785 Milton, Staffordshire, England ~ Joined Wesleyan Missionary Society at Bournemouth in 1814, and arrived in Sydney in the 'HEBE' 10 August 1815.
'His first service was held in a cottage in the Rocks area, where a Wesleyan Society had been meeting since 1812, but he soon turned his attention to the country and went to Castlereagh. He made contact with a farmer, John Lees, who was responsible for building there the first Methodist church in Australia. Leigh opened it on 7 October 1817. He then opened preaching places at Parramatta, Windsor, Liverpool and elsewhere in the district. On 13 September 1818 he laid the foundation stone of a chapel at Windsor...He was an active member of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge and Benevolence and helped to form the Colonial Auxiliary Bible Society in March 1817.'
Leigh died on 2 May 1852 at Parramatta, NSW.

199. Colonel LIGHT ? Planner- Designer of Adelaide, SA? OR L

199+. Captain Hillel Fredrik LILJEBLAD Missionary Sea Captain

Captain Hillel Fredrik LILJEBLAD - from Finland to Fiji to Five Dock

Birth: 3 November 1849 Muonio, Finland
Christianity: Finnish Lutheran; London Missionary Society: Southseas Mission Christian
Occupation: Missionary Sea Captain; Merchant ship's master; Commander of the London Missionary Society’s schooner Ellengowan.
Key Events: 1884 witness to declaration of the British Protectorate of New Guinea

Marriage: 19 July 1886 in ? Queensland, Australia
Wife: Charlotte HUDSON - died: 1935 at Five Dock, Sydney, NSW
1. Thomas V H Liljeblad b.? - d.1923 Petersham, Sydney, NSW
2. Charlotte T Liljeblad (m.1912 Aubrey Charles Egan at Five Dock)
3. Hillel Theodor Liljeblad - (1890 Sydney-1891 Balmain) NSW
4. Hereward K D Liljeblad (1895-1907) Balmain South, NSW
5. Hillil V T Liljeblad b. 1898 Balmain South NSW
6. Jessie E J Liljeblad b.1900 Balmain South
7. Wilhelm H Liljebad - (m.Ethel A James 1926 Petersham)
8. Ruth May Liljeblad - (m.1937 William H Smith in Balmain STh)

Death: 31 May 1924 Rozelle, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Burial: Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

From Australian Dictionary of Biography - ADB ONLINE attached to James Chalmers
per / by Patricia A. Prendergast

Transcript from the Obituary in the Sydney Morning Herald, 3 June 1924, p 10

Liljeblad, Hillel Fredrick (1849–1924)

The death occurred at his residence on May 31 of Captain Hillel Fredrick Liljeblad at the age of 74 years.

Captain Liljeblad was the third son of the late Dean Liljeblad of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland. At the age of 15 he went to sea and having passed the examination for sea captain left his country in 1878. He arrived in Auckland two years later and there qualified for the position of Master Mariner. After 6 months in the Dominion he came to Sydney, and in February 1881, was appointed quartermaster of the R. M. S. Australia. Rapid promotion followed.

In March 1882 he accepted command of the London Missionary Society’s schooner Ellengowan. While in the employ of the Society, on the declaration of the British Protectorate of New Guinea in 1884, he piloted the British squadron of warships, under the command of Commodore J. E. Erskine, consisting of the Nelson, Espiegle, Swinger, Harrier, Lark, Dart and others and was complemented on his navigation. He also commanded the schooner Harrier, the Government vessel Governor Cairns, and the Lady Franklin and Surprise. He remained in the service of the London Missionary Society until 1890 and was associated with the late Dr. Lawes and the Rev. James Chalmers.

Captain Liljeblad spent some years among the islands of the Western Pacific, and experienced many stirring adventures.

He is survived by his widow two sons, and three daughters.

200. 'James' Moy LING - Chinese Methodist Missionary Pastor in Victoria

'James' Lee MOY LING - Chinese Methodist Pastor in Victoria

Father: Moy Yu Yee
Born: 2 January 1832 Canton, {Kwangtung?} (Guangdong), China
Emigrated: 1856 Arrived at Robe, South Australia
Christianity: converted 1865 at Daylesford Methodist Chapel
Marriage: ?
Wife: Wee KIM - or Wee Ling Kim Kam Wong
1. Lucy Sophia Kim Cie MOY LING b. 1874 South Melbourne (Mrs Thomas LIM or LEM)
2. Samuel Wing Yeek MOY LING b. 1876 Melbourne - 1876 Fitzroy;
3. Josiah MOY LING b. 1877 Collingwood
4. Eliza Laura MOY LING b. 1879 Fitzroy (Mrs Samuel SUE)
5. Benjamin Quick Moy Shing Fook MOY LING b. 1885 Castlemain Vic.

Died: 2 February 1911 at Carlton North, Victoria, Age 78
Burial: Melbourne General Cemetery, carlton

FROM - Chinese-Australia Historical Images of Australia

Lee MOY LING, Rev. James by: Ian Welch,

Moy Ling, Rev. James (1832 - 1911)

Born: 2 January 1832
Died: 2 February 1911
Occupation: missionary

Lee Moy Ling arrived in Daylesford, via Robe in South Australia, in 1856. He spoke English and was appointed local Chinese Intepreter. He was converted in the Daylesford Methodist Chapel in 1865. On the recommendation of the Rev William Hill, he was appointed Methodist Catechist in Castlemaine but after anger from the local Chinese Christians, who preferred a local convert, Leong On Tong. Moy Ling was sent to Bendigo and then to Melbourne.

Moy Ling established a Chinese Methodist Mission at 242 Little Bourke St, initially in the Kong Chew Hall, suggesting that he was from Taishan District (Siyi/See Yup county). He worked in close cooperation with the Presbyterians. He became a probationary minister and was responsible for the decision to build the existing Chinese Methodist (Uniting) Church at 194 Little Bourke Street which was opened on 10 July 1872. Moy Ling and On Tong were the first Chinese to be ordained to the Christian ministry in Australia. Their examination for ordination was conducted by the Rev Josiah Cox, an English Methodist missionary from China.

When his colleague, the Rev Leong On Tong went home to China to marry, Moy Ling asked him to also find him a wife. In 1873 he went to China and married. He served as Chinese Minister for several years in Castlemaine.

Among the Chinese he trained for missionary work was John Young Wai, who later became a very successful Presbyterian minister in Sydney. He also arranged for Paul Ng Soong Quong to become a missionary in Perth. Another man, Daniel Lem Sheok Kee, was sent to work in the Otago mission in New Zealand.

He was highly regarded by the leaders of the Methodist Church and held in great respect by his countrymen. A quiet man, he rarely sought the public eye but was active in Chinese associations, including the Chinese Empire Reform Association. He was quietly active in the various difficulties of the Chinese community in relation to immigration and employment issues, especially the attempts to totally exclude Chinese from laundry and furniture manufacturing between 1896 and 1905.

He maintained a friendly working relationship with other Chinese Christians, including Cheok Hong Cheong of the Anglican Mission. With Cheong he was a co-founder of the Chinese Christian Union in the early twentieth century bringing together Chinese Christians from all denominations to work on areas of common interest. Moy Ling was president until his death.

He served as a catechist, minister and Superintendent of the Chinese Methodist Mission in Victoria for fifty years until his death in 1911. He was buried in the Melbourne General Cemetery in Carlton, Melbourne, Victoria. On his headstone it notes his '45 years devoted service as Methodist Chinese Minister in Victoria'.

Sources used to compile this entry: The Wesleyan Chronicle, no. 20 June, 1866; Australasian Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Notices, July, 1867, p. 32; The Wesleyan Chronicle, no. 20 December, 1870, pp. 192-193; Wesleyan Missionary Notices, September, 1873, p. 195; The Wesleyan Chronicle, no. 20 June, 1873, p. 92; The Wesleyan Chronicle, no. 20 August, 1874, p. 130; 'Christian Chinese Union of Victoria [photograph caption]', Weekly Times, 25 April 1903, p. 12, 15; Yong, C.F., New Gold Mountain: The Chinese in Australia 1901-1920, Raphael Arts, South Australia, 1977; Birth and death dates and information about headstone in Melbourne General Cemetery provided by Reverend James Moy Ling's great grandchild Serena Shai-Hee (nee Cheung).

Prepared by: Ian Welch, Australian National University

FROM: A tribute to Influential Australian Christians

27 October 2010 by A tribute to Influential Australian Christians

Moy Ling ( – 1911) Chinese Methodist Missionary

Lee Moy Ling was highly regarded by the leaders of the Methodist Church and held in great respect by his countrymen.


201. = Annie LOCK - From Humbug Scrub to Harding Soak into the beyond...
Ann LOCK was born on 1 August 1876 at Woolshed Flat, near Rhynie, in the Clare Valley district of South Australia, the eigth child, and fourth daughter of Walter LOCK and his wife Ann née STOKES. The LOCK family had formerly lived at Goulds Creek, near Humbug Scrub, in the hills east of Salisbury, and before that, further east again, across the divide of the Adelaide Hills, at Mount Pleasant. After Annie, another two sons and four daughters were born to the Stokes at Rhynie.
Annie Lock attending need in Oodnadatta, SA.

Intrepid Traveller & Outback Missionary committed to nursing, feeding and clothing Aborigines, providing them with spiritual instruction, and educating and caring for their children - in four Australian States: Oodnadatta SA, Forster, NSW; Alice Springs & Barrow Creek NT; Perth, WA. Worked with the interdenominational Australian Aborigines' Mission late U.A.M. for 34 years.

"Colebrook Home, named for one of the founders of the United Aborigines Mission [UAM] in South Australia, first opened in Quorn in 1927 as an institution for Aboriginal children. The fi rst Children’s home run by the UAM had been established three years earlier in Oodnadatta by missionary, Miss Annie Lock. Initially housed in an iron shed, the children were then moved to a small cottage purchased by the UAM in 1926. The following year the twelve children resident in the home were brought to Quorn, along with Matron Ruby Hyde who had been caring for the children since 1925. The children were relocated in order to remove them from the infl uence of their families so that they could be more easily assimilated into white society. As missionary Violet Turner described in her history of Colebrook at Quorn, the UAM believed the children needed to be in a place where ‘they could no longer see the [sic] natives or hear the sounds of corroborree’. It also aspired to raise children in a Christian environment. For many years Matron Hyde, a graduate of the Melbourne Bible Institute, ran the home with the assistance of Sister Rutter who had migrated from England." >COLEBROOK HOME - United Aborigines Mission Archive

Lock, Ann (1876–1943)

by Catherine Bishop

Ann Lock (1876-1943), missionary, was born on 1 August 1876 at Rhynie, South Australia, seventh child of English-born parents Walter Lock, share-farmer, and his wife Ann, née Stokes. Young Ann had little education and worked as a dressmaker before 1901 when she entered Angas College, Adelaide, a 'Missionary Training Home for Ladies'. Raised as a Methodist, she joined (1903) the interdenominational Australian Aborigines' Mission (United Aborigines' Mission from 1929). She was to devote thirty-four years to nursing, feeding and clothing Aborigines, providing them with spiritual instruction, and educating and caring for their children.

In 1905-09 Lock was based at Forster, New South Wales. Moving to Western Australia, she successively served (1909-12) as assistant and matron of the A.A.M.'s Dulhi-Gunyah Orphanage for Aboriginal children in Perth. She founded a mission at Katanning, then worked at the Carrolup Native Settlement, 20 miles (32 km) away, until personality clashes led her to leave in 1917. As A.A.M. representative, she joined an independent evangelist Sydney Hadley at Sunday Island Mission, near Derby, where she remained until 1923. After two years at Oodnadatta in South Australia she felt called to the Northern Territory in 1927. Lacking the full support of the A.A.M. and encountering opposition from officials and settlers, she toiled alone at Harding Soak, 100 miles (161 km) north of Alice Springs. Drought forced her to retreat to Katherine in October 1928.

Two months earlier a number of Aborigines had murdered a White man Fred Brooks near Harding Soak. A police party subsequently killed at least seventeen and possibly seventy Aborigines. In 1929 Lock was recalled to Alice Springs to give evidence to a board of inquiry investigating the massacre. She achieved temporary prominence when newspapers reported H. A. Heinrich's allegation that she had told him she would be 'happy to marry a black'. In its report the board blamed the racial unrest in part on 'a woman Missionary living amongst naked blacks thus lowering their respect for the whites'. The U.A.M. condoned Lock's unusual preference for working alone as a missionary. Independent and forthright, she retained an unshakeable faith in God and her calling in the face of hostility from European society.

Ryan's Well station, some 78 miles (125 km) north of Alice Springs, was her base from June 1929. Next year the owner asked her to leave and she travelled 200 miles (322 km) further north by buggy to Boxer Creek in the Murchison Range. She stayed at what is now known as Annie Loch Waterhole until September 1932. Back in South Australia in 1933, she made another long buggy trip, driving from Crystal Brook to Ooldea where she pioneered a mission until 1936. After marrying a widower James Johansen on 15 September 1937 at the registrar's office, Port Augusta, she resigned from the U.A.M. Johansen belonged to the Plymouth Brethren and ministered to Whites living on Eyre Peninsula; despite suffering from diabetes, Annie accompanied him on his travels. She died of pneumonia on 10 February 1943 at Cleve and was buried in the local cemetery. Her estate was sworn for probate at £95 18s.

Select Bibliography
C. Bishop, 'A Woman Missionary Living Amongst Naked Blacks': Annie Lock, 1876-1943 (M.A. thesis, Australian National University, 1991), and for bibliography.

Annie Lock died 10 February 1943 at Cleve, on the Eyre Peninsula, South Australia.

202. 'TOLPUDDLE MARTYR' - George LOVELESS, 1797-1874 Rural Labourer, Methodist Lay Preacher, Anti-Poverty Campaigneer, Founder of the Friendly Society of Agricultural Labourers, Champion of the liberty of the poor, Tolpuddle martyr, brave Christian of sterling Character, Convict, Transportee to Van Diemens Land, Poet, Receiver of a Full Pardon, Chartist, Farmer, Political Historian & Author, Canadian Settler
Tolpuddle Martyrs banished to Australia : - In England, six English agricultural laborers are sentenced to seven years of banishment to Australia's New South Wales penal colony for their trade union activities.

In 1833, after several years of reductions in their agricultural wages, a group of workers in Tolpuddle, a small village east of Dorchester, England, formed the Friendly Society of Agricultural Labourers. Led by George Loveless, a farm laborer, the union rapidly grew in the area, and it was agreed that the men would not accept work for less than 10 shillings a week. With the urging of the British government, which feared a repetition of the rural unrest of 1830, local authorities arrested Loveless and five others on charges of taking an unlawful oath, citing an outdated law that had been passed in the late 18th century to deal with naval mutiny. On 18th March 1834, these six men, including one who had never taken the oath, were sentenced to seven years imprisonment at an Australian penal colony.

Public reaction throughout the country made the six into popular heroes, and in 1836, after continual agitation, the sentence against the so-called "Tolpuddle Martyrs" was finally remitted. Only one of the six returned to Tolpuddle; the rest emigrated to Canada, where one Tolpuddle Martyr--John Standfield--became mayor of his district. The popular movement surrounding the Tolpuddle contro-versy is generally regarded as the beginning of trade unionism in Great Britain.

On the eve of departure for Australia in chains, George Loveless, preacher of the Word, wrote words on a scrap of paper that might come from a biblical celebration of liberty in the Passover: : -

God is our guide! from field, from wave,
From plough, from anvil, and from loom;
We come, our country's rights to save,
And speak a tyrant faction's doom:
We raise the watch-word liberty;
We will, we will, we will be free!

In England the Tolpuddle martyrs became popular heroes and 800,000 signatures were collected for their release. Loveless was sent to Van Diemens Land separately to the others, where in Hobart Town 'Lieutenant-Governor (Sir) George Arthur appreciated his sterling qualities and exemplary character and sent him to work on the domain farm at New Town as a shepherd and stock-keeper.' That was where he was when news came "of Lord John Russell's order on 10 March 1836, that free pardons be issued to them."

'It was not until 11 September that James Loveless, Brine and the Standfields sailed from Sydney in the John Barry, reaching Plymouth in March 1838. James Hammett, who had been working in the interior of the colony, did not arrive in England until September 1839. On their return the Lovelesses, Standfields and Brine settled on farms near Chipping Ongar in Essex, and migrated to Canada a few years later; James Hammett alone went back to Tolpuddle. George Loveless, like his companions, became an active Chartist; he wrote The Victims of Whiggery (London, 1837), a remarkable account of the Dorchester labourers' experiences and of the transportation system. He died on a farm at London, Ontario, on 6 March 1874.' by G. Rude, ADB Online

203. Beulah Madeline LOWE ~ Yolngu Linguist, Milingimbi (1950s) (Methodist )

Ministry: Millingimbi, Yolngu Linguist
Death: 13 September 2005 at Wesley Gardens, Belrose, Sydney, NSW
Burial: Cremated 20 September 2005 - Northern suburbs Crematorium, Sydney NSW

Beulah LOWE ~ Yolngu Linguist, Milingimbi (1950s) (Methodist )
From ALICE SPRINGS NEWS, June 19, 2002. 'DR TED SAYS WE NEED EDUCATION REVOLUTION.' TED EGAN's speech at the Northern Territory University [ now Charles Darwin Univeristy): - "One of the great Territorians to my mind was Beulah Lowe, a Methodist missionary who went into Arnhem Land in the early 1950s with the agenda to translate the Bible into local languages. She did just that. Along the way she became totally fluent in especially Gupapuyngu which is the lingua franca of Arnhem Land.
The exciting difference with Beulah was that she was so grateful to the old people who had taught her that she in turn taught them to be literate in their own language. They could not read or write English but they were so proud of their acquired ability to read their own language.
There has been good educational achievement among the Aboriginals of north-eastern Arnhem Land, and I submit that this has largely been achieved because, at the outset, the adults were sold on the notion that education is a good thing.
Mandawuy Yunupingu was the first Aboriginal with an Australian first language to get a university degree. His father, Mungurrawuy Yunupingu, was ever so proud of the ability he had acquired from Beulah Lowe to read his own Gumatj language. He encouraged his children to attend school and derive maximum benefit.
As I look around me in Central Australia I see dreadful apathy towards education among Aboriginals. I think that Aboriginal literacy standards have dropped considerably in recent decades..."

1. Wearing, Betsy - 'Beulah Lowe and the Yolngu People'(Paperback, 2007) [Tells of the remarkable work of Beulah Lowe, a linguist who went to Arnhem Land in 1950 as a Methodist Missionary, with the objective to translate the Bible into the language of the Aboriginal people in the Milingimbi region.] 2007 Glenning Valley, NSW
2. Trudgen, Richard, Why Warriors Lie Down & Die [4], ARDS, Darwin, 2000.
3. Beulah Lowe's Dictionary of the Yolŋu languages -
Yolngu - English Dictionary B. Lowe © ARDS Inc. September 2004 - Online pdf file

4. Yolŋu languages at WIKEPENDIA
5. Beulah LOWE photographs- ["Collection of photographs of the 'Makarata' or peacemaking ceremony, which took place at Milingimbi in 1951. The ceremony was also photographed by Fritz Goro (Life magazine photographer) and Axel Poignant, who was acting as his assistant. Beulah was the teacher employed by the Methodist Overseas Mission at Milingimbi mission station, Arnhem Land and acted as interpreter for the photographing of the children's story, 'Bush Walkabout'. She was there during Axel Poignant's first visit with Fritz Goro in 1951 and in 1952 when Axel went to Milingimbi after his period on the Liverpool River (Nagalarramba)"--Information from acquisition documentation.] National Library of Australia
6. Newspapers: Sydney Morning Herald: 17 September 2005; Manly Daily 17 September 2005

204. Robert MILNE LYON- or Robert Menli LYON, (1789 - after 1863) born in Inverness, Scotland. - Swan River, WA, Advocate of a Treaty with Aborigines, Linguist, proto-anthropologist, Christian Conciliator & Champion of Negotiation, Professor of Greek & Latin in Mauritius, Champion of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples,
Robert Menli Lyon arrived at the Swan River Colony in 1829 and lived along the Swan River before leaving the colony in 1834. His description of the Swan and Canning River Aboriginal people and their tribal boundaries were published in the Perth Gazette in 1933 and are important for a number of reasons. It is the first recorded account of the names, vocabulary and ‘tribal districts’ of the tribal groups from 1832‐1833, which occupied the area that is now metropolitan Perth. His key informant was Yagan, an ‘Aboriginal patriot’ who was killed in July 1833.

205. Dame Enid LYONS

206. Joseph LYONS, Prime Minister/ TAS

207. Koriengbin’s son RAKERNUN / Martin Simpson Avoca,Vic. Corowa, NSW

208. Lachlan MACQUARIE – Governor of New South Wales

209. Archbishop Daniel MANNIX, Melbourne VIC

210. = Pastor Bert MARR Taree, Purfleet NSW - A.I.M. & U.A.M.
Pastor Bert MARR of Taree

From: FOCUS - [Naidoc Week FOCUS speaks with Jeremy Saunders about the local lauguage of the Birrbay, Guringay and Wattimay – Gathang.]
'Uncle Bert Marr was a big influence in my life with our local language and culture. He taught many Aboriginal boys from my generation, from all around the Mid North Coast about their language, culture and heritage.' Jeremy SAUNDERS

FROM: the Dictionary of Sydney
by Dictionary of Sydney staff writer, 2008

Day of Mourning 1938

On 26 January 1938, as Australians celebrated the sesquicentenary of European settlement, about 100 Aboriginal men, women and children gathered in a hall at 150–152 Elizabeth Street in Sydney, known as the Australian Hall. At the time, Australian Hall was a popular venue for concerts, dances, and other social activities.

They called the event a Day of Mourning and Protest because, in the words of the organisers of this gathering,

the 26th of January, 1938 is not a day of rejoicing for Australia's Aborigines; it is a day of mourning. This festival of 150 years of so-called 'progress' in Australia commemorates also 150 years of misery and degradation imposed upon the original native inhabitants by the white invaders of this country.

The protesters' intention was to bring awareness of their plight to non-Indigenous Australians, in order to gain support for their proposal to dismantle the Protection Boards then operating, and extend full citizen rights to Aboriginal people. The Day of Mourning was attended by Aboriginal activists who came from all over Australia, after organisers requested that only people of Aboriginal heritage attend. The meeting was held in the Australian Hall after use of the Town Hall was refused.

Among the organisers were Bill Ferguson, Jack Patten and other members of the Aborigines Progressive Association, William Cooper and the Australian Aboriginal League, Margaret Tucker, J Connelly, Tom Foster, Pearl Gibbs, Helen Grosvenor, Jack Johnson, Jack Kinchela, Bert Marr, Pastor Doug Nicholls, Henry Noble, Tom Pecham, and Frank Roberts.

The event was covered by the press and radio, and Prime Minister Joseph Lyons agreed to receive a deputation of the delegates a few days later. This eventually led to major reforms of the Protection Boards, and eventually to the 1967 Referendum, which approved the counting of Aboriginal people in the national census and gave the Commonwealth power to legislate for them, overruling state law. This referendum, on 27 May 1967, recorded the largest ever 'Yes' vote in a referendum to alter the Australian constitution. Many Aboriginal people considered that changing the relevant sections of the Federal Constitution was essential in gaining formal recognition of their existence as people of their own country. The 'Yes' vote is generally accepted as the first step that eventually resulted in the granting of full rights to Australia's indigenous population.

The 1938 Day of Mourning was a unique event in Aboriginal history. It was the first national Aboriginal civil rights gathering and represents the identifiable beginning of the contemporary Aboriginal political movement. The Australian Hall, by association, became extremely significant to Indigenous heritage, and is now listed on the National Register of heritage places.

'1967 Referendum', Didj 'u' Know stories, Message Club website,, viewed 13 January 2009

Cyprus Hellene Club and Australian Hall, Australian Heritage Database website,;place_id=19576, viewed 13 January 2009

'Significant Aboriginal Events in Sydney', Barani website,, viewed 13 January 200

From: NEW DAWN September 1970 page 16

Death of Pastor Bert MARR of Purfleet NSW. The death occurred on Thursday, 2nd June, 1970, of well-known Aboriginal identity Mr. Bert Marr, who has lived in the Taree district most of his life. (His funeral) commenced with a service at the United Aborigines’ Mission church at Purfleet settlement. Later another service was held at the graveside. Both services were attended by many Aboriginal people as well as other residents of the Taree area. The service at the church was conducted by the Missionary stationed at Purfleet, Mr. Albert Ridley, who for some years had worked together with Pastor Bert Marr amongst the Aboriginal people of the Taree district. Others who took part were Mr. Jago of the U.A.M. council and Rev. Johnson who represented the Ministers Fraternal of Taree. The large gathering at the funeral gave some indication of the high esteem in which Pastor Marr was held. However the occasion was a private one as well. I had known Mr. Marr for some years as we both shared an interest in the work of the U.A.M. He was a fine man and I mourn his death as a personal loss. - by Herbert Simms.

211. = Samuel MARSDEN NSW

212. =Elizabeth MARSDEN NSW

213. +Jane Christian MARSHALL,

214. 'MARANOOKA' 'Mister Maloga' 'MARANOOKA' Daniel MATTHEWS & Janet Johnston MATTHEWS Missionary to Aborigines of the Murray River, at Maloga, nr Echuca, Vic & NSW, & later at Mannum, SA.
Daniel Matthews was born on 28 February 1837 at Truro, Cornwall, and died at Mannum, South Australia on 17 February 1902, and was buried in Mannum cemetery. The Matthews championed the cause of the Aborigines and objected to their often pitiful treatment in settler society. This brought down on them persecution and hostility from local squatters and even from the Government, including both the NSW & VIC's so-called Aborigines Protection Association. A smear campaign, turning them into fellow 'Victims' with the Aborigines, was carried on against them in the 1890s which made them social pariahs in white 'society' which hounded them off the Maloga mission. - 'For a time his base was Beulah House on the southern side of the Murray, where he took in displaced half-castes. In 1900 the last Maloga report was issued from Barry Parade, Carlton. It was succeeded by the Australian Aborigines' Friend, a monthly which appeared until 1902....' Daniel's wife Janet JOHNSTON 'began the Metco and Manunka Missions near Mannum, South Australia...' Janet carried on the Mannum mission until 1911 and died in Adelaide on 25 September 1939.'

215. =Lillie MATHEWS

216. =John MATTHEW, missionary & anthropologist

216+. Doctor John MAUND (1823 - 1858) - a founder of the Royal Womens Hospital, Melbourne

Doctor John MAUND

Maund, John (1823 - 1858) M.D.
Born: 12 March 1823 Bromsgrove, Worcestershire, England
Died: 3 April 1858 Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Occupation: Medical practitioner, Gynaecologist and Obstetrician

Transcription of item written by Dr Colin Macdonald and published in "The Book of Remembrance", The Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne, 1956.

(1856 - 1858)
John Maund, a native of Bromsgrove, Worcestershire, was born on 12th March 1823, 12 years before Melbourne was founded. At Bromsgrove, a small market town 13 miles N.E. of the county city of Worcester, is a well known Public School dating from 1527, which Maund’s brothers attended, but he himself received tuition in the nearby larger town of Kidderminster, with his early education receiving many interruptions because of - in the medical idiom of the day - a delicate constitution.
John was the eldest of the three sons of Benjamin and Sarah Maund. His father, a remarkable man and a world famous botanist - a Fellow of the Linnaen Society - is described thus on a memorial tablet in the Bromsgrove Parish Church - "In memory of Benjamin Maund F.L.S. 1790-1864, Author, Printer and Producer of 'Maund’s Botanic Garden' and other world famed works, distinguished by comprehensive knowledge, artistic skill and exalted genius; he lived and laboured in Bromsgrove for nearly 50 years, and rendered lasting honour to the town of his adoption".
So John Maund inherited a love of learning and accurate scholarship.
On choosing medicine as a career, John was apprenticed to a surgeon named Welsby at Prescot, the watch-making town in Lancashire, and later studied medicine at the University of Glasgow, where he won numerous prizes. In his twenty-first year he became an assistant surgeon at St. Pancreas (London) Infirmary, at the same time studying for the Diploma of the Royal College of Surgeons, which he received on 7th August 1845. He then spent a year attending hospitals and lectures in Paris.
In June 1847, he received the Diploma of the Apothecaries’ Society, London, and soon afterwards started private practice at Harlow, Essex, having just taken the Degree of Doctor of Medicine, University of St. Andrews.
Never robust, ill health caused the sale of this East Anglian practice, and in 1851, the first year of Victoria’s gold rush, Dr. Maund, then aged 28, decided to emigrate to Victoria. Before doing so, he was awarded the certificates of the Royal College of Chemistry, London, as well as that of the Polytechnic Chemical School. At this time his inclination was to follow the practice of analytical chemistry in Victoria, feeling this would be more suited to his health than the rigours of colonial medical practice.
So Dr. Maund and one of his three sisters arrived at Melbourne in the ship "Janet Mitchell" on 3rd January 1853, the passengers presenting him with a silver tankard in appreciation of his professional services on the voyage. Some of these passengers continued to visit him in Melbourne, and he eventually decided to resume medical practice, and forego the analytical chemistry. His first rooms were in a small house in 189 Lonsdale Street East. He practiced there until May 1857, when he removed to a house built for him in Latrobe Street East.
In April 1857, he was admitted to the ad eundem degree of Doctor of Medicine, University of Melbourne. He was Victoria’s first Government Analyst, and in that position made many official investigations, in particular into Melbourne’s water supply, recently established at the Yan Yean Reservoir.
Dr. Maund developed a large private practice, especially in the newer suburbs rapidly growing around Melbourne. Cases that came to his notice aroused an ambition to establish an institution where the poorer women of the community could be confined in hygienic conditions, and in this aspiration he found a ready supporter and an enthusiastic sympathiser in Dr. Richard Thomas Tracy, practicing not far away in Brunswick St., Fitzroy. Maund was 33 at the time, Tracy 29. The first hospital was known as "The Lying-In Hospital" in leased premises at 41 Albert St. East Melbourne, prior to the opening of the permanent hospital in Carlton in 1858. The situation of this 41 Albert St. lies a little to the right of the Baptist Church House and about opposite the rear of St. Peter’s Church of England.
The sound establishment of this Lying-In Hospital was greatly furthered by the interest and collaboration of the then Anglican Dean of Melbourne - Dr. Macartney. In August 1856, the attention of Dr. Macartney was drawn by a group of ladies to the necessity of establishing a Lying-In Hospital in this city. He accordingly convened a meeting at the Deanery for the purpose of considering the best steps to be taken to secure the establishment of such an Institution. At this meeting a Ladies’ Committee was formed, and the Dean undertook to apply to the Committee of the Melbourne Hospital to enquire if they were willing to establish such an Institution in connection with that Hospital. The next meeting of the Ladies’ committee was fixed to 8th August, to be held at the Deanery, when it was hoped a reply from the Melbourne Hospital would have been received.
During the interval between the first and second meetings, it became known to some of the ladies that Dr. Maund and Dr. Tracy, having also felt the great need for a Lying-In Hospital, were then in treaty for a what was described as a commodious and well-situated house in Albert Street, East Melbourne, and these gentlemen were determined on their own responsibility to set such an Institution on foot, trusting to the support of the public to maintain so necessary a project when its benefits became apparent. Maund and Tracy were accordingly invited to attend the second meeting at the Deanery. They did so, and the Dean reporting that the Melbourne Hospital was not at present able to help, it was agreed that the object in view would best be achieved by co-operating with Maund and Tracy.
So a third meeting was held at the Deanery on 11th August and another on 14th August at the house which had then been hired by Maund and Tracy, to judge the suitability of this building, and to further consider the undertaking. A new Committee of 20 ladies was then formed, a President was chosen, and an Honorary Treasurer and an Honorary Secretary appointed. Mrs. Perry, wife of the Bishop of Melbourne, was the first President, Mrs. Jennings, of Alma Road, St. Kilda, the first Honorary Treasurer, and Mrs. Tripp, of Gertrude Street Collingwood, the first Honorary Secretary.
The first patients were admitted on 19th August 1856 and in December of that year, when the first report was presented to subscribers - (92 in number), the Hospital had 20 inpatients and 101 outpatients.
A subscriber of one guinea annually received tickets admitting 12 outpatients to the benefits of the Hospital; a subscriber of two guineas, 12 outpatients and one inpatient; while a subscriber of five guineas, 24 outpatients and three inpatients.
Dean Macartney’s name should therefore be honourable remembered in connection with the Hospital establishment. Son of an Irish Baronet, a graduate of Arts and Doctor of Divinity of Trinity College Dublin, he accompanied Bishop Perry to Melbourne in 1847, and died here in 1894, at the ripe old age of 95, greatly respected by clergy and laity alike. Even at the age of 90, he could still preach a vigorous sermon. When St. Paul’s Cathedral was opened in 1891, its acoustics were very poor, defeating all preachers except the aged Irish Dean, for only his resonant voice could be heard at the far end of the huge bluestone edifice.
Another non-medical man whose name should be remembered was Mr. Richard Grice - a Melbourne merchant, a fellow churchman and personal friend of Tracy. Grice was foremost in procuring funds sufficient to entitle the young Hospital to Government support, and to the grant of two acres of land in Madeline Street, Carlton, on which it now stands. That portion of Swanston Street which flanks the Hospital on the west was then known as Madeline Street.
Maund and Tracy were thus the medical founders of our Women’s Hospital and were its first honorary Medical officers – the Hospital Committee granting the appointments for the lifetimes of these two gentlemen. Not until 1884 was the title changed from Lying-In Hospital to Women’s Hospital, and to Royal Women’s Hospital 70 years later.
John Maund lived only two years after the Lying-In Hospital was established, but this was long enough for him to see it well founded, and the usefulness he had dreamed for it, acknowledged. In point of fact, Maund died on 3rd April 1858, just before the Carlton building was completed, at his home in Latrobe Street East, at the early age of 35, after a residence in the Colony of only five years. He lies buried in the Melbourne General cemetery. The description of his illness suggests it may have been typhoid fever, common enough at that time in Melbourne.
Maund seemingly was a simple man, unobtrusive, gentle in manner - one who had quickly gained the confidence and esteem both of his patients and the general public. He was an original member of, and amongst the most enthusiastic workers for, the Medical Society, and was the originator and first editor of its Journal called "The Australian Medical Journal". His friend Tracy was the first Treasurer. Several articles appear under Maund’s name in this Journal, one being an analysis of the statistics of the Lying-In Hospital for the first twelve months of its existence.
On his death - it will be remembered he was only 35 - it was written "that the Colony of Victoria had never before been called to mourn the loss of one who had so much distinguished himself by his attainments in every branch of medicine, and who was not more distinguished for his abilities than for his kind and amiable disposition, which had endeared him to all who knew him".
He died unmarried. His sister returned to England, and the family had no further connection with Australia.
His portrait in oils, painted posthumously in Melbourne by Nicholas Chevalier, hangs in the Medical Society’s Hall in East Melbourne. His sister gave it to the National Gallery of Victoria, whose Trustees have lent it in perpetuity, to the Victoria Branch of the British Medical Association.* After his death the Committee of the Lying-In Hospital set aside a sum of money for the painting of this portrait, and for a mural tablet. This tablet lay for many years in an obscure corner of the Hospital until unearthed by Mr. James Cunningham, the Manager and Secretary, in 1955.
A stained glass window, representing St. Paul and St. Luke, is a memorial to Maund in the chancel of the Parish Church at Bromsgrove, Worcestershire and on the window is the inscription "In memory of John Maund M.D. who died at Melbourne, Victoria, 1857, and was interred there in the General Cemetery". This date we know should be 1858.
There is ample evidence that Maund was a man of the first quality, one of the many educated Englishmen, Irishmen and Scotsmen of the early Victorian era who brought to the Antipodes qualities of honesty, sincerity and Christian faith which provided a splendid heritage on which the future Commonwealth of Australia could be soundly built.
*The painting is now on loan to the Royal Women’s Hospital where it was hung for many years in the Board Room and more recently in the Tracy Maund Museum.
Archivist’s note, 2006.
Archival/Heritage Resources
Royal Women's Hospital Archives
Book of Remembrance, 1956 - 1975; Royal Women's Hospital Archives [ Details... ].

217. Rev. John McKAEG

218. = ELizabeth & John McARTHUR NSW

219. =John McARTHUR, Jnr & =William McARTHUR Campden NSW

220. Reverend 'Laurie' Lawrance Archibald McARTHUR
Reverend 'Laurie' Lawrance Archibald McARTHUR

Birth: 9 July 1904 in Yednalie, nr Orrorroo, Frome district, South Australia
Father: Archibald McARTHUR (1859 NZ - 1940 SA)
Mother: Florence Serena SYMONS (1872 SA 1967 SA)
Cultural Influence: Cornish, Scottish, Colonial New Zealand & South Australia
Christianity: Wesleyan, Methodist
Education: South Australia
Marriage: 14 February 1931 South Australia
Wife: Daisy Catherine Sabina HUGHES (1904-1977)
Family: two children
Early Ministry: Methodist Circuit, Maylands, Perth, Western Australia
Mission Ministry: Rabaul, New Britain, New Guinea
Occupation: Clergyman, Missionary [Methodist Missionary Society of Australasia]
Position: Member of Legislative Council for Territory of New Guinea
Prisoner of the Japanese: January 1942 Rabaul PNG
Death: 1 July 1942 off Luzon, northern Philippines, in the South China Sea, upon the sinking of the 'Montevideo Maru'

221. James Phillip McAULEY (1917 - 1976) born Lakemba, Sydney, NSW - journalist, poet, Atheist, Marxist, Academic, public essayist, Catholic convert, hymn writer, organist, Pioneer Editor of 'Quadrant.'
McAuley died on 15 October 1976 at Lenah Valley, and was buried in Cornelian Bay cemetery, Hobart, TAS. Staunch defender of the Christian Faith.
James McAuley began his life as an Anglican and was sometime organist and choirmaster at Holy Trinity Church, Dulwich Hill in Sydney. McAuley lost his Christian faith as a younger man...
In 1952 he converted to Roman Catholicism, the faith his own father had abandoned. This was in the parish of St Charles at Ryde. He was later introduced to Australian musician Richard Connolly by a priest, Ted Kennedy, at the Holy Spirit parish at North Ryde[1] and the two subsequently collaborated to produce between them the most significant collection of Australian Catholic hymnody to date, titled "Hymns for the Year of Grace". Connolly was McAuley's sponsor for his confirmation into the Roman Catholic Church. In his undergraduate years McAuley was influenced by both communism and anarchism, but although a man of the left, McAuley remained staunchly anti-communist throughout his later life. In 1956 he and Richard Krygier founded the literary and cultural journal, Quadrant and was chief editor until 1963. From 1961 he was professor of English at the University of Tasmania. - from Wikipedia

McAuley wrote both essay and poem to celebrate life lived with a passion for Christ, as in 'Valediction : Roy Campbell (a South African born poet who came to Christian faith):

He stood against the levelling stampede
And cracked the stockman's whip of his polemic;
He never left his friends or slurred his creed
In times when cowardice grew epidemic.
Contemptuous of the babble of his time,
He loved the Muses with a noble passion,
Catching golden splendour in his rhyme
When rhyme and splendour both were out of fashion.

Who now shall bring back from our wars a song,
Like Heracles returning with a trophy?
May Christ who calls the singer from the throng
Give stars and music to his heavenly strophe.

Most Signifcant among McAuley's works is the outstanding 'Captain Quiros' 1964, an Epic Poem of the historic Christian voyage of the fleet that included Admiral Torres, but led by Father Pedro de Quiros, of the Spanish quest for the South Land of the Holy Spirit (Australia Del Espiritu Santo). This poem includes the lines about the often unsuccessful-seeming Christian Great Commission and Quest: - from Part Two: New Jerusalem

"Those who have quenched the heart, who would not dare
For any cause to set life on a throw,
Who never walked with failure, death, despair
In long familiar converse: how can they know
What the world looks like in a blaze of glory?
They end as they began, and have no story;
With life unused, they dwindle as they go."

and ends in a vision for our land, from Quiros' Last Vision -

" 'Terra Australis, heartland of the South,
In the Great Lauds your myriad creatures raise
May there never be wanting from the singer's mouth
To give words to that canticle of praise
From which all beings pour forth to the Spirit.
And from our broken toil may you inherit
A vision to inform your latter days.' "

James McAuley

222. Sister Irene McCORMACK -(born 21 August 1938 Trayning, Western Australia ~ died in martyrdom Tuesday, 21 May 1991, Huasahuasi, Peru)

Missionary Nun, Sister of St Joseph of the Sacred Heart, Charity worker, Extraordinary Minister of Holy Communion, a targeted victim of the ruthless terrorist violence by the Peruvian Maoist so-called 'Sendero Luminoso' (Shining Path).
"DEATH: - About 6 pm on Tuesday, 21 May 1991 an armed band of members of Sendero Luminoso entered the town of Huasahuasi. They threatened residents and entered a number of homes. Four men were taken from their homes and brought to the central plaza of the town. Members of the guerrilla band also went to the convent, where McCormack was alone (as Stevenson was receiving medical treatment in Lima). The Sendero Luminoso members did not enter the convent, but ordered McCormack to come out, which eventually she did. She was also marched to the plaza and made to sit on the benches there with the four men.
For about an hour the five victims were harangued, interrogated and shouted at. Several local people interceded for the lives of the five, saying they were good people and not wrongdoers. Sendero Luminoso members retorted that they had not come for a “dialogue”, but to “carry out a sentence”.
McCormack was accused of dispensing "American food" (Caritas provisions) and spreading “American ideas” (by providing school books). When local people insisted that McCormack was Australian, not American, the guerrillas dismissed this as irrelevant.
During the night, a group of young people from the village gathered around McCormack in the darkness and managed to move her back into the crowd. But the guerrillas soon noticed her absence and returned her to the bench.
Eventually the five prisoners were ordered to lie face down on the terrazzo-tiled surface of the plaza. Each was shot once in the back of the head. McCormack was the first to be killed – about six metres from the door of the church.
Since the bodies could not be moved from the plaza until authorities gave permission next morning, parishioners kept vigil by the body of McCormack, burning candles and praying. Then a group of women laid her out in the sacristy and did for her what their families did for the men killed with her. On 23 May 1991 a funeral Mass was held and McCormack was buried in the Huasahuasi cemetery, in a niche donated by a parishioner.

OFFICIAL SAINTHOOD: - In October 2010, Australian media reported that McCormack could become Australia's second saint, after the canonisation of Mary MacKillop. The ‘’Daily Telegraph’’ reported that Church officials in Peru and Australia will prepare a submission to the Vatican for the cause of McCormack after the official canonisation of Mary MacKillop by the Pope.
It also reported that under Vatican rules, martyred saints do not require the same evidence of miracles performed through their intercession, and that it was hoped that the process for McCormack would be quicker." from Wikipedia.

223. "MAC" Donald Alistair MacDONALD - journalist, poet, nature writer
Donald Alaster MacDONALD
Birth: 6 June 1859 Fitzroy, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Christianity: Catholic, Presbyterian
Marriage: 26 February 1883, Scots Church, Melbourne, to Jessie SEWARD
Occupation: columnist, journalist, nature writer, sports writer,war correspondent
Qualities: Simplicity, Sincerity, Truth, Salty Humour, Friendliness, Warmth, a vagabond Christian Mystic who wandered into realms 'where thoughts are singing swallows and the brooks of morning run'. A lover of Vagabonds.'Something of a Patron Saint of Bush Boys' said Alec Chisolm.
Achievements: had a Gift for conveying a sense of the divine and the beauty in nature; Taught Australians to see their own country with love. He had a gifted insight so he could convey the 'feel' and 'blend the spirit-of-fact with the matter-of-fact in an uncommonly pleasant' telling and refreshing manner.
Death: 23 November 1932 Black Rock, Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia
ABD ONLINE - Australian Dictionary of Biography

224. =Fr E.McGRATH MSC., Barthurst Island NT

224+. William Frederick 'Bill' MacKENZIE (1897-1972), Presbyterian missionary at Aruak Cape York, Queensland
Reverend William Frederick 'Bill' MacKENZIE
Born: 16 February 1897 Ambrim (Ambrym) Island, New Hebrides (Vanuatu)
Died: 29 June 1972 Forest Hill, Nunawading Victoria, Australia - Reference: 'MacDonald, Donald - 'Gum Boughs and Wattle Bloom. 2. MacDonald , Donald (Ed. Elaine Whittle) The Brooks of Morning, 1933 ADB ONLINE - Australian Dictionary of Biography

225. =Donald McKILLOP SJ. Daly River, NT

227. ‘ MAKANAB’ Father Duncan McNAB [ Sept 1896] - d.Richmond, Vic /WA

‘MAKANAB’ Father Duncan McNAB & "KNIFE"

Born: 11 May 1820 Achrinich, Argyll, Scotland
Cultural Influence: Mediterranean-European Judeo-Christianity, Scottish, Celtic
Christianity: muscular Celtic Catholic
Occupation: Catholic missionary, Catholic priest, Indigenous rights supporter
protector of Aboriginals, public servant
Qualities: Courage, Integrity, Longsuffering, Evangelical Vision,
Death: 11 September 1896 Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Burial: Melbourne

From: The Encylcopaedia of Aboriginal Australia 1994 (Ed Horton, David) Vol 1.

McNab, D. - by IH-W (Dr Ian Howie Willis)

Duncan McNab (1820-1896), a Scottish Catholic priest who arrived in Australia in 1867. he worked as a parish priest in Victoria for eight years, then spent four years working among Aboriginal groups in the Mackay and Gympie districts, QLD, where at his urging the government set aside parcels of land for reserves. For a time in 1877-1878 he lived on the Durundur reserve near Caboolture, where he hoped to establish a mission, but instead moved away to accept a government post as Aboriginal commissioner. He resigned almost immediately. His radical views made him unpopular with settlers, government officials and the church hierarchy. McNab believed Aboriginal people should own land, and be treated as responsible adults both under the law and by government agents.

After returning to Europe in 1879 in a vain effort to rally support from the Pope and the British Colonial Office, he came back to Australia and moved to WA in 1883. For a time he was chaplain to the aboriginal prison on Rottnest Island, then moved to the Kimberley district, where he established a mission station on Goodenough Bay, northwest if Derby in 1884. He quit after a fire destroyed it's buildings in 1886. Oral tradition maintains that an Aborigianl man known as 'Knife' accompanied McNab on horseback to Perth, and then to Albany (where teh prirest took ship to Melbourne), before returning alone to the Kimberley. In Melbourne McNab served as parish Priest and gave occasional lectures on Aborigines.

From - Ausralian Dictionary of Biography - ADB Online -

McNab, Duncan (1820–1896)

by H. J. Gibbney

Duncan McNab (1820-1896), Catholic missionary
, was born on 11 May 1820 at Achrinich, parish of Morven, Argyllshire, Scotland, son of Patric McNab and his wife Cirsty. In 1832 he went to Blair College, a seminary near Aberdeen, and in June 1835 to the Scots College in Rome but left on 8 August 1840 before taking his oath as a missionary. He returned to Scotland and was ordained a priest on 8 March 1845. Inspired perhaps by his kinship with Mary MacKillop, he dreamed of a mission to the Australian Aborigines but was refused by a bishop perpetually short of priests, and spent twenty years in parish work. He dabbled in Gaelic literature and at Airdrie in 1862 fell foul of Irish parishioners, probably by arguing the Scottish birth of St Patrick.

Given leave to migrate McNab arrived at Melbourne in the Chariot of Fame on 29 July 1867. For eight years he was tied to parish work in Geelong, Portland and Bendigo. In March 1870 he was refused permission to join the New Norcia Benedictines in Western Australia, but in September 1875 he was permitted to start a personal mission in Queensland. At Mackay he began to see that the one hope for Aborigines was to treat them not as 'a problem'. He therefore sought for them the right to own land and to be treated as responsible adults by law and as individuals. His dour common sense did not appeal to either the government or his clerical superiors, while his fervent and mystical Catholicism made him suspect in the Protestant majority. In March 1876 he became ill and went south to recuperate. On his return he began raising money for work among tribes at Gympie, Kilcoy, Durundur and Bribie Island. He was gazetted a commissioner for Aborigines but became unpopular with other commissioners by advocating individual homesteads rather than reserves. He quarrelled with Bishop James Quinn who considered him a tool of government and refused help, while Tom Petrie believed that he was the dupe of supposed converts. In June 1878 he wrote a long appeal to Rome for help but received no reply and decided to appeal in person. In August 1879 he sailed in the Kent and next year induced Pope Leo XIII to authorize a Jesuit mission to the Aborigines, vainly importuned the Colonial Office in London, travelled through the United States and returned to Victoria. After persuading the South Australian Jesuits assigned to Aboriginal missions to select the Northern Territory rather than Queensland, he turned his attention to Western Australia.

McNab arrived at Perth early in 1883 and became a chaplain to Aboriginal prisoners on Rottnest Island. His recommendations on vocational training to the 1883 commission on Aboriginals were implemented half-heartedly. He then made a reconnaissance to the north and in April 1884 settled alone at Goodenough Bay, near Derby. For two years he laboured patiently with little success but in April 1886 he was joined by Fr William Treacy. In August he visited Derby and was diverted to the pastoral care of miners at Hall's Creek. In his absence Treacy had been struck down by fever and went south, and the mission buildings were destroyed by fire. This was the last straw. According to Aboriginal tradition, McNab, tired and old, rode from Derby to Albany accompanied by one faithful Aborigine. He took ship for Melbourne where he lived in a Jesuit house at Richmond and worked quietly as a parish priest until he died on 11 September 1896.

McNab's curious mixture of Celtic mysticism and Scottish common sense antagonized many but his proposals for native welfare would, if adopted, have saved much agony. His name is still revered in the tribal traditions of the north-west.

Select Bibliography
* P. F. Moran, History of the Catholic Church in Australasia (Syd, 1895)
* J. E. Handley, The Irish in Modern Scotland (Cork, 1947)
* M. Durack, The Rock and the Sand (Lond, 1971)
* Votes and Proceedings (Legislative Assembly, Queensland), 1876, 3, 161, 1878, 2, 66
* Votes and Proceedings (Legislative Council, Western Australia), 1883, 2nd S (16)
* M. Durack, ‘The priest who rode away’, Westerly, Nov 1962
* R. L. Evans, ‘Queensland's first Aboriginal reserve’, pt 2, Queensland Heritage, Nov 1971
* Advocate (Melbourne), 19 Sept 1896
* McNab to Propaganda, Rome, 10 July 1878 (Jesuit Provincial Archives, Hawthorn, Melbourne)
CO 234/40/579, 621
* information from Melbourne Diocesan Historical Commission.

228. =J F MEISCHEL, Killalpaninna Coopers Creek SA

229. Johann MENGE (1788-1852) geologist, cave eremite, Jacobs Ck, SA-d. Chewton, VIC

230. = H. A. E. MEYER, Adelaide SA

231. Bee Beatrice MILES}, Sydney NSW

232. =Mrs Janet & Rev Edward MILLET C of E, WA

233. =Major Thomas Livingstone MITCHELL ? NSW

234. = Robert MITCHELL ~ of the Inland SA & NT

235. =Alexander MOLLISON, Malmsbury VIC

235+. Robert Clark MORGAN, Sea Captain, Master Mariner
Robert Clark MORGAN


Robert Clark Morgan

Born: 1798 Deptford, London
Died: 1864 South Yarra, Melbourne, Australia

Captain Robert Clark Morgan was the captain of the ship that brought the first settlers to South Australia in the Duke of York in 1836. The diaries that he kept are held in the collection of the State Library of New South Wales.

His birth

Morgan was born on 13 March 1798 at Deptford, Kent in England. This is recorded in his diary. His parentage is not known. No conclusive record of his birth has been found.
In his diary he does not mention his parentage apart from a few cryptic remarks. On Sunday 5 February 1837 he states, “I could not say that I had a praying Father or a praying mother or a Brother or Sister for I lost them young and knew little of them. I was cast on the world at the age of 11 years to walk the journey of life”.
In one of his diaries he speaks of his Father’s sister dying and being buried on 2 April 1844. However, he does not give her name. There was a Harriet Morgan, a single woman aged 68, who was buried in St Dunstan's, Stepney on 2 April 1844. She died on 29 March 1844 at 5 Arbor Street West, St Thomas, Mile End Old Town in Stepney, where the death was registered. The informant was a Charlotte Willoughby of Charles Street, St. George East, Stepney.
In Harriet’s Will, dated 25 February 1843, she states that her address (at that date) was 3 Leg Alley, Long Acre (now known as Langley Court off Long Acre), and that her “wearing apparel” is to be divided between her two sisters Louisa Johnson[1] and Jane Brooks and that both sisters resided at 3 Leg Alley, Long Acre. She also left to her brother (this could have been Robert Clark Morgan’s father or his father's brother) Thomas Morgan[2] living at 5 Ward Street Lambeth her writing equipment.

His religious awakening

When a young man, and just appointed to his first command, he, about ten days before sailing on his cruise, happened to enter a chapel in Greenwich where a revival service was being held, and the result to him was eventful. This would have been in 1828.
That revival service in Greenwich was led by Isaac English (baker and lay preacher). English is listed in Pigot's Commercial Directory of Kent of 1827/8 and in 1839 and Robson's Directory of 1838 at 12 Blissett Street in Greenwich. In Bagshaw's 1847 directory he is recorded as Isaac English, Gentleman at 34 Prior Street, Greenwich. In the 1841 census for Greenwich he is shown at Blissett Street with the following entry. Isaac English, age 45, baker. Not born in the county [Kent]. Maria or Miriam English, age 40 [his wife] born in the county. Also in the house are: James Earl, age 25, baker, John Mulin, age 15, baker and Ann Cracknell, age 9. English could not be found on the 1851 census for Greenwich.
Before he took up his first command in December 1828 on the Sir Charles Price he had hitherto been a reckless, boisterous profligate, living without a thought of God, except to blaspheme his holy name; but Divine grace now wrought so wondrous a change in him, that when he once more went to sea the old hands amongst his crew could scarcely recognise him for the same man. He who once never gave a command unaccompanied by an oath was now never heard to swear; and such was the force of his character and the power of his example, that in a few months' time not a man of his crew dared to use a profane expression while within his hearing. The discipline of the ship was not a bit lessened, and every one was happier, from the sobriety and good feeling of which the captain set example.[3]
Robert Clark Morgan attended the West Greenwich Wesleyan Methodist Chapel, which was founded in King George Street (song), very close to Blissett Street, in 1816. A new chapel was built in London Street (now Greenwich High Road) in 1876, rebuilt in 1906 and destroyed in the Second World War in 1940. The present church building was put up in 1953. However, it is no longer a church and it’s used as offices.
The foundation stone of the Wesleyan Chapel in George Street was laid in September 1816 and it was opened on December sixteenth of the same year. It was capable of seating 1,000 people. The building may still be there although it has not been used as a chapel for a very long time.

Wife and family

On 30 December 1822, at Deptford, Kent, at the Church of St. Nicholas,[4] Robert Clark Morgan married Mary Dorrington. He was 25 and she was 22. He had a lifelong devotion to her. He states that they met when very young - the choice of my youth is an expression he often used in his diaries.[5]
The marriage was registered as:
“Robert Morgan Clark, bachelor of this Parish and Mary Dorrington, spinster of ('this', written, then deleted) the Parish of Greenwich were married in this Church by Banns this 30th Day of December in the Year one thousand eight hundred and twenty two, by me, D. Jones, Curate. This Marriage was solemnised between us (signed:) Robert Morgan Clark Mary Dorrington In the presence of { X The mark of James Gittens and {Elizabeth Dorrington”
The reason his marriage was solemnised in the surname of Clark is unknown.
They had seven children, most dying shortly after birth. There was a daughter, Louisa Clark Morgan, who died at 7 years of age and only one child, also named Robert Clark Morgan, survived the Captain and his wife. Both were baptised at the George St Wesleyan.

The Royal Navy

He entered the Royal Navy at the age of eleven, his diaries state that at that age (he was) sent to sea on board a man o' war. He talks of the man o' war as "a place where all wickedness is committed with greediness and a place where he saw every vice man is capable of committing".

South Sea whaling

When he left the Royal Navy, in 1814 towards the end of the Napoleonic Wars, he transferred to the merchant marine, whaling. He began as an apprentice on the Phoenix (of London), becoming an able seaman and rising to first and second Mate and became a Master at an early age. One of the voyages on the Phoenix (of London) is described in the book The Dalton Journal edited by Niel Gunson. Captain Morgan is not mentioned by name. However, there is a reference to the second mate, which Captain Morgan would have been at that time.
He was the master of the ships Sir Charles Price and Recovery, both owned by Daniel Bennett an owner of many south sea whaling ships and the Duke of York, owned by the South Australian Company, the first pioneer ship to reach South Australia.[6]
His whaling career was in the Phoenix (of London), Apprentice June 1814 - June 1819, Able Seaman June 1819 - Sept 1822, second Mate Jan 1823 - Nov 1825, first Mate May 1826 - Sept 1828. Sir Charles Price, Master Dec 1828 - June 1831. Recovery, Master Dec 1831 - June 1835. Duke of York (Ship) Master Feb 1836 - Aug 1837.
In his diary later in life he reminisces about his whaling experiences:
"Early this morning I went on deck. It was a fine beautiful morning, a clear atmosphere and fine blue sky with the ocean with only a few rippling over its surface. I saw a ship and went to the masthead and saw she had her boats down. Afterwards I saw the sperm whales she was after. She had taken whales before as she was boiling oil and the smoke was going in volleys from her tryworks. The whales were going as nearly as fast as the ship so we kept pace with them for 2 - 3 hours till at last one boat struck a large whale then another struck the same whale and eventually killed it and took it alongside. Oh how vivid did this bring back all my past experience in this work. The days of my youth and manhood was spent in this trade. This was the part of it I loved. A sight of a whale would make my heart jump and take away all relish for food. How happy if when a boy I could get to be let down in a boat and after I came to manhood how happy if I could but get to kill a whale and I always managed to get my share. All these things came fresh to my memory and these feelings rose up and caused a feeling not easily described, but I left it all for Jesus and his work. I will not repine how many hairs breaths escapes have I had in whaling, how many times has God spared my life when my boat has been staven, time after time."[5]

South Australia

Captain Morgan was appointed Master of the Duke of York by George Fife Angas. The Duke of York was owned by the South Australian Company and was fitted out for the Australian run to take the first settlers[7] to South Australia and then whaling after that. This vessel sailed from St Katharine Docks on 26 February 1836. The 190 ton Duke of York was a whaling and trading bark owned by the South Australia Company. She was under the command of Captain Robert Clark Morgan and left London on 24 February 1836, equipped for whaling. (Another source said she left England on 5 April). She reached Kangaroo Island on 27, July 1836.
After a historic meeting at Exeter Hall on 30 June 1834, where the principles, objects, plan and prospects of the New Colony of South Australia were explained to the public, hundreds of enquiries from prospective immigrants started to arrive at the South Australian Association's rooms at 7 John Street, Adelphi.
The Company dispatched the Duke of York, the Lady Mary Pelham, the Emma and the John Pirie, with the intention of commencing whaling operations on Kangaroo Island - a known safe harbour. The Duke of York finally set sail for the sea on Saturday 19 March 1836, having been unable to get away from the English coast due to bad weather for some five weeks. It carried 42 persons including the crew.
Under the emigration scheme, labouring classes received a free passage. They had to be between 15 and 30 years of age, preferably married and needed two references. Steerage passengers paid £15-20, middle berth £35-40, cabin class £70. Children under 14 years were charged £3 while those under 1 year were free.
Although the ships had been assessed for their suitability to convey immigrants, the captain was responsible for their welfare once on board.
All emigration to South Australia was voluntary - remarkable also for the high percentage of women and children who arrived on the first fleet. The 9 ships to arrive in South Australia in 1836 landed:- 343 males, 164 females and 129 children - total 636. Their average age was only 19 years of age.
Some passengers, including some adults whose passage was charged to the Emigration Fund, were on board as well. The First Report of the Commissioners of Colonisation of South Australia gave the ship's complement as thirty-eight. A list compiled from the Company's records gave the names of twenty passengers and twenty-six seamen, in addition to the Captain.
Several of the passengers listed had significant appointments in the service of the South Australian Company. Samuel Stephens was the first Colonial Manager, and on behalf of his employers, he established the settlement of Kingscote as a site for their projected whaling venture. From its location in relation to the mouth of the River Murray, and the Gulfs of St Vincent and Spencer, he considered it as a possible shipping port for the future.
Another of the passengers, Thomas H. Beare, was Superintendent of Buildings and Labourers, while D.H. Schreyvogel was engaged as a clerk. Chas. Powell and W. West were gardeners; Henry Mitchell was a butcher; and John Neale was an assistant carpenter.
They reached Kangaroo Island in South Australia and disembarked on 27 July 1836. When in sight of the island the previous evening Captain Morgan, a devout Wesleyan, gathered the passengers for a prayer meeting. When they landed Mr. Stevens, the man in charge of the South Australian Company, named the river Morgan, after Captain Morgan. It is now called Cygnet. Soon after landing he conducted a short service to give thanks for their safe arrival. This was probably the first religious service on the shores of South Australia.
Most of the passengers wished to be the first to land in the new colony, but Captain Morgan settled the dispute very cleverly. He instructed the second mate Robert Russell to have some sailors row the youngest, two and a half year old Elizabeth Beare, daughter of the Company's Deputy Manager, Thomas Hudson Beare as close as possible to the shore. Then Russell was to carry her through the shallow water and place her feet on the beach while the adults were at dinner. In doing so she was the first white female to set foot on that strand. When this happened the crew began to cheer and the passengers soon realised that a landing had been made without them knowing it.
Leaving the passengers on Kangaroo Island, the Duke of York sailed off on 20 September 1836 to hunt whales. They called at Hobart Town from 27 September 1836 to 18 October 1836 to refresh and to proceed to the South Sea whaling grounds. On Friday, 10 February 1837 they heard of the wreck of the ship Active in the Fiji Islands and they took on board its Master, Captain Dixon, Willings the mate, and Wilkey.
They were whaling up the coast of Queensland when they were shipwrecked off Port Curtis (in Queensland) on 14 July 1837. Port Curtis is near current day Gladstone, Queensland. The whole Ships Company was saved and got into 3 boats and rowed and sailed 300 miles to Brisbane, where they arrived Saturday 26 August 1837 after a most uncomfortable time. On the way down aboriginals killed an English crewman George Glansford, of Barking Essex and a Rotumah native boy, named Bob, when the boats put in for water. There are parts of his diary that related to George's death. The Captain said that he was a young man, probably, early 20's. The Captain used to get George down to his cabin for religious instruction. He said that he recalled the Captain writing that George was not a hardened rough type. George apparently accepted his religious teaching. It seems as the captain had a sought of parental role over George.
His journal that covers the period that he was master of the Duke of York is water marked to attest to this experience. They finally arrive at Morton Bay and the steamer James Watt took Captain Morgan, the Mate and nineteen survivors on to Sydney, leaving the remainder to follow in another vessel.

London Missionary Society

On Tuesday, 6 February 1838, three days after he arrived home from Sydney, he visited the Secretary of the London Missionary Society to see if he could take command of the Missionary Ship Camden. On the tenth he met John Williams (missionary) who was looking to travel back to Samoa.
John Williams was a missionary and with his wife Mary went out to the islands in the South Pacific to take the Christian message. They had a very interesting time and their mission was fraught with danger. John was eventually murdered. In 1936 the London Missionary Society invited children all over the country to save their ship halfpennies and contribute to buying a ship in John's memory so that his work could continue. Several ships were bought in this way and PILOTS[8] came into being.
He sailed for the London Missionary Society in the Pacific, in firstly the Camden, from April 1838 till July 1843. He was with the Rev. John Williams, when he and Harris were murdered in the New Hebrides Erromango, now Vanuatu.
In 1839, when the Camden returned to England, he became captain of the London Missionary Society's mission ship, John Williams (ship), and sailed it for 3 voyages; June 1844 - May 1847, October 1847 - May 1850 and the last was July 1851 to June 1855.
In 1841 the Samoan Brethren suggested that he sit for his portrait [9] when next in Sydney. However, it was finally done in London. The original artwork is held in the collections of the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, England and was displayed in the offices of the London Missionary Society. There was a copy reproduced in the journal the Congregationalist (June 1962 at p. 3) with an article about him.
[edit]Retirement from the sea

Captain Morgan retired from the sea at the end of the voyage in 1855.
As far as can be seen in his diary that covers the period from 16 June 1861 - 29 March 1862 [10] he spent a lot of his time visiting the sick.
His final diary that covers the period 15 March 1863 to 31 March 1864[10] tells of the voyage the Captain and Mrs Morgan made to Melbourne, Australia on the Yorkshire from about 30 March 1863 to l9 June 1863. It appears they came to be near their only surviving child (Robert Clark Morgan II). The son was baptised on 10 July 1829 at the Wesleyan Chapel George St. Greenwich. In the 1851 census Robert Clark Morgan II (aged 21) was residing in England with his patents at 83A Lower Road Deptford (also in the household was Mary A Wallace, niece, aged 22, born in Greenwich, Kent). His occupation is shown as a Clerk at the East India Docks. He had lived in Samoa with his parents for a while and went to Sydney in 1849. He then went to Melbourne arriving in about 1852 at the time of the gold rush. He joined the Victorian civil service on 20 September 1852 as a Revenue Collector. He died in Melbourne, Australia at the age of 87 years a very wealthy man.[quantify]


Morgan died 23 September 1864 at Arthur St, South Yarra, Victoria, Australia, at the home of his son, aged 66. - His dying words are that when he was asked by his son if he wanted anything was: “I want more love, more love to the Father, more love to the Son and more love to the Holy Spirit"[11].

The headstone reads: 'Sacred to the memory of Robert Clark Morgan who died 23 September 1864, aged 66. He brought the first settlers to South Australia in the Duke of York in 1836 and was subsequently Commander of the London Missionary Ships Society's Camden and John Williams. His consecrated life made him a true Missionary and he was much beloved by the natives of the South Pacific. So he bringeth them into their desired heaven.'
And on the other side of the headstone – 'Also of Mary his beloved wife who died 12 February 1866 aged 64 years, and their daughter Maria Clark who died 18 October 1843, aged 7 years. Precious the sight of the Lord is the death of His Saints'

The Reverend A.W. Murray in his book, Forty Years Mission Work, said "I have known many eminent Christians during my not-short life, but I have never met a more lovable, a more Christian like man than was Captain Morgan"[12]

On 12 February 1866, Mary Morgan (née Dorrington) his wife, died at Arthur Street.
On her death certificate it said she was born at Greenwich, Kent[13]. Mary and her husband Captain Morgan are buried in the Melbourne General Cemetery with their son Robert Clark Morgan II and his wife Martha Jane (née Short).


^ Louisa was the name Robert Clark Morgan chose for his daughter
^ Robert Clark Morgan’s grandson was named Robert Clark Thomas Morgan
^ Sunday at Home, published 1874 and the other in the Australian Christian Commonwealth, published 1913 (both out of copyright).
^ St. Nicholas Christopher Marlowe is buried in the Church graveyard
^ a b Robert Clark Morgan (1798-1864) His personal Diary
^ "The barque Duke of York - first pioneer ship to arrive", History South Australia.
^ http://Bound for South Australia - Passenger Lists for Emigrants to South Australia 1836-1851
^ a b Diaries held by his great great grandson (Robert Hamilton Morgan)
^ Recorded in the Australian Christian Commonwealth
^ Forty Years Mission Work, Reverent A.W. Murray.
^ The 1851 Census record it records Mary as born in Whitechapel, in the County of Middlesex.

236. William MORLEY, Anti-slavery society, Congregationalist Minister, director of the London Missionary Society, founder of the Association for the Protection of Native Races in Australasia and Polynesia.
William Morley was born at Cransley, Northamptonshire, England, son of George Morley, postal official, and his wife Anne, née Moore. From 1875 he studied for the Congregational ministry at New College, London. He married Alice Micklem at Littlewick, Berkshire, on 19 July 1881. Morley began his ministry at Thame, Oxfordshire (1880-89), and served at Littlehampton, Sussex (1889-92). Soon after migrating to Melbourne in 1892 Morley was invited to fill a vacancy at Prahran. Later he served congregations at Rockhampton, Queensland (1897-1900), and Dulwich Hill, Sydney (1901-08). In 1906-27 he was New South Wales auxiliary secretary of the London Missionary Society, devoting his whole time to the society from 1908. ...Morley worked tirelessly to improve conditions of Aborigines. In August 1928, on his motion, the A.P.N.R. adopted a policy of 'physical, mental and moral improvement'. By 1929 he was calling for Federal control, increased spending, extension of reserves, improved conditions on pastoral stations, and reforms in the administration of justice. In 1928-30 he launched a campaign to arouse public opinion, raised money to assist starving Aborigines in Central Australia and demanded a royal commission to investigate the Coniston killings...Morley was an uncompromising crusader for justice, in the process alienating senior officials. He met ministers and politicians when possible, but more often doggedly argued the case in closely reasoned correspondence; where all else failed he tried to publicize issues through the press. Bitterly disappointed by the unresponsiveness of governments, the disregard of the record of 'ill-treatment, outrage, and massacre', he was forced by illness to resign in November 1938. He urged that his successor should not be a moderate, for 'moderatism will never help the cause of our natives'. As no replacement was found, he resumed the position in April 1939, but died on 19 August (1939) at his Killara home and was cremated. His wife, two daughters, and son Norman (1883-1940) who also worked for Aborigines, survived him.' ADB online

237. Dr Leon MORRIS

238. Baron Ferdinand J H von MUELLER (1825-1896) Melbourne VIC

239. Yasukichi MURAKAMI (1880-1944) & Shigeno Teresa MURAKAMI (1897-1981)

Yasukichi Murakami in 1910 (Exemption from alien Dictation Test card)

Yasukichi MURAKAMI(1880-1944)

Born: 19 December 1880 Tanami, Wakayama, Japan
Cultural Influence: Japanese
Religious Influence: Catholic - [Yasukichi Murakami was originally a Buddhist, but his new wife Shigeno Teresa Murakami was a Catholic, and later, he also became a Catholic.
Occupation: pearl trader, importer, retailer, & wholesaler, Japanese community leader, photographer (general), alien internee, Prisoner-of-war
Theatre of Activity: Western Australia, Kimberley, Darwin, Northern Territory, Victoria (Internment Camp)
Qualities: Probity, Integrity, Peacemaking, Courage, Long-suffering, a Life-Saving Inventor, an Innovator, Community Builder, Mediator, Counsellor, held his peace in the face of persecution
Death: 26 June 1944 Tatura Internment Prison Camp, Tatura, Goulburn Valley, Victoria, Australia
Burials: 1. Tatura War Cemetery. 2. Japanese Cemetery, Cowra, New South Wales
Legacy: Japanese peacemaking; Japanese-Australian respect & goodwill;

Shigeno Teresa MURAKAMI nee MURATA

Parents: daughter of Hatsuzo MURATA & Take (Taki) OKABE
Born: 22 August 1897 Cossack, Western Australia. (m. aged 23)
Christianity: Catholic
Married: 3 February 1920 District Registry Office, Broome, Western Australia
Qualities: Faithfulness, Long-suffering, held her peace in the face of persecution
Died: 25 April 1981 Darwin, Northern Territory
Buried: Darwin Cemetery, Northern Territory

From: Australian Dictionary of Biography - ADB ONLINE

Murakami, Yasukichi (1880–1944)

by D. C. S. Sissons

Yasukichi Murakami (1880-1944),
Japanese storekeeper, was born on 19 December 1880 at Tanami, Wakayama prefecture, Japan, second son of Jòubei Murakami and his wife Yasu. At the age of 16 Yasukichi joined the flow of Wakayama younger sons to the Australian pearling towns, arriving at Cossack, Western Australia, aboard the Saladin in August 1897. Some three thousand of his countrymen were then in Australia. He worked with a carter, delivering water, but soon secured permanent employment with Takazò Nishioka, a Japanese storekeeper, with whom he moved to Broome in 1900.

On Nishioka's death in 1901, the enterprise passed to his widow Eki, née Yamaguchi, whom Murakami married on 11 May 1906 at the district registry office, Broome. She was fifteen years older than he and they remained childless. Under their direction, business expanded. They operated as importers, wholesalers and retailers; the store also served as a photographer's studio and a savings bank for Japanese residents and pearling crews. Murakami became one of the leaders of his community. When, during the annual lay-up in December 1907, violence broke out between Japanese and Malay crewmen, he helped to restore peace between the two groups. From about 1911 he was in financial difficulties. A local slump in 1915 led many of the divers and crewmen to withdraw their deposits and he was forced to close the business. The pearler A. C. Gregory then employed him to manage the Dampier Hotel in return for a half-share of the profits.

In April 1918 Murakami was declared bankrupt. His wife had left him two months earlier, having first collected for herself book debts amounting to some £500. She died in Japan in December.

At the district registry office, Broome, on 3 February 1920 he married (Theresa) Shigeno Murata (d.1981); she was aged 23, the daughter of Japanese parents and Australian born.

Mr Yasukichi and Mrs Shigeno Teresa Murakami

It was generally believed that Gregory had received financial assistance from Murakami to enter the pearling industry and that he secured the best of the Japanese divers and crews through Murakami's good offices. In 1921 he entered into a joint venture with Murakami to produce cultured pearls. Alarmed that the price of natural pearls would fall, the West Australian Pearlers' Association persuaded the State government to prohibit the scheme.

At considerable cost, Murakami designed and patented (1926) a diving suit. Less buoyant and lighter than the conventional type, it afforded the diver greater mobility. It was not, however, a commercial success. In 1936 Gregory helped Murakami and his family to move to Darwin where he established a successful business as a photographer. On 30 August 1939 he applied to be naturalized. His application was rejected on the ground that 'it is the established policy of the Government not to naturalize Asiatics or other coloured persons'.

When Japan entered World War II in December 1941, Murakami and his family—with the rest of the Japanese community—were interned. He died of 'chronic myocarditis' on 26 June 1944 at Tatura internment camp, Victoria, and was buried with Catholic rites in the local cemetery. His wife, and their six sons and three daughters survived him. Murakami's remains were later reinterred in the Japanese cemetery, Cowra, New South Wales.

"Mr Yasukichi Murakami"

Select Bibliography
* M. A. Bain, Full Fathom Five (Perth, 1982)
* D. Carment et al, Northern Territory Dictionary of Biography, vol 1 (Darwin, 1990)
* Australian Patents and Patents Application records, no 1525/26 (Patents Office, Canberra)
* A1, item 1925/13328 and A659, item 39/1/12989 (National Archives of Australia)
* bankruptcy file, WAS 165, consignment 3560, item 1918/10 (State Records Office of Western Australia).

SOURCES: 1. KILGARIFF, Fay - MURAKAMI, YASUKICHI - Northern Territory Dictionary of Biography Volume One yo 1945 pp.216-219
2. ADB - as above

240. + MUM Shirl Nowra & Sydney 192 -1998

241. Premier MURRAY Vic.

242. + Bill Bee NADEN Sr, (Aboriginal Pastor) Gilgandra, NSW

Bill Bee NADEN

Christian Aboriginal pastor - excluded from The Encylcopaedia of Aboriginal Australia 1994 (Ed Horton, David)

243. Albert NAMATJIRA, Hermannsburg NT

244. + ‘NANA’ of Alice and Adelaide NT& SA

245. C. H. NASH Anglican

246. =John NEEDHAM ABM

247. John Shaw NEILSON, poet & writer SA-VIC

248. Rev. R.W.NEWLAND, Scottish-Australian Church

249. +Pastor Sir Douglas NICHOLLS Cumeroogunga NSW, Fitzroy, VIC, SA

250. + James NOBLE Normanton QLD

& + Angelina NOBLE QLD

251. + NOORAMIN Little Black Joey -martyr Geelong, Vic.

252. Koriengbin’s wife NOORUNDURNEEN / Kitty SIMPSON Djadja Wurrung, Victoria

253. =J. O BRIEN, Daly River SJ, NT

- John O’BRIEN Poet (SEE Fr Patrick Joseph Hartigan, (1878–1952)

254. Kevin Izod O'DOHERTY Young Irelander

Birth: 7 September 1823 Dublin, Ireland
Cultural Heritage: Irish, English Language
Religious Influence: Catholic
Occupation: convict (political), medical administrator, Member of Lower House
Member of Upper House, physician, public servant
Death: 15 July 1905 Torwood, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

married Ireland to Mary Eva KELLY
John O'Doherty - died 30 January 1863 Queensland
Jeanette Maria annunciate O'Doherty born 22nd February 1864 Queensland
Evaline Mary O'Doherty - 9 March 1866 to 1 August 1866 Queensland
Gertrude Mary Christina O'Doherty - born 15th November 1870
Vincent O'Doherty - died 3rd November 1890 Queensland
William Joseph O'Doberty - died 7th October 18932 QLD
Edward Hyacinth O'Doherty - died 5th July 1900 Queensland

Doctor Kevin Izod O'DOHERTY, Catholic 'Young Irelander', Transportee as a Political Convict. Acting surgeon at St Mary's Hospital, Hobart Town VDL. In June 1853 he received a conditional pardon. Expatriated to Ireland. Returned to Australai at Geelong, Victoria, then Brisbane, Queensland. Founder of the Queensland Medical Society. Responsible for the first Health Act in Queensland 1875-77. Trustee of the undenominational Brisbane Grammar School 1874. Opponent of the traffic in Kanakas. President of the Irish Australian Convention held in Melbourne 1887.

FROM ADB ONLINE (Australian Dictionary of Biography)

O'Doherty, Kevin Izod (1823–1905)

by G. Rude

Kevin Izod O'Doherty (1823-1905), Irish nationalist and medical practitioner, was born on 7 September 1823 in Dublin and baptized two weeks later at the Roman Catholic Church of St Andrew, son of William Dougherty, solicitor, and his wife Ann, née McAvoy. He began to study in the Catholic School of Medicine in 1842 but in May 1848 became involved with the Young Ireland movement and as co-editor of the nationalist Tribune was sentenced to transportation for treason-felony at Dublin in August. He sailed in the Mount Stewart Elphinstone to Sydney and thence in the Emma to Hobart Town, arriving on 31 October 1849. Granted a ticket-of-leave, he was allowed to settle in the Oatlands District. He became manager of the dispensary in Hobart in November 1850 and in January 1851 was acting surgeon at St Mary's Hospital. In June 1853 he received a conditional pardon, which forbade residence in the United Kingdom, and went to live in Paris whence he made a secret visit to London to marry Mary Eva Kelly (1829-1910) on 23 August 1855. He received an unconditional pardon next year and returned to Dublin. He graduated as a fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons in June 1857 and set up practice.

O'Doherty returned to Victoria in 1860 and after a short stay in Geelong moved to Sydney and settled at Brisbane in 1865 where he became a leading physician.

He was one of the first presidents of the Queensland Medical Society and carried out extensive honorary work at Catholic hospitals. A member for Brisbane in the Legislative Assembly in 1867-73, he had wide interests.

In 1872 he was responsible for the first Health Act in Queensland and in 1875-77 gave evidence to many commissions on medical matters. In January 1868 he became one of the first trustees of the undenominational Brisbane Grammar School, but in 1874 declined to serve on the royal commission on education in protest at 'the proposed withdrawal of aid to non-vested schools'. He was a member of the Legislative Council in 1877-85 and as an opponent of the traffic in Kanakas sponsored the bill to stop their recruitment. A leading figure in the Queensland Irish Association, he was elected president of the Irish Australian Convention held in Melbourne in 1883.

In 1886 O'Doherty was elected to the House of Commons as member for North Meath but resigned after the split in Parnell's party and returned to Brisbane. Unable to set up practice again, he was finally appointed secretary to the Central Board of Health and supervisor of the quarantine station.

He died on 15 July 1905 at his home in Torwood, Brisbane, survived by his wife and one of his eight children. The Queensland Irish Association raised a monument over his grave in Toowong cemetery.

His wife was a poetess, known as 'Eva of the “Nation”,' and continued to write throughout her married life but her poems written in Queensland had a tone of sadness and a longing for Ireland. She published Poems (San Francisco, 1877) and a second edition at Dublin in 1909.

Select Bibliography
R. S. Browne, A Journalist's Memories (Brisb, 1927)
J. H. Cullen, Young Ireland in Exile (Dublin, 1928)
H. A. Kellow, Queensland Poets (Lond, 1930)
T. J. Kiernan, The Irish Exiles in Australia (Melb, 1954)
Votes and Proceedings (Legislative Assembly, Queensland), 1875, 2, 295
O'Doherty papers (microfilm copies at State Library of New South Wales, National Library of Australia, and State Library of Queensland)
Ac no 2/363 (Archives Office of Tasmania).

FROM _ Obituary for Kevin Izod O'Doherty, convict Queenslander

Death of Dr K.I. O’Doherty

Well-Known Queenslander Gone

The death took place on Saturday evening, at his residence, Westholme, Heussler terrace, of Dr. Kevin Izod O’Doherty; at the age of 81 years. The deceased, who for many years was highly esteemed as a citizen and as a medical man, had been ill for some time past, and during the last two or three years was relieved of some of his duties in connection with the insane asylum at Goodna, Diamantina, and Ipswich by other medical men. Dr. J.Thomson has looked after the lunacy work at Woogaroo, Dr. Espie Dods at Diamantina, and Dr. Flynn at Ipswich. Last week the deceased suffered a stroke of apoplexy, and he was visited by Dr. Marks on Friday, and Dr. Thomson on Saturday. He succumbed on Saturday evening, leaving his widow and daughter as sole survivors. His sons, Dr. E. O’Doherty, Dr. W, O’Doherty (dental surgeon), and Mr. Kevin O’Doherty all predeceased their father.

The late Dr. Kevin Izod O’Doherty, F.R.C.S.I. was born in Dublin in June, 1824, and educated for the medical profession. Whilst still a student he entered heartily into the “Young Ireland” movement, and joined with R.D. Williams (“Shamrock,” of the “Nation”) in founding the “Irish Tribune,” the first number of which was published in Dublin on 10th June, 1848. At the fifth number, issued on 10th July, the new journal was suppressed by the Castle authorities, and Mr. O’Doherty was lodged in gaol on a charge of treason-felony. In the following month he was placed on his trial, but the jury disagreed, and the same fate awaited the second experiment. Arraigned a third time, he was found guilty, and sentenced to ten years’ transportation. Van Diemen’s Land (now Tasmania) was his destined location for which he sailed in company with John Martin, arriving in November, 1849. He was at once released on parole, and his professional services were utilised at St. Mary’s Hospital, Hobart. Five years later Mr.O’Doherty received a pardon, conditional on his residing anywhere out of the United Kingdom. Of this he availed himself to settle in Paris, where he resumed his medical studies, making a secret excursion to Dublin in order to marry Miss Kelly (“Eva” of the “Nation”), to whom he had been affianced at the time of his trial, and who had promised to wait for him when their prospects of reunion seemed blackest. In 1856 Mr. O’Doherty received an unconditional pardon, and in the following year he returned to Dublin, where he was admitted F.R.C.S. in 1857, and L.M. and L.R.Q.C.P. in 1859. After practising in Dublin for some time with much success, Mr. O’Doherty emigrated to Brisbane, where he took a leading position in his profession, and was for six years one of the members for the capital in the Legislative Assembly of Queensland. In 1877 he was nominated a member of the Legislative Council, and retained his seat till 1886, when he resigned, with the view of settling in Europe. He was received with great cordiality on his return to Ireland, and was at once nominated and returned to the House of Commons for Meath in the Parnellite interest. After a few months, however, he resigned his seat in Parliament, and returned to Queensland. Mr.O’Doherty was for some time president of the Irish National League of Australia, and was chairman of the Irish Australian Convention, held in Melbourne in 1883.

The deceased occupied many positions in Queensland and Brisbane at various times. He was a member of the old Central Board of Health, and took a great interest in many movements. At various times he was medical officer to the volunteer forces, and on the consulting staff of the General Hospital. Since his return from Britain he has gradually ceased to be so well known a figure in the city as formerly, but by all old residents his gentlemanly bearing, his springy gait, his genial ways, and happy words will long be green in their memories. The funeral is fixed to take place this afternoon at 4 o’clock at Toowong Cemetery.

255. Michael O'GRADY (16 October 1824 – 5 January 1876 Erinagh, Hawthorn, Melbourne) Roman Catholic community leader, Melbourne's most influential Catholic layman.

255+. Charles O'HEA - Priest at Pentridge Village and Stockade, Merri Creek, Vic.
Father Charles O'HEA Priest at Pentridge Village and Stockade, Merri Creek, Vic.

256. King O'MALLEY (1858 - 1953) Pioneer & 1st Bishop of Waterlily Rockbound Church—the Redskin Church of the Cayuse Nation, Salesman, Speculator, Pacifist, anti-conscriptionist, Prospector, Politician, Mischief-maker, Banker, Irascable Rechabite, defender of the Rights of Woman & of Illegimate children, Father of the Reserve Bank & the Commonwealth Bank of Australia

257. Peter O’NEIL

258. Bernard Alfonso O’REILLY, Humble Catholic, Good Samaritan, Bush Rescuer - O’Reillys, Queensland

Bernard Alfonso O’REILLY,- from ADB Online
O'Reilly, Alfonso Bernard (1903–1975)

by R. W. Carter

Alfonso Bernard O'Reilly (1903-1975), bushman and author, was born on 3 September 1903 at Hartley, New South Wales, son of Peter Luke O'Reilly, grazier, and his wife Jane, née McAviney. Second youngest of a large family on a mixed farm in the Kanimbla valley, Bernard went to school at Cullenbenbong, then boarded at St Canice's School, Katoomba, when his family moved to Megalong in 1910. The oldest boys left to try dairying in the rugged McPherson Ranges, Queensland. In 1916 the family moved to Sandgate, Brisbane.

Finishing school in 1917 at St Joseph's College, Bernard went to the family selections. For the next nine years he worked the fledgling dairy and as a ranger explored the surrounding rainforest ridges and gorges of Lamington National Park. By 1926 the steadily growing number of visitors to the park encouraged the family to establish formal guest-house accommodation. Bernard continued with the failing dairy and increasing guest-house duties, carting supplies and guests from the foot of the range.

He married Viola Gwendoline King at St Agatha's Catholic Church, Clayfield, Brisbane, on 20 August 1931.

On 19 February 1937 the Stinson airliner VH-UHH disappeared mysteriously between Brisbane and Sydney. With the aircraft unaccounted for after eight days, O'Reilly searched the McPherson Ranges on foot, following a private clue. On the second day he found wreckage and two emaciated, badly injured survivors, later the body of a third who had fallen while going for help. Four on board had died immediately when a cyclone dashed the aircraft into tall trees.

That evening O'Reilly hiked ten miles (16 km) through sodden rainforest, returning next day with a rescue party. He assisted in carrying out the survivors by stretcher relay. His name became a household word overnight and he a proficient public speaker through relating his story. O'Reilly was awarded the Albert medal, second class, for civilian bravery.
Bernard O'Reilly Memorial Public sculpture by ...

In 1942-45 he served with the 9th Division, Australian Imperial Force, in the Middle East, New Guinea and Borneo, as acting corporal from November 1944, utilizing his uncanny sense of direction, map-reading skills and ability to navigate by the stars. After the war he worked at various times at the family guest house, which became a Mecca for bird-watchers and for the Department of Forestry. In 1955 he established his own small guest house in the park at Lost World and from 1957 to 1963 also worked for the New South Wales railways. He sold his unsuccessful Lost World establishment in 1963 and returned to the mountains to live out his life, dying in Beaudesert Hospital on 20 January 1975 from heart failure following pneumonia. He was buried in Kerry cemetery. His wife and daughter survived him.

Easy-going, quiet and modest, O'Reilly wrote Green Mountains (Brisbane, 1940), largely through public demand; Charles Chauvel's film, Sons of Matthew (1949), was based on it. Successful as a writer, and encouraged by his family, he published tourist pamphlets and three other narrative works on country life—Cullenbenbong (1944), Wild Rriver (1949) and Over the Hills (1963)—as well as a book of verse, Songs from the Hills (1971).

Select Bibliography
People (Sydney), 28 Feb 1951
Courier Mail (Brisbane), 20 Feb–10 Mar 1937, 21 Jan 1975
Sydney Morning Herald, 11, 16 Mar 1937, 1 Apr 1937, 5 Feb 1946, 21 Jan 1975, 2 Sept 1977
Herald (Melbourne), 23 May 1956, 22 Jan 1975.

O'Reilly Tombstone, Kerry Cemetery, near Lamington, Queensland.

259. = Rev Joseph ORTON TAS * VIC

259+. John O'SHANNASSY (1818-1883)
Born: 1818 Ballinahow, near Thurles, County Tipperary, Ireland,
WIfe: - Margaret McDonnell of Thurles
Married: 1839
Emigrated: from Plymouth, England per "William Metcalf"
Departure: 26 July 1939
Arrival: Hobson's Bay, Melbourne, 15 November 1839
Political Mentor: Daniel O'Connell - the 'Liberator', he sought to preserve his limited programme of reform from the taint of radical innovations
Political Career: 1846 by-election to the Melbourne Council
Member September 1851 for Melbourne 1st Legislative Council elections.
Contribution 1: solved the Unlocking of The Land for ordinary settlers
Contribution 2: Solved Oppressive Miner's laws in modification of the licence fee
Contribution 3: It was O'Shanassy who initiated the 'miner's right'
Contribution 4 leading lay Catholic, claimant at the Denominational Schools Board.
Contribution 5: Pushed Open Parliament, firm supporter of a bicameral legislature
Contribution 6. challenge to High property qualification for the franchise
Contribution 7: Founder and president (1845-51) of the St Patrick's Society
Contribution 9 : Sale of farm land near towns at fixed price of £1 an acre
Contribution 10: state aid to the Jewish religion
Premier of Victoria 11 March 1857 till
Died: 5 May 1883 Upper Hawthorn, Boroondara, Victoria
Awards: Pope Pius IX appointed him a knight of the Order of St Gregory in recognition of his services for Catholic education.

FROM Australian Dictionary of Biography - ADB ONLINE

260. Mr Edward Stone PARKER & Mrs Mary Cook Woolmer Parker Franklinford, Victoria 1802-1865
Edward Stone PARKER, Assistant Protector of Aborigines, Loddon District, Mount Franklin, Franklinford, Victoria 1802-1865 .
Edward Stone PARKER was born in 1802 in London, England. Parker's first work was as a Printer's apprentice. As a young man he heard a spiritual call to service and entered training towards a Wesleyan Ministry. He first worked as a probationary Minister in Devonshire. Against the rule during his probation he married, to Mary Cook Woolmer, eldest daughter of Congregational Minister Reverend George Woolmer of on the 22nd October 1828, and so was forced by his superiors to rescind the mission of ministry to which he felt called. Parker was left with a missionary heart, but now had no theatre or place to engage it. Edward Stone Parker then began a private school in London on Christian lines with himself as the teacher. Later, he took the charge of a Church School in another area of London. In 1837 Parker was appointed by Lord Glenelg to be a missionary Assistant Protector of Aborigines, based in Melbourne, in the Port Phillip District of New South Wales.

Parker's first wife Mary Cook Woolmer Parker died in 1842.
Edward Stone Parker died on 27 April 1865 at Franklinford, survived by his 2nd wife Hannah Edwards, whom he married in 1843, and by ten Parker children. He was buried with his wife Mary, nearby the Mount Franklin mission, in the cemetery where a headstone memorialises their lives, at Franklinford, near Daylesford, Victoria.

Further Reference: 1. Edgar Morrison 'Early Days in the Loddon Valley,' 1963 Yandoit; Edgar Morrison 'Frontier Life In The Loddon Protectorate,' 1968 Yandoit; Edgar Morrison 'The Loddon Aborigines,' 1972 Yandoit; also published as a trilogy by Edgar Morrison as Edited by Geoff Morrison under the title 'A Succesful Failure - The Aborigines and Early Settlers' -Published 2002 Geoff Morrison, Yandoit, Victoria
2. Diane E. Barwick 'Rebellion At Coranderrk' Editors: Laura E. Barwick & Richard E. Barwick. Published 1998 Aboriginal History Monograph 5, Aboriginal History Inc. Canberra

261. Joseph PARKER Mount Franklin, VIC

261+. Alexander PEARCE, Confessed Repentant Murderer, Repentant Cannibal, Hanged Tasmania

262. Dr 'KIWI' David John PENMAN, 10th Anglican Archbishop of Melbourne. Born 8 August 1936 New Zealand. Died 1 October 1989 at St Vincents Hospital, Melbourne.
'Penman received his secondary education at Hutt Valley High School (NZ), and studied Physical Education as part of teacher training at Wellington Teachers College. [1] He was accepted as a candidate for ordination by Archbishop Reginald Herbert Owen, and entered theological training at College House (University of Canterbury), [2] the University of New Zealand and the University of Karachi (Pakistan). He was ordained deacon in 1961 and priest in 1962.[3] His first post was as a curate at Wanganui from 1961 to 1964, followed by a decade of missionary work in Pakistan and the Middle East. In 1975 he was appointed Principal of St Andrew's Hall a CMS missionary training college in Melbourne. On 24 July 1989, after returning home from the Tokyo World Conference on Religion and Peace and the Lausanne Evangelical Congress in Manila, where he delivered a series of Bible studies, he suffered a severe heart attack. He was kept on life-support in Melbourne's St Vincent's hospital, but although he regained consciousness, he died on 1 October 1989. He was 53. His state funeral service was held at St Paul's Cathedral, Melbourne on 6 October 1989.
263. + Nathaniel PEPPER, Ebenezer, VIC

264. +Phillip PEPPER , Lake Tyers VIC

264+. Bishop Charles PERRY (1807-189 & MRS Fanny PERRY

Frances 'Fanny' PERRY - Founder of the Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne.

Perry, Frances (“Fanny”) (1814 - 1892)

Birth: June 1814 Tranby, Yorkshire, England
Died: 2 December 1892 Miller Bridge, Loughrigg, Westmorland (Cumbria), England
Occupation: Board of Management member
Prepared by Ann Westmore PhD

Frances (“Fanny”) Perry was President of the Ladies Committee of the Melbourne Lying-In Hospital during its first two decades (1856-1876). The wife of the first Anglican Bishop of Melbourne and a woman of undoubted ability and commitment, she gave the hospital stature and credibility at a time when no similar institution existed anywhere else in Australia. Frances Perry House, opened in 1970 as the private hospital of the Royal Women’s Hospital, was named in her honour.
“Fanny” Perry, as she was known to family and friends and as she signed her name in adulthood, was born in June 1814 at Tranby, near Hull, Yorkshire, one of several daughters of Samuel Cooper, a merchant, and Dorothy, née Priestley.
She met her husband-to-be Charles Perry (1807-1891) through his friendship with her brother, John, when both men were studying at Cambridge University, 1825-1830. She and Charles shared an interest in Biblical scholarship and missionary activities, including a willingness to break new ground in familiar or foreign lands. They married in 1841, eight years after Charles was made a deacon in the Church of England and five years after his ordination as an Anglican priest.
Early years in Melbourne
The couple moved to Australia early in 1848, following Charles’ appointment the previous year as Bishop of the newly created diocese of Melbourne. The diocese covered much of the area now known as Victoria and had an Anglican population of approximately 20,000. During the next few years, Fanny and Charles travelled long distances in the colony founded just 14 years before their arrival, visiting Anglican clergy in Gipps Land (sic, 1849), Port Fairy (1851), Kilmore (1851), Portland (1852), and Castlemaine (1853), as well as parishes closer to their Melbourne home, “Bishopscourt”. Fanny’s accounts of these journeys published in “Australian Sketches: The journals and letters of Frances Perry”, reveal a woman who could laugh at herself; “. . . the beds [on a stop-over in the Bendigo area] are remarkably hard this season, or else we grow old and thin! I do assure you we sleep every night upon slabs and weatherboards. I like a tolerably hard bed, but on these my bones all go to sleep independently of myself.”
Anecdotal evidence suggests that the characters of Fanny and Charles were quite dissimilar, and at least one friend thought them poorly matched, Charles being “too grave for one so gay”. Canon S.L. Chase, who served under Charles for many years in Melbourne, described him as unpredictable and demanding, “a man of many paradoxes, in whom an intensely affectionate nature hid itself under a crust of repelling severity and a confiding spirit under a veil of sternness and suspicion”. Another colleague, the Rev. Handfield hinted at a dour literalness, saying that “if there was any defect in him it was in a lack of imagination, and of that intuitive faculty which feels what is true before it is proved”.
In contrast, one of Fanny’s contemporaries during her time in Melbourne highlighted her agreeableness and energy (though in a dismissive way), describing her as “a lively good little woman, nothing very particular as a companion, and has a good deal of English wit or kitten liveliness”. Another contemporary noted her unpretentiousness and preference for a low profile, saying “she did not pose as a theologian or as a logician, nor did she, after the modern fashion, stand up to make a speech”.
When the Perrys arrived in Melbourne, they could have been forgiven for thinking the diocese would develop steadily but unremarkably. No-one could have predicted the dramatic events of 1851, which Fanny summed up in the comment; “Gold! Gold! Gold! My dear Amelia, we are gone mad with gold; and what is to be the end of it no-one knows!”
Melbourne was transformed into a goldfields hub by an extraordinary influx of new settlers who sent the population soaring from 77,000 in 1851 to 410,000 in 1857. The town itself was a staging post for many gold-diggers, leaving it “pretty nearly under petticoat dominion”, in Fanny’s words. In the wake of the moving population, some groups fared particularly badly, including destitute pregnant and ailing women, and sick children.
Founding and leading the hospital
In 1856, a group comprising the wives and daughters of Melbourne’s leading clergy and businessmen met with Charles and Fanny Perry to discuss the establishment of a lying-in (that is, midwifery) hospital for women who could not afford private medical treatment and care. The hospital was also intended to cater for sick children. The Perrys agreed to join the group which was attempting to interest the Melbourne Hospital in establishing a midwifery section.
When the Melbourne Hospital declined to become involved, the group met with two young doctors, Richard Tracy and John Maund, who had similar aims to their own and who had already leased a large house for use as a midwifery hospital in Albert St, Eastern Hill (later, East Melbourne). A merger resulted, with both groups pooling their ideas and resources to establish the Melbourne Lying-In Hospital and Infirmary for Diseases of Women and Children. At the same meeting on 14 August 1856 a Ladies Committee was elected (later known as the Managing or Providing Committee and the forerunner to the Board of Management), as well as a smaller Gentlemen’s Committee established to provide advice to the Ladies Committee. The meeting also elected Fanny Perry the hospital’s inaugural President, a position she was to hold until early 1876.
A religious or secular institution?
Events moved quickly after this vital meeting, with the first patient admitted to the hospital within a week and the first management “Rules” of the hospital devised by the Ladies Committee within a month. This first version of the rules stated an intention to run the hospital according to “the principles of the Christian Religion as these are received by the various Evangelical branches of the Protestant Church”.
The process by which the Rules were devised are lost in the mists of time. It would seem, however, that the strong evangelical leanings of at least some of [Ladies and Gentlemen’s] Committee members influenced their tone. The Rules included morning and evening prayers to be read by the Matron, which contained appeals to the Creator for mercy, pity and forgiveness for suffering which was viewed as a consequence of sin. Other rules dealt with interviews and assessments of prospective patients by members of the Ladies Committee and a requirement that women seeking admission provide references in support of their good character.
The Ladies Committee approved the Rules on 18 September but withdrew them before a public meeting on 13 December, following warnings that they might prove unacceptable and controversial to the general community. Attorney General William Stawell, who advised the Ladies Committee on this matter, suggested that the public should participate in the formation of the Rules since it was his understanding that the hospital intended to seek financial support from the public purse and from benefactors. To tie it too closely to Protestant precepts would undermine its appeal.

At the public meeting in December, tension flared between those favouring and opposing a strong religious character for the hospital over the issue of which women would be accepted for admission. The Anglican Dean of Melbourne, Dr Macartney, declared that the Ladies Committee should have the right to decide on the particular class of women who received treatment, and there should be separate wards for “virtuous women and for those who had unhappily wandered from the paths of innocence”.
Others argued that a woman’s need for medical assistance rather than her morality should be the central consideration. Doctors and the Ladies Committee should have the discretion to admit any destitute patient, they suggested, including single women, some of whom may have worked as prostitutes for want of any other source of income.
The compromise reached, subsequently known as Rule 19, stated that patients admitted to the hospital with the support of a Subscriber [regular donor], except “in peculiar cases”, required the approval of the Ladies’ Committee and of the Medical Officer on duty. In the case of an emergency, the Medical Officer alone could admit a patient.
Notwithstanding Rule 19, debate recurred both within the hospital and within the wider community for years to come over whether the hospital should accept all patients in need or should exclude some, and on what grounds. In 1860, The Argus newspaper criticised the hospital for becoming; “a sexual inquisition, and that which was intended for a charity is turned into a whipping place . . . The Lying-in Hospital was not created for the promotion of female virtue, but for the relief of human suffering. To attempt to go into any question of the morals of the lying-in patients is as absurd as it would be were we to insist upon virtue as a necessary condition previous to reception in the general hospital.”
More than a figurehead?
In this and later newspaper reports highlighting heated disagreements over the sorts of women who should and should not be admitted, Fanny Perry’s views went unreported. If staying out of the limelight was her preference, she certainly succeeded in doing so during her presidency of the hospital. She also kept a low profile at public events, such as at the gala opening of the hospital’s new building in 1858, when she was not among those who showed the Governor around the facility. However on less weighty matters, such as her frequent attendance at evangelical gatherings, she could be quite forthcoming, admitting that she could not “help considering them (tea meetings) useful things, but I get dreadfully tired, and shirk them whenever I can.”
An early historian of the hospital, C.E. Sayers described her as a “vigorous, determined charity worker . . . her zeal . . . aroused and shocked into the most determined action by the evidence all about her of the need for such work”. Relying on “stories [that] have come down from the early days of the hospital”, he noted Fanny’s keen-eyed presidency . . . and her strong-minded executive oversight to the institution itself”. However, the only evidence he provided for this view was Fanny using “. . . the pointed toe of her buttoned boot probing under beds for what might be there, of mittened fingers sliding along window sills for signs of dust; or parasol-poking behind curtains for evidence of domestic sloth or carelessness.”
From other sources it seems that Fanny’s duties as the wife of the Anglican Bishop of Melbourne were paramount. She absented herself from many hospital committee meetings and, in one of her few letters in the hospital’s possession, excused herself because “the Bishop commands my pen at home”. During the twenty-eight years they lived in Australia she was said to be an inseparable companion and helper to Charles and to have barely spent a day apart from him
She was away from Melbourne for months at a time traveling with Charles. As a result, she missed crucial deliberations as was evident from a letter that Charles wrote to the Honorary Secretary of the Ladies Committee, Mrs Elizabeth Tripp, in 1857. He claimed to be “astonished to discover that the committee of the institution proposed an alteration to the constitution” which he doubted it had the power to make. Since his wife was the President of this committee, it seems reasonable to conclude that she had no knowledge of this proposal and, by extension, to other matters that the Ladies Committee discussed alone or in consultation with the Gentlemen’s Committee.
Adding to the sense that she did not have enough hours in the day to assist her husband and meet her many commitments, is the long list of charitable institutions with which she was involved. In addition to the Lying-in Hospital, these included the Governesses’ Home (to which she gave the proceeds of the Mrs Perry Memorial Fund when she left Australia), the Carlton Refuge, and the Melbourne Orphan Asylum.
Retirement and recognition
Charles resigned from the Melbourne diocese in 1876 at nearly 70 years of age and, at about the same time, Fanny retired as President of the hospital. They returned to England, taking up residence in London.
From all accounts, they were extremely busy, taking part in the activities of the Church Missionary Society, of which Charles became Vice President, and of the Ridley Hall theological college at Cambridge University, which Charles helped found in 1881.
Charles died in 1891 and Fanny followed on the first anniversary of her husband’s death, appropriate timing given their symbiotic existence. As a tribute to her contribution as first President of the hospital, the Board of the Royal Women’s Hospital decided to call the private hospital, opened in 1970 within its walls, Frances Perry House.

Richard Perry (ed), “Australian Sketches: The journals and letters of Frances Perry”, 1984;
“First Annual Report of the Committee of Management of the Melbourne Lying-In Hospital and Infirmary for Diseases of Women and Children for the year ending 30th June 1857 with the Rules of the Institution”; Gentlemen’s Committee Book (Minutes) A1991/27/001;
Mary Webster, ‘History of Trained Nursing in Victoria’, 1942, A1996/25/171;
Family Search International Genealogical Index, 5, British Isles;
Peter Sherlock, ‘Perry, Frances (1814-1892)’ in “Australian Dictionary of Biography”, Supplementary Volume, Melbourne University Press, 2005, pp. 320-321;
A deQ Robin, ‘Charles Perry (1807-1891) Church of England bishop’ in “Australian Dictionary of Biography”, 5, pp. 432-6;
Mary Ann Fenstall to Elizabeth Clare Lambert, November 1841, referred to on p. 32 in ‘This Episcopal Hotel and Boarding House; Bishops’ Wives in Colonial Australia and New Zealand’, in Martin Crotty and Doug Scobie (eds), “Raiding Clio’s Closet; Postgraduate Presentations in History 1997”, The University of Melbourne History Department, 1997,
Letter from Fanny Perry to Mrs Tripp, A 1992/17/044;
W.M. Turnbull, Letter to “The Argus”, 4 October 1860;
Anon, ‘The Late Bishop of Melbourne’, “The Argus”, 12 June 1876;
Mary F.E. Stawell, “My Recollections”, London, 1911, p. 85.
Archival/Heritage Resources
Royal Women's Hospital Archives
First Annual Report of the Committee of Management of the Melbourne Lying-In Hospital and Infirmary for Diseases of Women and Children for the year ending 30th June 1857 with the Rules of the Institution, 30 June 1857, A1991/27/001; Gentlemen's Committee; Royal Women's Hospital Archives [ Details... ].
History of Trained Nursing in Victoria, 1942, A1996/25/171; Webster, Mary; Royal Women's Hospital Archives [ Details... ].
Letter from Fanny Perry to Mrs Tripp, 11 December 1856, A1992/17/044; Perry, Frances; Royal Women's Hospital Archives [ Details... ].
Published Resources
Stawell, Mary F.E., My Recollections, Richard Clay and Sons,, London, 1911, 85 pp. [ Details... ]
Book Sections
'This Episcopal Hotel and Boarding House; Bishops’ Wives in Colonial Australia and New Zealand', in Crotty, Martin and Doug Scobie (eds), Raiding Clio’s closet : postgraduate presentations in history, Dept. of History, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, 1997. [ Details... ]
Peter Sherlock, 'Perry, Frances (1814-1892)', in Australian Dictionary of Biography, Supplementary Volume, vol. Supp, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, 2005, pp. 320-321. [ Details... ]
Robin, A deQ, 'Charles Perry (1807-1891) Church of England bishop', in Australian Dictionary of Biography, vol. 5, Melbourne University Press, Canberra, 1974, pp. 432-6. [ Details... ]
Edited Books
Robin, A de Q. (ed.), Australian Sketches: The journals and letters of Frances Perry, Queensberry Hill Press, Carlton, Vic, 1983. [ Details... ]
Newspaper Articles
Anon, 'The Late Bishop of Melbourne', The Argus (Melbourne, Victoria), 12 June 1876. [ Details... ]
Turnbull, W.M., 'Letter to the Editor', The Argus (Melbourne, Victoria), 4 October 1860. [ Details... ]
Online Resources
'Family Search International Genealogical Index', 2006, search_IGI.asp&clear_form=true. [ Details... ]

265. + Bobby PETERS, Darlington Point NSW

266. Andrew & Mary PETRIE FAMILY

A. Andrew PETRIE
(1798–1872) & Mary PETRIE - Presbyterian Pioneer

B. John PETRIE, (1822-1892) staunch Presbyterian, church elder, builder of St Paul's Church, Brisbane Mayor of Brisbane, QLD

=C. Thomas 'Tom' PETRIE (1831–1910), Scotland NSW & QLD The Aborigines Friend, Travellor, Pigrim, Cross-Cultural Communicator & Negotiator, Christian Cultural Warrior & Risk Taker in Championing the Human Dignity of the Moreton Bay Hinterland Aborigines

A. - Andrew PETRIE
Birth: June 1798 Fife, Scotland
Cultural Heritage: Scottish, Colonial NSW & QLD
Religious Confession: Presbyterian
Occupation: architect, builder, convict administrator
public servant
Death: 20 February 1872


Petrie, Andrew (1798–1872)

by A. A. Morrison

Andrew Petrie (1798-1872), builder and architect, was born in June 1798 in Fife, Scotland, son of Walter Petrie and Margaret, née Hutchinson, and trained in his craft in Edinburgh. He was one of the Scottish mechanics brought to Sydney in 1831 by John Dunmore Lang as the nucleus of a new force of free workers. Meeting much enmity from convict and emancipist workers, Petrie was glad to accept a post as clerk in the Ordnance Department. The quality of his work impressed George Barney so much that, when in 1837 there was an urgent appeal from Moreton Bay for a competent builder to repair crumbling structures, Petrie was sent there as clerk of works. His first important task was to repair the mechanism of the windmill which had never worked. His general duty was the supervision of prisoners engaged in making such necessities as soap and nails, and in building.

His charge took him to several convict outposts and gave him a taste for travel and exploration. His private journeys soon added to knowledge of the immediate environs of the settlement. When the convict station was removed in 1839 Petrie saw the opportunity at last of a free community, and with his family remained to contribute to its formation. In the new surroundings he was able to pursue two main interests: as builder and architect he was responsible for most of the important structures that arose; and he made many more journeys. He was the first white man to climb Mount Beerwah, one of the Glass House Mountains seen by James Cook, and he was also the first to bring back samples of the Bunya pine. In 1842 with a small party in a boat he discovered the Mary River and brought back to the settlement two 'wild white men', James Davis or 'Duramboi' and David Bracewell or 'Wandi'.

In 1848 he lost his eyesight because of inefficient surgery after an attack of sandy blight. Such was his courage that he still kept control over his business: when plans were explained to him he ordered the necessary quantities of material and was even able to check the performance of his building workers; he used his cane if not satisfied. At Edinburgh in 1821 he had married Mary Cuthbertson; they had nine sons and a daughter. With advancing years he handed over more and more control to his eldest son, John Petrie, who became first mayor of Brisbane. His fourth son, Thomas, gained much knowledge of the Aboriginal tribes and their customs and languages.

The Petries' house was one of the social centres of Brisbane and readily offered accommodation to squatters coming from the outback, especially in the days before Brisbane had a few inns. Petrie was also generous to unfortunates, always being willing to help with food and work. He died on 20 February 1872.

Select Bibliography
H. S. Russell, The Genesis of Queensland (Syd, 1888)
C. C. Petrie (ed), Tom Petrie's Reminiscences of Early Queensland (Brisb, 1904)
Thomas Dowse (Old Tom), Brisbane Courier, 31 July 1869
Historical Miscellanea (Royal Historical Society of Queensland), no 3
J. H. C. McClure, 'The Early Buildings of Brisbane Town', Historical Miscellanea (Royal Historical Society of Queensland), no 10 (2 pages).

B. - John PETRIE, staunch Presbyterian elder, builder of St Paul's Church, Brisbane Mayor of Brisbane, QLD

Petrie, John (1822–1892) -by John Laverty

Birth: 15 January 1822 Edinburgh, Mid-Lothian, Scotland
Religious Influence: Christian, Open Presbyterian
Cultural Heritage: Scottish, Queenslander Australian
Occupation: brick manufacturer, builder, cabinetmaker, company director,
contractor (general), local government councillor, local government head, park ranger
Death: 8 December 1892 Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

John Petrie (1822-1892), contractor and mayor, was born on 15 January 1822 at Edinburgh, eldest son of Andrew Petrie and his wife Mary, née Cuthbertson. He arrived in Sydney with his family in 1831 and was educated at J. D. Lang's school. In 1837 he went to Moreton Bay, where his father had been appointed clerk of works, and accompanied him on explorations to the west and north of Brisbane; he also became a champion oarsman.

After 'apprenticeship' in the family building and contracting business John assumed increasing responsibility for its management after his father's blindness in 1848 forced him to retire. John became sole proprietor and the firm was changed from Petrie & Son to John Petrie. The enviable repute for fine workmanship under his father was sustained by John. His skill can still be seen in many buildings in Brisbane, but he lacked his father's drive and business acumen. In 1882 Petrie's son, Andrew Lang Petrie, became manager of the reconstructed firm, John Petrie & Son. The business was then centred on cabinet making and joinery, brick and tile making and monumental masonry. The firm went bankrupt in 1894 during the depression; it later revived but confined its operations to monumental masonry.

Although Petrie seems to have had little interest in politics, he was public-spirited and held many important offices. He topped the poll in Brisbane's first municipal election in 1859 and was mayor three times by 1862. He twice resigned from the council in protest against what he deemed the high-handedness of the majority faction, but continued after re-election to serve as an alderman until 1867. As mayor he had welcomed the first governor of Queensland, Sir George Bowen, to Brisbane in 1859. Practical experience and common sense fitted Petrie for laying the sound foundations of municipal administration in Brisbane and for guiding the council in providing public works and services. Closely associated with the Enoggera Creek scheme while it was planned by the council, he later saw it constructed as a member of the Board of Water Works; as its chairman in 1875 he was a leader in implementing the Gold Creek project and planning of the Mount Crosby scheme. After serving as mayor, he had difficulty in 'playing second fiddle' and was prone to indulge in such manoeuvres as walking out of council meetings.

Petrie devoted much time to community welfare. For years he served on the management committee of the Brisbane Hospital and was chairman after 1885. He was also a member of the Board for Administering Outdoor Relief and the Central Board of Health. Appointed to the New South Wales Commission of the Peace in 1859, he remained a member of the Brisbane bench until 1892. He gave long service on the Brisbane Licensing Board and was often returning officer for the parliamentary electorate of Brisbane. A trustee of the Brisbane general cemetery and of Bowen Park and a ranger for protecting native birds on the Enoggera Water Reserve, he was a director of several building societies and of the Queensland Steam Navigation Co. Elected to the North Brisbane School of Arts Committee in 1864 and 1866, he was also an enthusiastic member of the first Masonic lodge in Queensland.

On 5 September 1850 Petrie had married Jane Keith, daughter of Daniel McNaught of Dunbarton, Scotland, who became foreman of the Petrie business and contracting business after migrating to Brisbane. Of their five sons and five daughters, Andrew Lang Petrie was the eldest son and heir to the family business; he represented Toombul in the Legislative Assembly in 1893 and, apart from his insolvency in 1894, held the seat until 1926. John Petrie died on 8 December 1892. A staunch Presbyterian, he was an elder and worked with enthusiasm for building St Paul's Church. Integrity and long association with the city made him one of the best known citizens of Brisbane.

Portraits are in the Brisbane City Council and the Oxley Library.

Select Bibliography
W. F. Morrison, The Aldine History of Queensland, vol 2 (Syd, 1888)
C. C. Petrie (ed), Tom Petrie's Reminiscences of Early Queensland, 1st ed (Brisb, 1904)
G. Greenwood and J. Laverty, Brisbane 1859-1959 (Brisb, 1959)
J. Whiteley, Two Families of Early Brisbane (B.A. Hons thesis, University of Queensland, 1963)
Municipal Council minutes, 1859-67 (Town Hall, Brisbane).

C. - Thomas 'Tom' PETRIE 1831–1910), Scotland NSW & QLD The Aborigines Friend, Travellor, Pigrim, Cross-Cultural Communicator & Negotiator, Christian Cultural Warrior & Risk Taker in Championing the Human Dignity of the Moreton Bay Hinterland Aborigines


Birth: 31 January 1831 Edinburgh, Mid-Lothian, Scotland
Religious Confession: Coalface Mission Christian, Open Presbyterian, Muscular Celtic Calkvinism
Cultural Heritage: Scottish, Colonial NSW & QLD, Queensland Aboriginal
Occupation: explorer, goldminer, grazier, Indigenous welfare champion
Death: 26 August 1910 Pine Creek, Queensland, Australia

Petrie, Thomas (1831–1910)

by Noeline V. Hall

Thomas Petrie (1831-1910), explorer, grazier and friend of Aboriginals, was born on 31 January 1831 in Edinburgh, fourth son of Andrew Petrie and brother of John. He arrived with his parents at Sydney in the Stirling Castle in October 1831 and moved with them to Moreton Bay in 1837. Educated by a convict clerk, he was allowed to mix freely with Aboriginal children. He learnt to speak the Brisbane tribal dialect (Turrabul) and was encouraged to share in all their activities. At 14 he was taken on the triennial walkabout to the feast at the Bunya Range. Accepted by the Aboriginals as a friend, he was in constant demand as a messenger or companion for exploration expeditions. During journeys with his father he gathered a knowledge of surveying and bushcraft and an intimate acquaintance with the Brisbane district and its settlers.

In 1851 Petrie spent six months trying his luck on the Turon goldfields and for five years worked on various fields mainly in Victoria, 'finding only enough gold to make a ring'. After returning to Brisbane, in 1858 he married Elizabeth, sister of James Campbell, hardware merchant. In the Pine Creek district on the Whiteside run he bought ten sq. miles (26 km²) which he called Murrumba (Good Place). Despite the fears of other white men he was helped by friendly Aboriginals to clear his land and construct his first buildings. He continued to explore widely, his main aim being the search for new timber areas and places for further settlement along the coast. In 1862 he was the first white man to climb Buderim Mountain, where he explored a stream that became known as Petrie's Creek. He marked a road from Cleveland to Eight Mile Plains so that his squatter friends could transport their wool. In 1868 he organized an Aboriginal welcome for the Duke of Edinburgh.

When the Douglas ministry opened Queensland's first Aboriginal reserve on Bribie Island in 1877, Petrie became its chief adviser and overseer. The experiment was terminated next year by Palmer largely because Petrie's report on Aboriginal attitudes and activities was not encouraging. He played little part in politics but was a foundation member of both the Caboolture and Redcliffe divisional boards and for years returning officer for Moreton electorate.

Petrie died at Murrumba on 26 August 1910, survived by his wife who died aged 90 on 30 September 1926 and by two sons and five daughters of their nine children. Though Murrumba had been reduced to 3000 acres (1215 ha) the family kept the property until 1952. In 1910 the name of the North Pine district was changed to Petrie in his honour and next year a free-stone monument was erected in the township and unveiled by Sir William MacGregor.

Select Bibliography
W. F. Morrison, The Aldine History of Queensland, vol 2 (Syd, 1888)
C. C. Petrie (ed), Tom Petrie's Reminiscences of Early Queensland (Brisb, 1904)
E. Foreman, The History and Adventures of a Queensland Pioneer (Brisb, 1928)
T. Welsby, Bribie: The Basket Maker (Brisb, 1937)
J. Whiteley, Two Families of Early Brisbane (B.A. Hons thesis, University of Queensland, 1963)
N. C. Stewart, A History of the Pine Rivers Shire (B.A. Hons thesis, University of Queensland, 1970).

267. =Arthur PHILLIP, 1st Fleet Govenor, Sydney, NSW

268. +Jean PHILLIPS, Brisbane QLD

269. Captian PHILLIPS

270. Brother Dick PIETY, Moruya, Woodenbong NSW, Pioneer Aboriginal Christian Leader [Richard Piety married Catherine (Kate) SUTTON in 1865 at St Marys, Moruya]

'Dick" Richard PIETY

Father Emancipist convict, Richard PIETY (b. 19 Jun 1814 in Hythe, Kent, England (1814- d. 1867 Broulee Age 53 & ?
Mother: Jane 'Jenny or Cissy' NAMBLE (NSW Monaro Aboriginal b: 1820 NSW
Born: 1 November 1844 in Mullenderee, near Broulee, NSW
Christianity: Evangelical Catholic, Broad Church
Marriage: 2 Nov 1865 in St. Mary's Catholic Church, Moruya, Broulee district, NSW
Wife: Catherine SUTTON (b. 15 Oct 1847 Moruya, NSW - d. 1898 Moruya NSW)

- 1. Jane PIETY b: 7 May 1867 in "Shannon View", Moruya, NSW
- 2. Margaret Ann PIETY b: 8 Oct 1869 in Broulee, NSW
- 3. Catherine Mary PIETY b: 16 Feb 1872 in "Mynora" Moruya, NSW
- 4. Lucy Ann PIETY b: 1874 in Moruya, NSW
- 5. Annie PIETY b: 1875 in Moruya, NSW
- 6. Richard PIETY b: 1881 in Moruya, NSW
- 7. Mary Ellen PIETY b: 1883 in Moruya, NSW
- 8. Annie PIETY b: 1885 in Moruya, NSW
- 9. Lizzie PIETY b: 1887 in Moruya, NSW
-10. William PIETY b: 1890 in Moruya, NSW


Died: 24 Sep 1918 "Newstead" Moruya, NSW
Burial: Catholic section, Moruya Cemetery, Moruya, NSW

FOR EDITING: Granny Kate’s mother, Margaret Connell née Piety was born on the 7th of October 1869 at Mynora, Moruya. She died in Bega in 1921. She was the daughter of Richard (Dick) Piety born 1st November 1844 at Mullenderee, Moruya and died 24th September 1918 at Newstead, Moruya. Her mother was Catherine (Kate) Sutton born 15th October 1847 at Kiora, Moruya, died 24th April 1898 Moruya. Catherine was the daughter of John Sutton and Lelitia. Dick was named after his father Richard Piety who was born in 1814 in Kent England. He arrived in NSW on the 8th of April 1843 aboard the ‘Henry Porcher’. He was tried for stealing a watch. Convicted and sentenced to 14 years transportation. Assigned to Francis Flanagan at Broulee. He died on the 5th of July 1867 at Buckenboura, NSW from a ‘Visitation from God’ (natural causes). He was buried at Glenduart, Moruya. He was married by common law to Dick’s mother, Jane Sissy Namble a local Aboriginal woman. Jane was born in 1823 at Broulee and died on the 10th of August 1896 at Narooma.
NOTES FROM WOODENBONG : - An imposing scene was witnessed at Woodenbong Aboriginal Station recently, when a baptismal service was conducted by Brother Dick Piety, visiting from Tuncester. Mrs.Olga Hickling, Mr. Bruce Breckenbridge and Mr. Alex Vesper of Stoney Gully, were immersed in the waters of Tooloom Creek by Brother Dick, as a confession of their faith.


271. Rev. Douglas Fowler PIKE Missionary Martyr in China 1929

Rev. Douglas Fowler PIKE - Missionary Martyr in China 1929

Parents: William Fowler PIKE & Alice BROWN - who married 20 July 1866 at Launceston Tasmania.
Born: 20 April 1877 Launceston, Tasmania
Occupation: Minister & Missionary
Wife: Louisa BOULTER - born Ballarat, Victoria
Died. 1929 Western China

(a brother to Peter Percy Fowler PIKE born 2 November 1879 Launceston, who married Florence Jane PORTER 15 March 1902 at the residence of the bride, Launceston, Tasmania.

From ADEB - Australian Dictionary of Evangelical Biography

PIKE, Douglas Fowler (1877-1929)
Marjorie Keeble

PIKE, DOUGLAS FOWLER (b. Launceston, Tas, 30 April 1877, d. Kweichow (Guizhou), China, c. Sept 1929). Martyred missionary, China.

Douglas Pike trained at Angas College, Adelaide, but his departure with the CIM was delayed due to the Boxer Rebellion in 1900 and he became a Methodist home missionary in Tasmania until he sailed for China in December 19()1, working in Kweichow (Guizhou) province. On 13 Feb 1906 Douglas Pike m. Louisa Boulter, an Australian nurse from Ballarat whom he had met at Bible College and who had joined him in China in 1903. Louisa was the only midwife in the province and trained the Pikes to help deliver their first child Allison. In 28 years of missionary work Douglas had only two furloughs; they had five children, Allison and Walter became missionaries to China, Faith died as a child in 1925.

Civil unrest in Kweichow made it unsafe for the Pikes to return there after furlough in 1925 and they remained in Shanghai, Pike working as transport manager and Louisa working in the hospital. In 1929 they returned to Kweichow and on 14 Sept Pike set out with three Chinese to meet new missionaries, but was intercepted by bandits, taken captive and a ransom note sent with a servant to Louisa. No further news was forthcoming until December when a radiogram reported 'Pike not living'. A local man was equipped as a pedlar to find out what had happened and was informed that a foreigner had been shot and cast into a lime pit nearby.

An appreciation was published in China's Millions, Jan 1930: 'Mr Pike was a capable linguist and an effective preacher. He had considerable experience in Church work and was a good Bible teacher. His bright, sunny temperament and cheerful manner commended him to the Chinese; and his zeal, energy and devotion, to his fellow-workers'. Louisa continued as a missionary in Kweichow until her retirement in 1944.

Unpublished family history by Allison Butler


1. Newspapers
2. KEEBLE, Majorie - PIKE, DOUGLAS FOWLER - Australian Dictionary of Evangelical Biography ADEB Online
3. CALVERT, John David - September 2008. MA Thesis "Douglas Pike (1908-1974) South Australian and Australian Historian" - School of History and Politics, University of Adelaide

271+. John Hubert PLUNKETT, Attorney General 1838 NSW catholic myall creek judge

272. Augustus John POEPPEL, Explorer Surveyor

273. John Bede POLDING 1794-1877 Benedictine Father, Archbishop, missioner to convicts

274. =Sr Ivy PRATT

275. Norman PROCTOR Baptist , Lilydale

276. = Guilliame de PURY Neuchatel to Yering VIC

277. + Conrad RABERABA NT

278. Louis RECEVEUR, Franciscan, Astrolabe chaplain & Naturalist (?1788) Botany Bay

279. Joseph REED, architect

280. Mary REIBY 1777-1855 convict, pioneer, businesswomen, philanthropist,

281. Fred REYNOLDS Lilydale, VIC. Indonesia

282. =William RIDLEY, missionary & anthropologist, NSW

283. Natalie Anna Leuba ROBARTS (b. 1866 Colombier, Brazil & Charles Alfred ROBARTS, born 1867 Bung Bong, Victoria. Superintenants of Corranderk, Healesville

284. "GABARLA" Barnabas ROBERTS, Roper River NT

From: Northern Territory Dictionary of Biography -

GABARLA -or - Barnabas ROBERTS

by Keith COLE

GABARLA - also known as BARNABAS ROBERTS (c.1898-1974) was an Aborigine of the Alawa tribe from Ngukurr (Roper River) the son of Ned Weari-wyingga, well known to the Church Missionary Society missionaries who founded the Roper River Mission in 1908.

Garbala grew up at the the mission and then worked as a stockman for a number of years on the surrounding cattle stations. He married Norah and later Judy (widow of Long Tom). He had six children, Phillip, Silas, Jacob, Mercy, Vera and Maisic. Phillip became well-known through Douglas Lockwood's book 'I, The Aboriginal.' Silas worked for many years at the government settlement of Maningrida.

Garbala became a convinced Christian as a young man and maintained this stance throughout the rest of his life. He was closely associated with James Japanma(Jibanyima), helping him in his work as lay reader and an evangelist visiting the nearby pastoral properties. Garbala became the main lay reader on Japanma's death and continued to take services and visit the cattle stations for the rest of his life. He was a great help to Margaret Sharpe in her recording of the Alawa language.

Gabarla died on 27 May 1974. The Ngukurr community mourned his passing. Many spoke of him as a faithful Christian, a man of gentle bearing and gracious mannner.

* D. Lockwood, I, The Aboriginal 1862;
* K. Cole, Roper River Mission 1968
* Records of St Matthews's Church, Ngukurr
* CMS Records, Melbourne


285+. George Augustus ROBINSON TAS- Chief Protector of Aborigines, VIC

286. Filomeno Francisco RODRIGUEZ - Pearler, Ship's Captain, Shipping to Catholic KImberley Missions

Filomeno Francisco RODRIGUEZ -

Philipino-Australian Pearler, Ship's Captain,
Hotelier, Broome councillor, Businessman & Philanthropist,
provided Ship-transports to remote Catholic Kimberley Missions; active Catholic Layman & Mission Support in North-western Australia;
Attended 1931 Melbourne Eucharistic Congress

Filomeno Francisco RODRIGUEZ
Birth: 24 August 1864 in Bantayan, Cebu, Philippines (then part of the Kingdom of Spain)
Christianity: Catholic
Qualities: Courage; Faithfulness, Zeal for his Faith, Generosity
Cross: Suffered 'Alien' ostracism & persecution as a Filipino-Australian
Marriage: 20 March 1890 Schoolhouse, Cossack, Western Australia
Wife: Maud Gwenevere Winifred MILLER
Family: 1. Gwenevere Matilda RODRIGUEZ 1891 Cossack WA– 1956 Broome WA
2. John Filomena Percival RODRIGUEZ 1893 Broome WA – 1917 WW1 Noreuil, The Somme, Picardie, France
3. Joseph Patrick Holland RODRIGUEZ 1894 Broome WA – 1973 Sth Australia
4. Caroline Verona RODRIGUEZ 1895 Broome WA – 1976 Kensington, London
5. Elsie Edith Christiana RODRIGUEZ 1897 Broome WA – 1986 Perth, WA
6. Albert Clarence RODRIGUEZ 1898 Broome WA – 1952 Gingin, WA
7. Richard Patrick Gerald RODRIGUEZ 1900 Broome WA – 1964 (noted footballer, Barrister & then City Coroner for Perth, WA]
8. Frances Muriel RODRIGUEZ 1901 Broome WA – 1964 Chelsea, London
9. Eileen Maria G RODRIGUEZ 1905 Western Australia – 1958 Wales
10. Thomas Angelo Tim RODRIGUEZ 1908 Broome WA –

Death: 4 January 1942 in St John of God Hospital, Subiaco, Perth, Western Australia

Burial: Karrakatta cemetery, Perth, with his Second Wife. His first wife Maud is buried in the Broome Pioneers Cemetery, Western Australia

Legacy: 1. Pioneer of Filipino-Australia goodwill; 2. Catholic duty and Faithfulness in leading his community to take up public duty & giving; 3. an Example of patriotic & generous service to Australia (He lost his eldest son in WW1 France); 4. he pioneered a family of Catholic lay leaders in support of the Faith.

FROM: - Filomeno Rodriguez, Master Pearler (1864-1943) - by Michel Prevost (Rodriguez family history)


What is known from Filomeno himself is that he came to Cossack, on the west coast of Western Australia, in 1886 from Thursday Island and the pearling grounds in the Torres Straits, the North-West Cape and New Guinea waters. At the time, pearling in the Torres Straits had become exhausted and the majority of boats sailed west to work on the Northwestern coast of Australia. The major pearling centre in Western Australia was Cossack and Filomeno worked there as a hard-hat diver reaching depths as much as 40 fathoms.

Whilst pearling in Cossack, Filomeno met the Miller family, John Samuel and Caroline, who had moved to Western Australia from South Australia and formed a partnership. In 1890 Filomeno married their eldest daughter Maud in the Cossack schoolhouse

Filomeno worked as a diver in the Cossack region for some time before setting up on his own account. Starting in a small way, he gradually extended his business until he became owner of a fleet of 14 luggers with an accompanying schooner acting as ‘mother’ ship.

He personally superintended the work of his fleet, which for many years were held principally in his wife’s name. His first three children were born on board his main ship (possibly either the ‘Voladora’ or the ‘Aurora’) before he purchased the 112 ton schooner/brigantine ‘Sree Pas Sair’ previously owned by the Streeter consortium. The fourth of his ten children, Verona, was born on board this new acquisition on Christmas Day 1895.
[Most of his luggers were named after Filomeno Rodriguez's children: Donna Matilda, Don Percival, Donna Verona etc. Don Joseph† named after his second son, disappeared at sea.] Having acquired considerable property in Broome, Filomeno practically retired from active participation in the pearling industry although he retained an interest in a couple of boats. His fascination for the industry in which he had been so deeply concerned was too great to let him relinquish his involvement altogether
- Daisy Bates wrote: " In July, the two priests and I were under way for the port of Broome, from which we were to tranship to Beagle Bay. At Broome the Sree pas Sair, at one time the yacht of Rajah Brooke, was placed at our disposal. It had been stripped of every comfort. Cleanliness there was none, as it was the "feeding-lugger" of the pearling-boats owned by a Manila-man (Filomena Rodriguez), and brought back the shell from the luggers. After an interesting voyage round the fleets in the Sree pas Sair, we returned to Broome, and with three of the Trappists waiting there, loaded up the yacht... We all worked hard at the loading and packing of the lugger, and in the
beginning of August the Sree pas Sair set out northward. There were eight of us on board-the Bishop, the Dean, the acting abbot, two brothers, Xavier and Sebastian, the owner and helmsman, his Malay uncle and a small Malay child. We reached Beagle Bay on the high tide that rises thirty feet in a few hours, and the whaleboats took us, and eventually the stores, to land." from : The Passing of The Aborigines

Elizabeth Salter, biographer of Daisy Bates, writes: "THE LONELY MISSION: - It was to be a crucial three months, beginning with an even longer boat trip of a thousand miles up the west coast to Broome. They were met by the acting aboot, Father Nicholas (EMO) and Filomena Rodriguez, skipper of the Sree Pas Sair that was to take them in three days time to Beagle Bay." from 'Daisy Bates'

At the turn of the century (1900) Filomeno served on the Broome Municipal Council. He retired on the 24 th December 1905. At the same time, in about 1904 the house called 'Gantheaume' was built on the Fremantle-Perth Road (now Stirling Highway). His parents-in-law, John and Caroline Miller moved down to Perth to live and to take care of the Rodriguez children as they reached school age. Filomeno and Maud would travel down to Perth during the lay season when the boats were laid up for maintenance and repair during the cyclone season.
In time, Filomeno’s properties included the Weld Club Hotel, which burnt down in 1905. A new hotel named the Continental Gardens Hotel was immediately built on the same site, though over time the ‘Gardens’ in the name was gradually dropped. The hotel became the centre of the town’s social life with patrons sipping cooling drinks in the sumptuous tropical gardens and live stage shows. Later films were presented on the verandah and the stage that was erected central of the gardens and which eventually became a fernery. Pearlers were notorious for holding lavish celebrations on the slightest pretext. Filomeno also owned a number of houses and about 10 building blocks sited in desirable locations.

The Rodriguez family were well known and respected in Broome for their charitable work. Maud was involved in a wide variety of fundraising and charitable activities; a brief article in the Broome Chronicle dated 4th January 1915 typifies this philanthropy:
Mr and Mrs Rodriguez invite all the children of Broome to the Continental Gardens on Monday evening next, when a number of pictures will be screened and toys from a heavily laden and brightly illuminated New Year’s Tree will be freely distributed. It will be remembered that a similar evening last year was well attended and highly appreciated.

Filomeno’s beloved wife Maud died suddenly and unexpectedly in 1921 and she is buried in the Broome Pioneer cemetery. Filomeno is listed as living in the Continental Hotel in the 1925 electoral rolls. New licensees placed the hotel under independent management. In 1928 Mr and Mrs Alf Locke became owner/managers of the hotel and stayed in possession until 1950.
In 1931 Filomeno married Mary Mathews whom he had met onboard ship on the way to Melbourne to attend a Eucharistic Congress. They lived in a small cottage in Barnfield Road, Claremont, alongside the railway line. Mary developed severe diabetes resulting in the amputation of both lower limbs. A live in carer was arranged to look after their needs.
Filomeno died 4th January 1943 aged 78 at Barnfield Road, Claremont, Perth.

286+. = Rosendo SALVADO O.S.B. (Order of Saint Benedict) Founder & Abbot of New Norcia, Western Australia
Birth: 1 March 1814 - Tuy, Spain
Cultural Heritage: Spanish
Religious Influence: Catholic
Occupation: Catholic bishop, Catholic missionary, Catholic religious brother, composer, Indigenous culture recorder, protector of Aboriginals
Death: 29 December 1900 Rome, Italy

From ADB Online

Salvado, Rosendo (1814–1900)

by Dom William

Rosendo Salvado (1814-1900), Benedictine monk, missionary and author, was born on 1 March 1814 at Tuy, Spain, the son of Peter Salvado and his wife Francisca Rotea. The Salvado was a long-lived and musical family. Wealth at home favoured Salvado's musical bent, but he pledged his vigour and talent to a higher cause. At 15 he entered the Benedictine abbey of St Martin at Compostela, was clothed in the habit on 24 July 1829, and took his three religious vows a year later.

In the new monk, music found more than a dilettante. The distinction won after a two-year course in organ-playing secured for him the post of first organist at St Martin's in 1832. He was also an accomplished pianist and a composer. None of his music was printed but there are extant some of his sacred compositions written for his Western Australian Aboriginals and for convicts in Fremantle gaol, and a major work Fantasia, with variations and finale.

At 18 he added the study of liberal arts and philosophy to his duties as organist. The repose of the cloister was disturbed by the Spanish revolutionaries, who in 1835 decreed the closing of convents and the secularization of monks. Three years of patient waiting saw no end to the conflict, so in September 1838 he set out for Naples to be incorporated with the abbey of La Cava. There he was ordained priest in February 1839, and was instrumental in giving the abbey an organ which for mechanism, range and tone could rival the best in Europe.

This was the prelude to Salvado's great epic. His philanthropy prompted him to flee his organ and its glory and to choose instead the retreat of a distant mission field. The Sydney mission under Bishop John Bede Polding was first proposed, but Dr John Brady's consecration in Rome for the new see of Perth led to a change of mind. Salvado and his Benedictine confrère, Joseph Benedict Serra, were assigned to the bishop's missionary party. They sailed from London in the Elizabeth and landed at Fremantle in January 1846.

Salvado was dedicated to what he believed the highest ideal in life, the reclaiming of souls. Monk first and apostle second, he wanted to use his talents on behalf of a raw colony where things had to be created. As an apostle he set up a system of Aboriginal education that surprised learned men, and as a monk he poured out his heart in prayer and applied the Benedictine Rule that made labour a duty of existence.

With Serra, whose main associate he was, he wound his way along a hundred miles (161 km) of bush track to a spot in the Victoria Plains, where on 1 March 1846 he established a mission for the training of Aboriginals; it was first named Central as the centre of proposed outlying Aboriginal missions, and later New Norcia, after Norcia, Italy, the birthplace of St Benedict. Hunger soon drove him back to Perth to give a one-man piano concert for which he was paid £1 from each of his audience of seventy music lovers. That saved his mission, but all through the formative years of New Norcia, 1846-67, he lived by 'the sweat of his brow'. Dressed in dungarees, he looked nothing like the Catholic prelate of Protestant imagination. He drove his bullock cart, felled trees, ploughed, sowed and planted to turn the desert into a land rich in corn, wine and honey. Through his Rule he became a mystic, but a sociable one, fervent in seeking the Aboriginals, roaming with them and sharing their bush life. With a physique 'enduring as marble' he set hard standards that only Serra, out of a party of five, could share. But Serra too had to quit when he was appointed to the see of Port Victoria in 1848 and next year coadjutor in the diocese of Perth, and Salvado was left to shape anew the mission.

The change from nomadic to settled life started with the building of an abbey, round which the village came to be built. Here he gathered his Murara-Murara, Victoria Plains Aboriginals, and set about teaching them to work and to be Christians. By the method of inference he built ideas on ideas, his Western culture upon Aboriginal culture. Through their spears and boomerangs he taught the value and meaning of property and ownership. Soon his pupils were adept in husbandry, handicrafts and stockwork, many of them becoming first-class ploughmen, teamsters and farm workers. However, their poor physical strength and indolence hindered them from developing into responsible farmers.

According to Florence Nightingale, it was in Salvado's school that 'the grafting of civilizing habits on unreclaimed races was gradually accomplished'. The stone-age man had held his own against his surroundings; when the nimbleness, skill, endurance and rhythmical motion of the race were guided from the corroboree to the bat and ball, to brass and string music, the Murara-Murara became the heroes of the cricket field and of the music room. Salvado's Aboriginal colony supplied Mivart with the strongest argument to refute his opponent Charles Darwin on 'the essential bestiality of man'. It also gave to the world the first two black post-mistresses and telegraph operators, the one half-caste, the other full blood.

From the beginning Salvado believed that progress at New Norcia was checked by dependence on the bishop of Perth. Sent to Europe in 1849 to raise funds he also pressed the case for New Norcia's home rule. In August he was consecrated bishop of Port Victoria in the Northern Territory. The closing of the garrison settlement deprived him of subjects before he left Italy and, while he waited in Naples for new orders from Rome, he wrote his Memorie Storiche dell'Australia Particolarmente della Missione Benedettina di Nuova Norcia (Rome, 1851); the first part was historical but the second and third dealt con amore with New Norcia and the Murara-Murara. This large work was published in Spanish in 1853, French in 1854, but never in English. Contemporary reviews judged it 'a liberal book appealing to the mind and to the heart'.

In 1853 Salvado was sent back to Western Australia. He administered the see of Perth while Bishop Serra was absent in Europe. Four years later he returned to New Norcia with renewed zeal to pursue his purposes for the mission of which he was named temporary administrator in 1859. But his prayer for home rule was not answered until 12 March 1867 when a papal decree gave Bishop Salvado of Port Victoria the additional title of Lord Abbot of New Norcia for life.

With greater freedom the mission entered a second period, 1867-1900, in which Salvado gave wider expression to the part of agriculture in monastic labour and took a leading part in shaping legislation on behalf of the Aboriginals. He and his monks had grown their daily bread by labour; now his journeys across a far-flung wild country looking for pastures and water and opening new tracks were to be as important for colonial expansion as for the mission. His efforts in seeking legal equality for whites and blacks in matters where the two races were equally concerned influenced the amendment in 1875 of the 1871 Bastardy Act and the addition of clause 5 to the 1874 Industrial Schools Act; the one could be invoked to enjoin an Aboriginal child's maintenance on its putative white father, and the other ensured the education of an Aboriginal minor by enabling mission managers to become the child's lawful guardians. His election as protector of Aboriginal natives in June 1887 was a deserved distinction and it made legal what had long been accepted in practice.

Never content with his empty title of bishop of Port Victoria, Salvado was relieved when it was changed to the titular bishop of Adriana in March 1889. In the work of reclaiming some seven hundred of his uncircumcised Murara-Murara and providing them with a means of living, he finally broke through tribal boundaries and won over to him 101 of the circumcised across the border. He loved them all to the end. After securing the future of his mission, he died in Rome on 29 December 1900, calling his distant piccanninies one by one. His remains were brought to Western Australia in June 1903 and re-buried in the tomb of Carrara marble behind the high altar in the church of his beloved New Norcia.

Select Bibliography
F. Nightingale, Sanitary Statistics of Native Colonial Schools and Hospitals (Lond, 1863)
J. Flood, New Norcia (Lond, 1908)
H. N. Birt, Benedictine Pioneers in Australia, vol 2 (Lond, 1911)
Royal Commission on Condition of the Natives, Report, Parliamentary Papers (Western Australia), 1905 (5), evidence 2021-93
R. Rios, History of New Norcia (Archives, New Norcia)
Salvado papers (Archives, New Norcia).

287. Bob’ Bartolemeo A. SANTAMARIA , Brunswick VIC ~1998

288. Saunders sisters: NELLIE 'Nellie' Harriet Eleanor SAUNDERS - a Missionary, from Melbourne, Australia. Martyred as a China Inland Missionary. Killed by the 'Vegetarian Fanatics' in Kucheng, CHINA on the 1st August 1895.
Harriette Elinor (Nellie) Saunders was born in Brighton, Melbourne, on April 17th, 1871. Nellie, unusually for an Australian missionary, had

Nellie Saunders

TOPSY. Topsy SAUNDERS from Melbourne, Victoria. China Inland Missionary. Killed by the mob of 'Vegetarian Fanatics' in Kucheng, CHINA on the 1st August 1895.
Elizabeth Maud (Topsy) Saunders was born on July 30th 1873, also in Brighton, Melbourne, Victoria. Their father was John Alexander Saunders, a London-born merchant, who died in 1876. Their mother was Eliza née Arabin Saunders, born Westmeath, his second wife. After her husband’s death Mrs. Saunders moved the family to ‘The Willows,’ Normanby Road, Kew, in the then outer northeastern edge of Melbourne’s metropolitan area. Topsy Saunders may have been the youngest missionary ever sent by the Australian Anglicans to China, or anywhere else for that matter.

Topsy Saunders

289. = John SAUNDERS, baptist Sydney NSW

290. 'GAHGOOK’ Mr Joseph SHAW ~ Yelta and Coranderrk missions

291. = 'Rod' Samuel Rodolphe SCHENK, Wongutha, Laverton WA
Son of John Francis SCHENK (born Scotland) & his wife Elizabeth née BELL (born Newlyn, nr Creswick, Victoria)
Born: 29 October 1888 Macorna, Kerang, in the Murray Valley of Victoria, Australia
Died: 7 August 1969 Esperence, Western Australia
Heritage: Scots-Australian

Schenk, Rodolphe Samuel (1888–1969) - by R. H. W. Reece

Rodolphe Samuel Schenk (1888-1969), missionary, was born on 29 October 1888 at Macorna, Victoria, son of John Francis Schenk, a Scottish-born stationmaster, and his Victorian-born wife Elizabeth, née Bell. He attended a New South Wales interdenominational theological college and in 1917 joined the United Aborigines' Mission. From Walgett, where he built a bag church and a wooden hut for himself, he ministered to Aboriginal communities, travelling long distances by motor cycle, addressing meetings and making converts. In 1920 he spent four months in Melbourne preparing for a new mission on the Western Australian goldfields.

Choosing the old Mount Margaret goldfield, he leased its common and began to erect huts and raise goats to finance provision of rations. Soon groups of Aborigines came to 'sit down' at the mission and helped to build fences, shepherd goats and pull sandalwood. His success in attracting Aborigines and his policy of paying them modest wages antagonized local pastoralists who tried to sabotage the mission and have it moved into the desert.

In Melbourne on 14 October 1922 Schenk married Isobel May Johnston, a typist; at Mount Margaret she taught crafts to the women. The products helped to finance the mission, as did the publication of Schenk's 'prayer letters' by the U.A.M. and concerts given by the Mount Margaret Minstrels. School classes began in 1926 and from 1932 Mrs Mary Bennett taught there; it was in basic literacy and numeracy, craft and vocational training that the mission made its greatest impact.

Mount Margaret had been secure from 1927 when police began to entrust Aborigines of part-descent who were state wards to Schenk's care rather than to the Moore River government settlement north of Perth. This was approved by the chief protector of Aborigines Auber Neville, who strengthened Schenk's hand by making the mission a central rationing station. Thirty children were accommodated in the first Graham Home by 1930; parents were encouraged to settle at the mission—unlike the dormitory-based régimes of other Aboriginal institutions. The mission used a 'no work, no rations' formula; earning opportunities expanded with the installation of a small ore-crushing battery, and low-grade alluvial ore was exploited by Aboriginal miners. Others learned carpentry, shearing and station work.

Schenk originally purchased miners' huts and building material which he reassembled at Mount Margaret; the Depression allowed him to buy more buildings. Water was a problem but medical facilities were provided by Mrs Bennett's gift of the Christison Memorial Hospital in 1936. By 1933 the European staff at Mount Margaret numbered ten, there were forty-one students at the school and the mission had the appearance of a regular township.

Difficulties surfaced when Aboriginal elders resisted Schenk's unsympathetic and fundamentalist interference with traditional practices. He opposed infanticide, the ritual drinking of blood, the use of sacred boards (which he thought were deified), and in-law avoidance laws which undermined his mass meetings. While not conversant with the local languages, he advised his subordinates to learn them and his daughters became fluent.

Mount Margaret was visited in 1930 by Adolphus Peter Elkin and Phyllis Kaberry who hoped to conduct field-work there. Elkin later criticized Schenk's attitude to traditional Aboriginal beliefs; in turn the missionary accused the anthropologists of fostering 'works of darkness' and 'the resurgence of the devil'. However, J. B. Birdsell and Norman Tindale, who came in 1939, thought Mount Margaret 'the best solution to the pressing half-caste problem'. Supporting the mission's assimilationist approach, Tindale predicted that it would become less relevant to Aborigines as they entered white society. Nevertheless, Schenk bitterly opposed the 'merge' and 'absorb' policy for Aborigines of mixed descent which Neville advocated; he resented the chief protector's complaint that the growing Mount Margaret population was undermining assimilation.

After World War II outside employment attracted many older residents but they were replaced by tribal people from the Central Reserve. Schenk had contributed to setting up another U.A.M. settlement at Warburton Range in 1933.

In 1954 Schenk retired to his farm near Esperance where he died on 7 August 1969, survived by his wife, three daughters and son. He had been one of the best mission administrators, his management skills ensuring his unpaid staff's continuity of service. His reading on developments in Africa influenced his educational policies and he was regarded as an authority on Aboriginal affairs. Many Mount Margaret people found responsible jobs and the mission became an important reference point for Aborigines' emerging identity.

Select Bibliography
H. P. Smith (ed), The First Ten Years of Mt Margaret, W.A. (Melb, 1933)
R. M. and C. H. Berndt (eds), Aborigines of the West (Perth, 1979)
R. W. Schenk and M. R. Morgan (compilers), Father's Photos (Albany, WA, 1983)
M. R. Morgan, A Drop in the Bucket (Melb, 1986)
S. Judd and K. Cable, Sydney Anglicans (Syd, 1987)
University Studies in Western Australian History, vol 3, no 4, 1960
West Australian, 14 Aug 1969
J. E. Stanton, Conflict, Change and Stability at Mt Margaret: an Aboriginal Community in Transition (Ph.D. thesis, University of Western Australia, 1984).

Ian Duckham writes: 'Victorian Rodolphe Schenk began evangelising the Wongutha Aboriginal people of the Western Desert in 1921. When he departed the
area 32 years later, he left behind a small town with a school, store, garage,
hospital, Aboriginal-owned cottages, and an industrial training facility.
Was he a social visionary, an unsalaried government ‘vassal’ doling out
welfare services, or a cultural ‘vandal’ responsible for the wilful destruction
of tribal culture? The common theme in scholarly analysis of Australian
missions is that of failure and cultural destruction. However, in 1996 more
Western Desert Aborigines per capita claimed the Christian faith than non Aboriginal Australians.'

REFERENCE: -1. Ian Duckham - Visionary, Vassal or Vandal? Rod Schenk - Missionary: A Case Study in Western Desert Missions. - published in 'LIMINA' Volume 6, 2000 - Online

292. Johann Theophilus SCHLEICHER -

Johann Theophilus SCHLEICHER was born abt 1816 in Schreibersdorf, Kreis Lauban, Schlesien, Preussen. As a young man from Silesia, Prussia, he found his way with missionary purpose, first to Berlin, and then by 10th August 1842 to Hamburg for departure to England, arriving in Hull ten days later. In England he was trained and sent to the East, and it was in West Bengal, British India in 1843 that he received Holy Orders of the Church of England, ordained by the Bishop of Calcutta. He afterwards became a Missionary of the Society For The Propogation of The Gospel in Foreign Parts, in British India, Burma and the Far East, until about 1853.
During that time he married twice; first at Allahabad, Benares, India, on the 7 October 1844 to Sophia Maria Dorothea WEHNER (1819-1845), who, sadly, died on 16th October 1845 at Christs Church, Cawnpore, India after giving birth to a son, 1. Theodore Athanasias Schleicher.
In about 1850, he married Caroline Maria SCHULZE (1822-1897), who was to bear him nine Schleicher children.
They were:
2. Adalbert Theophilus Schleicher (1851-1924 Hunters Hill, Sydney);
3. Alfred Waldemar Schleicher, born 1852 Cawnpore, West Bengal;
4. Caroline Henriette Schleicher, born 1852 Cawnpore, West Bengal and died in 1865 on the Merri Creek, Melbourne;
5. Hermann Erdmann 'Edmund' Schleicher was born 1853 at the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa;
6. Marie Sophie Schleicher born in 1855 at Myniong, Ballan, nr Bacchus Marsh, Victoria, Australia.
7. Salome Theodora 'Selma' Schlecher 20 November 1857 Myrniong-Ballan,
8. Bernard Alexander Schleicher 30 July 1859 Myrniong-Ballan, Bacchus Marsh
9. Hulda Caroline Schleicher b.6 Sept 1861 Myrniong, Vic., - 1925 Ryde, NSW
10. Clara Theophilia Schleicher b. 1865 Sydney, New South Wales

From 1861 to 1870 Rev. J. T. Scheicher became the Clergyman-Minister of "All Saints" - Hunters Hill Church of England Chapel, near Ryde, Sydney, NSW.

In 1867 the Rev. J. T. Schleicher was the Reader in German Language and Literature at the University of Sydney.

In late 1868 the Rev. J. T. Schleicher was appointed as Anglican Chaplain to the Prison establishment at Cockatoo Island, NSW.

Rev. Johann Theophilius Schleicher was Church of England Chaplain to the Hospital for the Insane at Gladesville until about May 1870.

During an interim in 1871 he was doing church work at Islington, London, England.

From the 31st January 1877 he became the Rector at Castle Hill, Sydney, NSW a position he served in until 30 November 1885.

In retirement he served as Minister at large in Sydney. Rev. John Theophilus Schleicher died in his 77th year on the 2 May 1892 at 'Johannesberg,' Gladesville, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Schleicher's second wife Caroline Maria survived him, dying at age 75 on the 2nd March 1897 at Gladesville, Sydney, NSW. Both he and his wife were buried in the Church of England cemetery at the Field of Mars, Sydney

His son Bernard Alexander Schleicher followed his father into the church and became the Reverend B A Schleicher. Rev. B. A. Scheicher gave great honour to the parentage of Christianity from the Jews, and had a particular ministry with Hebrews through the Y.M.C.A. in Pitt Street, Sydney, where he honoured Abraham as "The Jew who Blessed the World." "He said that the promise given to Abraham 'In thy seed shall all nations of the earth be blessed" had been fulfilled, and was being increasinly fulfilled in the spread of the knowledge of the true Messiah. To a great extent the Christian religion was the same as the religion of Abraham. The real difference between Judaisim and Christianity was the difference between the seed and the flower..." He became a Professor of New Testament (and Biblical Criticism), then Principal of the Moore Park Theological College and Seminary (Church of England) in Newtown, Sydney. In 1893 he was a vigorous Christian Apologist and defender of the Gospels as the 'inmost Citadel of Christianity.' by giving public lectures courtesy of the Lay helpers association on the historial evidence for the Early Origin and Authenticity of the Gospels. Reverend B A Schleicher was the Anglican Primate of Australia by 1893. He died suddenly in late February 1897. On his death the Anglican Synod recognised "the loss to the church in Australia that has been sustain by the death of the Rev. B. A. Schleicher, Principal of Moore's College, and expressed its sympathy with the widow and family...He was recognised as a man of deep piety, learning and ability, calculated to a great work in the church..."

His son Theodore Athanasias Schleicher became a Licensed Surveyor, working with Messrs Atchinson & Schleicher, from the Eldon Chambers, Sydney, and stood for public office and was elected alderman for Hunter's Hill in 1894 and was twice Mayor of Hunters Hill, in 1896-1897 and 1914-1915. Theodore Athanasias Schleicher died at Fig-Tree Road, Hunters Hill in September 1924. He was also buried in the Church of England cemetery at the Field of Mars, Sydney.

From the Schleicher family Tree

In 1855 John Theophilus and Caroline Maria (nee Schulze) Schleicher arrived on Australian shores from Cape Province South Africa, having spent the previous two years in South Africa. It was here that my grandfather Herman Edmund was born. The Schleichers had come with their two young sons Adelbert Theophilus and Alfred Waldemar from India, where the two boys were born in Cawnpore, West Bengal, in 1851 and 1852 respectively. The parents had been missionaries in India for ten years and John T. was ordained into the ministry of the Church of England church by the Bishop of Calcutta. He married Sophia Wehner in 1845, and a child was born to them in that same year.. I have not yet seen any records as to the fate of mother and child, but feel that they may not have survived, as John T. married my great grandmother Caroline M. in 1850..

Soon after their arrival in Australia Rev. John T. Schleicher took up his appointment as officiating minister in Ballan near Bacchus Marsh Victoria. He applied for his Naturalisation and was granted the privilege of being a British subject in 1857. Five children were born to the couple, Mary Augusta, Selma Theodora, Bernard Alexander, Hulda Caroline and Clara Theophila. Two of these girls would be the first two Deaconesses ordained in the Church of England in Australia. Bernard attaining the highest degree of achievement at Oxford University, and as the Rev. B. A. Schleicher in Spitalfields and Sheerness parishes in UK, and Principal of Moore Theological College in Sydney 1891-1897. Adelbert T. also was a well known member of Sydney business world, as a Surveyor (Atchison and Schleicher in Pitt St Sydney) and was an alderman and Mayor of Hunters Hill for two terms. Schleicher Street in the suburb of St. Mary's is named after him. Alfred W. lived in Sussex and Denbighshire in UK and died there. My grandfather Herman E. married my grandmother Elizabeth Jane Laws in Sydney 1895 and soon after came to live in Western Australia. These were "goldrush days", and they settled in Brown Hill, a small suburb of Kalgoorlie/Boulder (East Coolgardie) which was in the hub of goldmining activities near Fimiston. There they raised a family of six children and one grandchild,(Florrie Johns). Maud, Herman (Snow), and Winifred were born in Sydney, and Clara(decd), Cyril (father of Esme and me), and Doris (Doll), were all born in Kalgoorlie/Boulder district. After the death of Elizabeth Jane, the family broke up - Maud, Herman Jnr. and Winifred were already married, but Herman Snr. and Doris moved on to the Wagin/Katanning area, and Cyril remained in Kalgoorlie (he was only 16 at that time). He later married a Brown Hill girl, Vera Lyon, fathering my sister Esme Carolene, and myself. This is the beginning of our particular family line. My sister Esme now has two daughters and four grandchildren, and I have 3 children , 12 grandchildren and 4 great grandchildren. Maybe there will be a budding "family historian" ready to take up the history from here? I sincerely hope so!!!

1. Schleicher Family Tree on
2. Australain Newspapers
3. Rev B.A. Schleicher- the historic Episcopate : a sermon preached in St Stephen's Newtown on Sunday 19th May 1895 by he Rev. B.A. Schleicher [State Library of NSW)


294. = Luis Ludwig Gustav SCHULZE, Hermannsburg, NT

Pastor Louis Gustav SCHULZE,– Lutheran Missionary & Clergyman
Pastor Louis Gustav SCHULZE, son of Gustav Adolph SCHULZE born 1st Marz 1851 Kleinvoigtsberg, Sachsen, Deutschland. Graduated Hermmansburg Free Church Seminary, Ülzen, 1877/ To Australia – Finke River Mission 1878-1891. To Victoria: Germantown (grovedale) 1893-1912. At the age of 29 Luis Ludwig Gustav Schulze was married to 25-year-old Charlotte Elisabeth Henriette Margarette GUTMANN, daughter of Wilhelm Gutmann, at the Lutheran (Evangelische ) Kirch at Bethanien (Bethany), in the Barossa Valley, South Australia. Children were: 1. Maria Charlotte Dorothea Schulze – born 25 Feb 1882 in the MacDonnell Ranges, Central Australia. 2. Gustav Wilhelm Johannes Schulz – born 18 Aug 1884 at the Hermannsburg Mission Station, Central Australia; 3. Heinrich Friedrich Christian Schulze – born 28 April 1887 Hermannsburg (NT); 4. Anna Maria Schulze – born 21 July 1889 at Hermannsburg Mission Station (NT); 5. Christiane Marie Louise Schulze – born 26 March 1891 at Hermannsburg, NT; 6 . Hermann Luis Wilhelm SCHULZE – born 1893 Geelong, Victoria; and 7. Dorothea Henriette Louise Schulze – born 1897 Geelong, Vic. Pastor Luis Gustav SCHULZE died in 7 November 1924.

295. Clamor W SCHÜRMANN Torrens River, SA, Hamilton, VIC

296. Wilhelm Friedrich SCHWARZ,Hermannsburg, NT
Pastor Wilhelm Friedrich SCHWARZ,- Lutheran Missionary & Clergyman
Pastor Wilhelm Friedrich SCHWARZ, son of Johann Friedrich SCHWARZ, was born 20 March 1842 Duermenz, Königreich Würrtemberg. Graduated Hermmansburg Free Church Seminary, Ülzen, Deutschland. To Australia. Schwartz was a Missionary at Finke River Mission 1870 - 1889. On the 31st May 1878 at age 36, Pastor Schwarz was married to Miss Anna Wilhelmine Charlotte Dorothea SCHULZ, daughter of Heinrich SCHULZ at the Hermansburg Mission Station in the MacDonnell Ranges of Central Australia. Their children were: 1. Karoline Rosine Dorothea SCHWARZ born 19 March 1970 at the Hermannsburg Mission station in the MacDonnell Ranges of Central Australia. 2. Hermann Wilhelm Friedrich SCHWARZ born on the 11th July 1882 Hermannsburg Mission station in the MacDonnell Ranges of Central Australia. 3. Christian Heinrich Johannes SCHWARZ – born 22 Febriary 1886 at Hermannsburg NT; and 4. Paul Heinrich Ernst SCHWARZ – born 27th November 1887 at Hermannsburg Mission Station.
Schwarz was sent to the Upper Moutere, New Zealamd 1891-1901. He was then the Travelling Missionary in South Australia 1905-1915. Pastor Wilhelm Friedrich Schwarz Died 20 March 1920 at Eudunda, South Australia, age 78. His wife Wilhelmine Dorothea Schwarz survived him to die at age 83 at Eudunda on the 16th November 1934.

297. William SHELLEY, Parramatta,

298. =George SHENTON WA

299. + Ella SIMON, Purfleet NSW

From - Australian Dictionary of Evangelical Biography

SIMON, Ella (1902-1981)
John Harris

SIMON, ELLA (b. Taree, NSW, 1902; d. Taree, NSW, 13 Feb 1981). Aboriginal community worker.

Born of an Aboriginal mother, and a white father, Ella was raised by her Aboriginal grandparents. Her grandmother, Kundaibark was a Christian and through her Ella grew up a Christian. In the year of her birth, Ella's grandfather moved his family, together with several other Aboriginal families from the crowded and depressed fringe camp at Taree to a new site further out of town. They constructed their own homes, and a UAM missionary was appointed to work there. A church and school were built, the beginnings of the Purfleet Mission. Ella attended the mission school, and then, in the 1920s, went to Sydney to work as a domestic.

Ella returned to Purfleet in 1932 just in time to experience the heavy-handed takeover of Purfleet by the Aborigines Protection Board, armed with new powers to 'concentrate on reserves people of Aboriginal blood, with definite control over them ... They were not to be at liberty to leave without permission'. (Aborigines Protection Board Report, 1932) It was with her initial confrontation with these officials that Ella began her long life of fighting for justice for her people, and of working positively for their future.

After her grandmother's death, Ella married Joe Simon. She became one of the most prominent citizens of the Taree district. Ella Simon's efforts often met with frustrating official opposition and pettiness, but she also succeeded on many occasions in cutting through the bureaucratic restrictions. She led the movement which succeeded in gaining a preschool at Purfleet, and set up a branch of the Country Women's Association. She opened a gift shop at Purfleet to sell Aboriginal artefacts and other locally produced items. In 1962 she became the first Aboriginal woman to be made a JP in NSW.

Throughout the whole of her life, Ella Simon maintained a strong Christian faith. She was associated from childhood with the Aboriginal church at Purfleet, and continued her active commitment to it until her death. Her life was also marked by a strong sense of Aboriginality, of the distinctiveness and worth of her Aboriginal heritage. This, with her Christian faith, she attributed to the nurture she was given by her grandmother.

Ella Simon could be described in the words she used to describe her grandmother: 'She had a deep sense of faith—a Christian in the real sense, as well as knowing what it is truly like to be Aboriginal ... She showed me that it just isn't enough being Aboriginal; you have to know all about being Aboriginal and go on from there, ... putting into practice the Christian teaching of forgiveness and love instead of meeting hatred with hatred.' (Simon, 1987: 1-2).

This philosophy enabled her to accept people for what they were, irrespective of racial or cultural background. This was how she always wanted to be accepted herself. The personal tragedy of Ella Simon's life was that she died feeling that her mixed ancestry had always meant that she had never been accepted totally by either the Aboriginal or the white community. Although a huge crowd of Aboriginal and white people attended her funeral, her dying request was respected: the hearse bore her coffin to the crematorium, unaccompanied.

Ella Simon, Through My Eyes (Melbourne, 1987)


Born: 1902 Taree, New South Wales, Australia
Died: 13 February 1981 New South Wales, Australia
Occupation: Aboriginal community worker

"Ella Simon went to school on Purfleet Aboriginal reserve, New South Wales, until the age of twelve. She then worked in Gloucester and Sydney, but returned to Purfleet in 1932 to nurse her sick grandmother, Kundaibark. She married Joe Simon in the mid-1930s, and they travelled around New South Wales, helping Aboriginal people. In 1957 Ella was granted her ‘certificate of exemption’ from the restrictions imposed by the Aborigines Welfare Board. In 1960 she formed a branch of the Country Women’s Association on Purfleet reserve and became its president. She opened the Gillawarra gift shop selling Aboriginal artefacts. She improved the living conditions on Purfleet, by supplying new stoves and introducing electricity. She continued caring for Aboriginal children and the sick. In 1962 she was named Lady of Distinction by Quota and appointed a justice of the peace. She dictated her life story for the book Through My Eyes during 1976-78."

Dr John SINGLETON -medical evangelist, indefatigable vice crusader YMCA, YWCA Melbourne 1808-1891


301. = Brother Percy SMITH

302. John Thomas SMITH, 1st aborigines teacher, Mayor of Melbourne ??????????

303. =John SMITHIES Wesleyan Perth WA

304. William Guthrie SPENCE - Champion of the Dignity of the Working Man, Unionist, Founder of the Australian Labor Party

William Guthrie SPENCE, Bible Christian Democrat, Methodist Unionist, Presbyterian Politician

From the Australian Dictionary of Evangelical Biography

SPENCE, William Guthrie (1846-1926)

by Robert D. Linder

SPENCE, WILLIAM GUTHRIE (b. Eday, Orkney Islands, Scotland, 7 Aug 1846; d. Terang, Vic, 13 Dec 1926). Trade unionist, politician, and Methodist local preacher.

The son of a stonemason father (James Maxwell Spence) and a deeply religious mother (Jane Guthrie Spence), W G Spence migrated to Australia with his family early in 1852. After spending their first year in Geelong, the Spences became one of the pioneer families to settle the Ballarat-Creswick area. As a small boy, Spence observed the Eureka uprising of 1854, and later maintained that it had a profound impact on his mature thought. Equally important for his formative years were his experiences of marginal living as a shepherd, butcher-boy, shearer and miner. Largely self-taught, he became well-versed in the Bible and the classics, and in the political and economic thought of the day. In particular, he claimed to have studied Robert Blatchford, John Ruskin, Thomas Carlyle, William Morris, Edward Bellamy, Karl Marx, St Paul, and Jesus.

Spence is best known as the greatest union organiser in Australian history. It was in 1878, in the Clunes district near Creswick, that John Sampson and Spence revived an almost defunct miners' union (est 1874) that would shortly thereafter form the basis of the Amalgamated Miners' Association (AMA) of Vic. He was the general secretary of the AMA in 1882, and the foundation president of the Amalgamated Shearers' Union of Australasia in 1886 (president, 1886-93). Moreover, he was the principal founder in 1894 of the colony-wide Australian Workers' Union (AWU), of which he was the general secretary from 1894 to 1898 and president from 1898 to 1917. Spence's only major setback as a union promoter came in the heady, difficult days of 1890, when he helped to precipitate the ill-fated maritime strike which broke out on 15 Aug in NSW and ended on 2 Nov 1890 with the workers, including those in his own union, soundly defeated.

Spence recovered from this reversal and quickly adjusted to the need to adapt labour to urban politics and strategies. He envisaged the AWU as the industrial wing of the newly formed labor party (est 1891, NSW), and threw himself into electoral politics. Moving his headquarters from Creswick to Sydney in 1895, he served as a Labor member of the NSW Legislative Assembly from 1898 to 1901, when he was elected to the newly-constituted commonwealth House of Representatives (MHR for Darling, NSW, 1901-17 and for Darwin, Tas, 1918-9). He was Postmaster-General in the Andrew Fisher (ALP) cabinet, 1914-5, and Vice-President of the Executive council in 1916-7 under Hughes.

In the Labor Party conscription crisis of 1916-7, Spence was ill and, according to his daughter Gwynetha, was tricked by Hughes and others into supporting conscription. Because of his declining health and years of honourable service to trade unionism, Spence was the only Labor politician allowed to resign instead of being expelled for his action. After serving Darwin as a Nationalist Party member, he was defeated in a bid for the seat of Batman, Vic, in the 1919 election, and retired from politics a disappointed man.

Spence's long record of public service and union activities were founded on his evangelical Christian faith. His mother taught him to read from the Bible before he was six and took him with regularity to the St Andrew's Presbyterian Church in Creswick as a child. Nurtured on the Westminster Confession of Faith, he became a lay leader and Sunday school superintendent of his church in the period before 1883. On 20 June 1871, Spence married Ann Jane Savage, a native of Derry, Ireland, and a fellow Presbyterian, in the church manse in Creswick. However, apparent Presbyterian indifference to the plight of the Creswick area miners, especially at the time of the Creswick Australasian Mine disaster of December 1882, when 22 miners perished, led Spence to break with the Presbyterians and join the Primitive Methodists. Shortly after the Australasian tragedy, Spence's name appeared on the rolls of the Primitive Methodist Church as a local preacher, and he soon was in demand as an evangelistic and inspirational speaker in Primitive Methodist, Wesleyan and Bible Christian churches in Vic and NSW. Because of a longstanding commitment to working class causes, Primitive Methodists were especially warm in their support of Spence's union activities, and large numbers of miners and shearers were themselves Methodists in background and belief. Further, Spence's church pulpit experience was invaluable to him as a union recruiter and political leader.

Spence's evangelical faith was also the basis of his civic-mindedness prior to leaving Creswick in 1895. Not only was he active in the local churches, but he was also a leader of the Creswick Sunday School Union and the Creswick Temperance Society, a regular participant in the town debating society and the local self-improvement society, a borough councillor, a justice of the peace, and a member of the area militia and the Creswick Havilah Lodge. Likewise, his Christian faith was the foundation of his trade unionism. In an era when Social Christianity was still widely embraced by postmillennial evangelicals, Spence almost effortlessly made the connections between the teachings of Jesus and his populist-socialist ideals. His political rhetoric was also that of the nineteenth century revivalist. Unashamed of his allegiance to Christ, Spence frequently spoke from the union political platform of his debt to Jesus. Thus, on 23 May 1892, at a crowded public meeting at Bourke, Spence declared: 'Individualism has brought the worst and most selfish natures in humanity to the front. The New Unionism is simply the teachings of that greatest of all social reformers, Him of Nazareth, whom all must revere'.

Few Australian union leaders and Labor politicians were as well-known personally by so many people and so well-liked as W G Spence. Honest, genial and imperturbable, he lived a consistently godly life to the end of his days. In the last few years of his life, according to family members, he dabbled in spiritualism - as did many Christians of that era, especially those, who, like Spence, had lost a son in World War One. He also died largely disillusioned with people, politics and organised religion. However, this did not diminish his commitment to humanitarianism, the principles of the Labor Party, or the teachings of Jesus Christ.

Spence succumbed to pulmonary oedema at his son's home in Terang, Vic, not far from Creswick, on 13 Dec 1926, and was buried without fanfare or public acclaim in the Coburg Cemetery, Melbourne. His wife, Ann Jane Spence, died shortly thereafter on 12 Dec 1927, and was laid to rest beside him.

ADB 6; C M Lansbury, 'William Guthrie Spence', Labour History 13 (1967), 3-10; R D Linder, 'Australian Evangelicals in Politics in the Victorian Age: The Cases of J.D. Lang, W.G. Spence, and J.S.T. McGowen', Lucas 13 (June 1992), 34-60; J A Merritt, The Making of the AWU (Melbourne, 1986)

SELECT WRITINGS: The Ethics of the New Unionism (Creswick, 1892); Australia's Awakening: Thirty Years in the Life of an Australian Agitator (Sydney, 1909); A History of the A.W.U. (Sydney, 1911)


Spence, William Guthrie (1846–1926)

by Coral Lansbury and Bede Nairn

William Guthrie Spence (1846-1926), trade unionist and politician, was born on 7 August 1846 at the island of Eday, Orkney, Scotland, son of James Maxwell Spence, stonemason, and his wife Jane, née Guthrie. He came to Geelong, Victoria, with his family probably in February 1852. Next year they moved to Spring Hill near Creswick and as a small boy he reputedly observed the Eureka rebellion in 1854, later claiming that he had vivid and formative memories of it. At 13 he was a shepherd at G. Bell and P. McGuiness's station, Corong, in the Wimmera, and in 1861 he was a butcher-boy, having had a miner's right at 14. In 1912 he recalled that goldfields life had 'made such a deep impression on my youthful mind that nothing but the grave will efface it'. Spence had no formal schooling but 'at odd moments' was taught by a graduate of Trinity College, Dublin; he read 'in a curiously miscellaneous way' including, as he matured, the works of Bellamy, Blatchford, Ruskin and Morris. He became secretary and Sunday school superintendent for the Creswick Presbyterian Church and in the 1880s often preached with the Primitive Methodists and the Bible Christians. On 20 June 1871 at the Presbyterian manse, Creswick, he married Ann Jane, daughter of William Savage of Londonderry, Northern Ireland.

Spence's mining experience included work as a 'shift boss' and manager. In the Clunes district in 1874 he initiated an ephemeral trade union that was part of the process of the formation at Bendigo in the same year of the Amalgamated Miners' Association of Victoria. In 1878 as secretary of the Creswick Miners' Union, with John Sampson president, he led 600 men into the A.M.A.: both were later black-balled by the mine-owners. In 1882-91 Spence was general secretary, and under him the association 'was moderate and conciliatory but firm on fundamentals'; he claimed it never refused a conference, but it had twenty-nine strikes before 1890. A superb negotiator, he wanted a union that would cover all kinds of miners in Australia and New Zealand, and from 1884 several unions, including New South Wales coalminers, affiliated loosely and the union became the A.M.A. of Australasia.

Spence co-operated with the Melbourne Trades Hall Council but could not convince his union of the need of political organization, although in 1886 he secured several amendments to the colony's Regulation of Mines and Machinery Act. At the second Intercolonial Trades Union Congress, Melbourne, 1884, he gained unanimous approval for the establishment of an Intercolonial Federal Council of Amalgamated Trades, but nothing came of it. A teetotaller, in Creswick he became a member of the militia and a leading temperance advocate; prominent in the debating society, he was a borough councillor from 1884 and a justice of the peace from 1888: a recent historian has said of him, 'Genial and quite imperturbable, he stands out as the most remarkable man in the remarkable town of Creswick in the eighties'.

Spence's great repute as an industrial organizer of widely dispersed workers led to his appointment in 1886 as foundation president of the Amalgamated Shearers' Union of Australasia. With great skill and zeal, and against aggressive opposition from many pastoralists, by 1890 he had unionized most shearers in South Australia, Victoria and New South Wales and had gained the 'closed shop' in about 85 per cent of the shearing sheds. With main objectives of recruiting the Queensland shearers and obtaining the complete 'union shed', this work took him for the first time consistently among city unionists; in the late 1880s he encouraged his New South Wales branches to join the Trades and Labor Council in Sydney.

On 17 May 1890 he dominated a conference in Brisbane at which the owners of Jondaryan station recognized the Queensland Shearers' Union in the face of a putative united front of maritime unions which had refused to handle their wool. This victory led Spence to intensify his efforts for maximum unionism in New South Wales and Victoria. In a verbose manifesto of 12 July which put great pressure on non-union pastoralists, he claimed incorrectly that the Wharflabourers' and Seamen's unions had agreed to back his campaign with direct action. His plans excluded strikes by shearers; but he exacerbated inflamed industrial relations in the intercolonial maritime industries, especially in New South Wales and among ships' officers, and helped to precipitate the maritime strike that broke out on 15 August and ended on 2 November 1890 with the workers defeated. Against his vote on the Labor Defence Council the shearers were partially involved in September for one week.

Spence's ineptitude resulted in part from his heavy work load. In September at a critical stage of the strike he gave valuable evidence in Melbourne to the royal commission on gold-mining, but essentially his great success with bushworkers had limited his industrial understanding and enlarged his populist longings. Some of his pastoralist opponents shared his mysticism; they believed their own propaganda that somewhere in the outback 'Spence's station', allegedly acquired by levies on the workers, was the ultimate in luxury and wealth. His unique mixture of inspirational socialism and hard-headed unionism evoked a confused vision of all employees in one big union but produced little understanding of the problems of city workers. He emphasized the primacy of the A.S.U. in Labor political action, and broke with the A.M.A. in Victoria in 1891-92 when it drew up its own programme in opposition to that of the Progressive Political League; in 1892 he ran for the league at the by-election for the seat of Dundas in the Victorian Legislative Assembly but lost narrowly. At the seventh Intercolonial Trades and Labor Congress of Australasia in Ballarat in 1891, he backed the scheme for the Australasian Federation of Labour, which envisaged a firm link between industrial and political organization.

Spence took no part in the determined work of the Trades and Labor Council in Sydney in 1890-91 that produced the Labor Electoral League and spectacular success at the 1891 general elections. More than most of his contemporaries, he was muddled about the connexion between the 'New Unionism' and the old. In Sydney on 12 June 1892 his lecture on 'The Ethics of the New Unionism' (published 1892) confused its relationship with political action, but revealed his own millennialism: 'It is useless', he said, 'to go on preaching from Sabbath to Sabbath asking men to be better but … the New Unionism is to deal with those evils in a practical manner'. In the 1891-93 conflicts in the Labor Party in New South Wales he used the Federation of Labour to oppose the 'solidarities'; when they triumphed in 1894-95 his prospects of assuming a leading political role had evaporated and he was lampooned by the bright young city Labor men, especially William Holman and Billy Hughes in the radical newspaper the New Order.

Spence's industrial success continued. In 1894 he helped to combine several small bush unions with the A.S.U. and to found the Australian Workers' Union; as its secretary in 1894-98 and president 1898-1917, he saw the union as the industrial wing of the Labor Party. He held the mining-pastoralist seat of Cobar in the New South Wales Legislative Assembly in 1898-1901, but made little impression in parliament though he was accorded the deference merited by past achievement. A supporter of Federation, he pointed to the successful organization of the A.W.U. He was elected to the first Federal parliament in 1901 as member for Darling in far-west New South Wales. In Sydney in 1909, helped by his son-in-law Hector Lamond, he published Australia's Awakening, which stated that the organization of the bushworkers and the 1890 strike marked the foundations of industrial trade unionism in Australia. The book was an effort both to disarm growing opposition in the A.W.U. to his presidency and to defend the union from the Industrial Workers of the World, who were organizing the 'One Big Union'. In 1911 in Sydney he published the History of the A.W.U.; he wrote several pamphlets; he also contributed to and helped to edit the Australian Worker. In the 1900s he worked hard for a Labor daily under the control of the A.W.U.

In 1914-15 Spence was Commonwealth postmaster-general and in 1916-17 vice-president of the Executive Council; as a minister he was 'largely the voice of the permanent heads'. In the Labor Party crisis in 1916-17 he was ill and, according to A.W.U. officials, was tricked by Hughes and Lamond into voting for conscription. He was the one member of the union allowed to resign instead of being expelled for his action. Rejected by the Labor Party he lost his seat in 1917, but at a by-election the same year he won Darwin (Tasmania) as a Nationalist candidate. He ran for Batman (Victoria) in 1919 but lost. He died of pulmonary oedema in his son's home at Terang on 13 December 1926, survived by his wife, four daughters and three of his five sons; buried in Coburg cemetery, he left an estate valued for probate at £1200.

Select Bibliography
J. A. Graham, Early Creswick (Melb, 1942)
G. Serle, The Rush to be Rich (Melb, 1971)
B. Nairn, Civilizing Capitalism (Canb, 1973)
N. B. Nairn, ‘The 1890 maritime strike in New South Wales’, Historical Studies, no 37, Nov 1961
C. Lansbury, ‘The miners' right to mateship’, Meanjin, 25 (1966)
Worker (Brisbane), May 1890, special ed
Punch (Melbourne), 24 Aug 1904.

306. =Brother Friedrich Wilhelm SPIESEKE, Lake Boga VIC
Friedrich SPIESEKE - from ADB ONline "...On 27 November 1856 he (Rev F. A. Hagenauer) was instructed to go to Victoria with F. W. Spieseke who had returned to Europe after the Lake Boga Mission, established with Charles La Trobe's help in 1851, was abandoned.

Hagenauer and Spieseke arrived at Melbourne in May 1858. By December, following Governor (Sir) Henry Barkly's suggestion, they had selected a Wimmera River site on Antwerp station, where the squatter, Horatio Spencer Ellerman, gave material assistance and the Ebenezer mission school was opened next January. In 1858 several missionaries including Spieseke and Hagenauer had given evidence to a select committee on the alleviation of Aborigines' 'absolute wants'. The Central Board appointed to watch over the interests of the Aborigines, which first met on 7 June 1860, set up two stations and planned more government depots and missions financed by various churches. In February 1862 after negotiations between the Moravians and the Presbyterian Church of Victoria Hagenauer and his wife arrived in Gippsland where the Presbyterians hoped to secure two large reserves on Green Hills station with support from the central board. Objections by squatters led the board of land and works to change the site and in August 1863 some 2356 acres (953 ha) were secured at Lake Wellington on the River Avon. .."

Friedrich Wilhelm SPIESEKE was married in Victoria in 1861 to Johanne Christiane FRICKE.

307. 'MR ETERNITY' Arthur STACE, Sydney, NSW

308. Graham STAINES & his two sons, Timothy and Phillip,

Doctor Graham Staines & Family

' Graham Stuart Staines (1941-January 1999) was an Australian missionary who was burnt to death while he was sleeping with his two sons Timothy Staines (aged 9) and Philip Staines (aged 7) in his station wagon at Manoharpur village in Keonjhar district in Orissa, India in January 1999. In 2003, the Hindu activist Dara Singh was convicted of leading the gang.' [ per A tribute to Influential Australian Christians] - Dr. Graham Stuart Staines was born in 1941 at Palmwoods, Queensland, Australia. He visited India in 1965 for the first time and joined Evangelical Missionary Society of Mayurbhanj (EMSM), working in this remote tribal area, with a long history of missionary activity.
Staines took over the management of the Mission at Baripada in 1983. He also played a role in the establishment of the Mayurbhanj Leprosy Home as a registered society in 1982.[5] He met Gladys June in 1981 while working for leprosy patients, and they married in 1983, and had worked together since then. They had three children, a daughter (Esther) and two sons (Philip and Timothy). Staines assisted in translating a part of the Bible into the Ho language of India, including proofreading the entire New Testament manuscript, though his focus was on a ministry to lepers.
He spoke fluent Oriya and was very popular among the patients whom he used to help after they were cured. He used to teach how to make mats out of rope and basket from Saboigrass and hand weaving.[per Wikipedia]
Graham Staines had been working in Orissa among the tribal poor and especially with leprosy patients since 1965.

390. Brother John STAMP S.J. , Kew, VIC

310. Karl Rawdon von STIEGLITZ (1893–1967) Tasmanian Churchman, Church Historian

"Portrait of Karl von Stieglitz, Medical Orderly A.I.F. in the 1914-1918 war"

Karl Rawdon von STEIGLITZ
from ADB Online -
von Stieglitz, Karl Rawdon (1893–1967)

by Tim Jetson

Karl Rawdon von Stieglitz (1893-1967), pastoralist and antiquarian, was born on 19 August 1893 at Andora, a holding near Evandale, Tasmania, second son of four children of John Charles von Stieglitz, pastoralist and politician, and his second wife Lilian Brooke Vere, née Stead. The family was originally from Pomerania, Saxony, but had moved to County Armagh in Ireland, then to Van Diemen's Land in 1829. F. L. von Stieglitz was John's uncle. Karl was educated at home by tutors, because bouts of rheumatic fever prevented regular school attendance, and later in England.

In March 1917 he reputedly enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force and was allotted to the Australian Medical Corps but was discharged in November on health grounds. Remaining in New South Wales, von Stieglitz studied for two years at Hawkesbury Agricultural College, Richmond, and married Eileen Bessie Helsham at St Peter's Church of England, Richmond, on 19 June 1920. Returning to Andora, he top-dressed the soil, sowed subterranean clover pasture, developed a Corriedale stud flock and planted more trees than he felled. His innovations did not extend to mechanization, however, as he retained draught horses until after World War II. Karl became active in the local community. In 1952 he was appointed O.B.E. in recognition of his involvement in local government, the Church of England, the Boy Scouts' Association, Freemasonry, Evandale Agricultural Show and the Royal Society of Tasmania.

Von Stieglitz was best known for his contributions to local history, inspired by an enthusiasm for his pioneer pastoral ancestors, a visit to Britain in 1906-07 and his belief in the primacy of the landowning class. His thirty-eight works, which covered pastoral history, bushrangers and churches, could best be described as a pageant of pioneer families. The books lacked a chronological or thematic framework, included unverified stories and had a concept of pastoralists as the motive force for change. He had a roseate view of convict assignees as old lags, and regarded Aborigines as simple and inoffensive until roused to revenge. His charm and pastoral background, however, gave him access to oral reminiscences and previously unused family material such as letters, manuscripts and photographs. In epilogues and interludes he showed a poetic streak and an Arcadian appreciation of the environment. According to the Launceston Examiner, his books, radio broadcasts, lectures and excursions, brought history 'alive'. He donated the proceeds from his writings to charity.

His works coincided with a burgeoning interest in the State's heritage, previous Tasmanian history having been concerned mainly with celebratory accounts of major institutions such as independent schools and churches. He exemplified the antiquarian imagination, based on intimate knowledge of local sites and sources.

Von Stieglitz died on 26 March 1967 during a service in St Andrew's Church of England, Evandale, and was buried in that churchyard. His wife and their son and daughter survived him. The Launceston branch of the National Trust of Australia established a memorial lecture in honour of him and his fellow stalwarts Isabella Mead and Roy Smith.

Select Bibliography
The Tasmanian Cyclopedia (Hob, 1931)
T. Griffiths, Hunters and Collectors (Melb, 1996)
Australian Women’s Weekly, 22 Oct 1975, p 30
Examiner (Launceston), 27 Mar 1967, p 3, 29 Mar 1967, p 7, 10 July 1973, p 9
Mercury (Hobart), 1 Jan 1952, p 3, 27 Mar 1967, p 6
private information.

311. Dr. Emma Constance STONE & Dr. Grace Clara STONE Founders of the Queen Victoria Hospital, Christian Doctors, members of Congregational Church
Emma Constance STONE & Grace Clara STONE
from ADB Online -

Stone, Emma Constance (1856–1902)

by Penny Russell

This is a shared entry with Grace Clara Stone

Emma Constance Stone (1856-1902) and Grace Clara Stone (1860-1957), medical practitioners, were born on 4 December 1856 and on 12 January 1860 in Hobart Town, daughters of William Stone, builder, and his wife Betsy, née Haydon. William Stone was their brother. The family moved to Melbourne in 1872. Both girls were educated chiefly at home by their mother, a former governess.

Constance early developed an interest in anatomy, but it was not until 1884 that she went overseas to study medicine, since the University of Melbourne did not then admit women to its medical course. She completed a three-year degree at the Women's Medical College of Pennsylvania, United States of America, and in 1888 graduated M.D., Ch.M. with first-class honours from the University of Trinity College, Toronto, Canada. She then proceeded to London where she worked with Mary Scharlieb at the New Hospital for Women and qualified as licentiate of the Society of Apothecaries. Her experience at the New Hospital was to inspire her ambition to found a hospital 'by women, for women' in Melbourne. This wish was reinforced by her early experience in Melbourne where she returned in 1890 to become the first woman to register with the Medical Board of Victoria. Photographs of the time portray her as a fine-featured woman with a high forehead and a strong, regular profile. She practised one day a week at the free dispensary attached to Dr Singleton's mission in Collingwood and was quickly convinced that work 'as great as their strength could compass' awaited female doctors who ministered to needy women.

By this time her sister Clara was almost ready to join her. In 1887 the university allowed women to enter its medical school and Clara was one of seven whose requests for admission had led to this change. She started her degree that year and in 1891 became one of the first two women to graduate in medicine from the university. She then went into private practice with Constance and joined her at the free dispensary.

Emily Mary Page Stone (1865-1910), cousin of Constance and Clara, was born on 31 May 1865 at Mornington, Victoria, daughter of John Stone, storekeeper, and his wife Laura Matilda, née Reed, both English born. When she was 10 she went to England and stayed for six years with an aunt who kept a ladies' boarding school at Kew where Mary was educated. She trained as a teacher, returned to Melbourne and taught at various private schools. After attending classes at the Athenaeum to prepare herself to matriculate at the University of Melbourne, she commenced her medical studies there in 1889. In 1893 she graduated, having gained honours in each year of her course, and was placed sixth in the final examination. This result should have entitled her to a residency at the Melbourne Hospital, but her application was refused on the pretext that she had carried out her clinical studies entirely at the Alfred Hospital. The Melbourne Hospital did not admit any women to its residencies until 1896. Mary began private practice at Windsor but, after a few months, moved to Hawthorn.

Constance, Clara and Mary were all involved in the early activities and networks of Melbourne's female doctors. Constance's home was the venue for the first meeting in March 1895 of the Victorian Medical Women's Society, formed with the chief object of 'effecting a closer relationship between medical women graduates and undergraduates and to advance the knowledge to further their interests generally'. Clara was the first president and all three women supported the society throughout their lives. At a meeting held on 5 September 1896 eleven women doctors decided to set up a hospital of their own: their vision, and its subsequent achievement, was attributed by the others to Constance's inspired leadership. From its beginnings as an out-patients' dispensary in La Trobe Street (where the three Drs Stone worked on Monday mornings), the Queen Victoria Hospital, funded by a jubilee shilling fund appeal, evolved and was officially opened in July 1899.

By this time Constance Stone was ill; she died of tuberculosis on 29 December 1902. She had married Dr David Egryn Jones in the Congregational Church, St Kilda, on 4 July 1893; he survived her, as did their young daughter who was later also to become a doctor. Clara remained on the honorary staff of the Queen Victoria Hospital until 1919 and, after retiring from this position, continued in private practice in Alma Road, St Kilda. She died, unmarried, at her St Kilda home, on 10 May 1957 and was cremated.

In addition to her work at the hospital, Mary Page Stone maintained a close involvement with the National Council of Women, being honorary secretary of the Victorian branch in 1904-10. At the first congress of the N.C.W. in October 1903 she presented a paper on epileptic colonies, thereby inspiring the Talbot Colony for Epileptics which opened at Clayton in 1907 and with which she was deeply involved. Killed on 19 December 1910, when her bicycle collided with a wagon, she was buried in St Kilda cemetery. The N.C.W. initiated a movement to have an operating theatre for out-patients at the Queen Victoria Hospital (opened 1912) as her memorial.

The contribution of the three Drs Stone to the initial group of medical women and to the health of Melbourne's poor was inestimable. Constance was described by one of her medical colleagues, Janet Lindsay Greig, as 'the real pioneer' who alone deserved the honour of having started the Queen Victoria Hospital; Clara was said to be 'the hard worker', a tiny, bird-like woman of indomitable character who was a loyal friend to the younger generation in the V.M.W.S.; Mary was 'always ready to help in any cause furthering the welfare of women and the community at large, and was much beloved by her private patients'. All three embodied a spirit of service and sacrifice characteristic of the early professional women in this country.

Select Bibliography
M. H. Neve, This Mad Folly (Syd, 1980)
Southern Sphere, 1 Jan 1911
Queen Victoria Hospital (Melbourne), Annual Report, 1920
Town and Country Journal, 7 Jan 1903
Herald (Melbourne), 13 May 1957
P. A. Russell, Mothers of the Race (B.A. Hons thesis, Monash University, 1982)
M. Wells, ‘Gentlemen, the Ladies Have Come to Stay’ (M.A. thesis, University of Melbourne, 1988)
Stone papers (State Library of Victoria).

311+. Fr Brian Anthony STONEY, s.j. Leader of the 'Corpus Christi Community' for Homeless Alcoholic Men, Melbourne & Greenvale, VIC., & Cana Community, Sydney, NSW.
Born: 1939
Confirmed: 1945
Ministry: Society of Jesus, Corpus Christi community,
Cana Community
Died: 12 November 2008 Sacred Heart Hospice, Darlinghurst, Sydney, NSW @ age 69

Brian Anthony STONEY - ex-Jesuit

From: CATHOLIC WEEKLY - 30 November 2008
Fr Brian’s love of the underdog - ALICE RAMSAY

- "Hundreds of people from all walks of life crowded into St Canice’s Church, Elizabeth Bay, on November 18 to bid farewell Fr Brian Stoney who died on November 12 at the age of 69.

A Jesuit priest for more than 40 years, Fr Brian was committed to serving the poor and underprivileged in the community.

His funeral attracted people from every group in which he was known, from members of the Aboriginal community, to past and present students from St Ignatius’ College, Riverview, various religious and representatives from Cana Communities.

Fr Brian’s brother, David, shared with the congregation stories of their childhood.

“Brian used to say that the war started when he was born in 1939 and finished with his communion in 1945,” he said.

“He thought the fireworks were for him.”

David recounted Fr Brian’s love of obscure sports and sporting teams, and his preference for the underdog.

His favourite rugby league team, the Melbourne Storm, was recognised with a team jacket placed on his casket, along with family photos, his Bible, a crucifix, an AFL cap, a candle, a card of thanks, a Christmas gift and a packet of his favourite cigarettes.

Described as a “point of comfort, connection and controversy”, Fr Brian was known for his unconventional ways which helped him relate to the society he served.

He was often heard reciting his favourite quote: ‘Do you want to be good or do you want to follow Jesus?’

“Brian Stoney was a great man; he wasn’t a great man because he did great things but because he took part in the little things,” said Paul Stoney, his eldest nephew.

“His message was a gift, to see the greatness in each other and ourselves.”

Fr Brian was committed to social justice and played a key role in the foundation of Cana Communities, a volunteer-based organisation supporting people struggling with loneliness, mental illness, addiction and homelessness.

As the microphone was passed around and memories of Fr Brian were shared, one story summed up his life.

“He treated me like I was an equal and just like everybody else.”


from EUREKA STREET; " The father of my soul: by JOANNA THYER
- On 12 November this year, Brian Stoney, a former Jesuit priest, died in the Sacred Heart Hospice, Darlinghurst. One of the most influential people in my life, Brian was both spiritual guide and close friend. It was a privilege knowing him and being involved in Cana Communities, an inner Sydney non-government organisation that works with street people, the homeless and mentally ill.
A packed house at his funeral service at the famous St Canice's Church in Kings Cross on the Tuesday after his death was testimony to the love inspired by this man among all facets of the community. Brian had an enormous influence on the lives of an extraordinary cross-section of people. It was no coincidence that the large screen image of Brian was draped over the crucifix in the base of the church. His spiritual presence was larger than life.
I first met Brian about 12 or 13 years ago when I was working as a pastoral carer at St Vincent's Hospital. I approached a colleague about a suitable person to have as spiritual director and she recommended Brian. I first went to meet him in Redfern, in what was then De Porres House, a rambling terrace full of odds and sodds of human beings, a colourful assortment of Sydney's characters. At that time Brian was not in the greatest of health but I spotted him straight away as a kindred spirit: a deep thinker and a complex, eccentric human being in possession of an enormous spiritual presence.
Always on for a challenge, one of the first things Brian said to me that day was 'Who's your favourite character in the Bible?' and then 'We need women priests.'
It is no surprise to me that if you do an anagram of Brian's name you get the words 'saint' and 'sinner'. Brian was a complex mix of spirituality, ideas, and held a passion for being present in the full raw spectrum of life, especially where sport and interesting people were concerned.
A good looking man and a charmer with both men and women, to me he always seemed wounded but real, and with an extraordinary capacity to see the truth of who a person really was, in an unconditionally loving and reassuring way. I cannot tell you how many times I went to see him and started making small talk, yet he would always guess what it really was I had come to talk to him about. He understood me better than anyone and always had the right spiritual message for me.

I cannot remember exactly why he chose to become a Jesuit but I know he received 'the call' as a young student. He had taught Latin at St Ignatius Review and was loved by his students. They often speak of his kindness. After he left the Jesuits in the early 90s and lived with street people, he became what I would call the epitome of the 'free range' priest — not really here, not really there, but everywhere.
For many so called saints, maintaining faith can be a struggle. Brian was no different from anyone else in that regard, he struggled; he was a depressive. A number 'four' on the Enneagram like me, he could wallow in self pity, but could come alive when interesting people crossed his path or made him laugh. He was a die hard sports fanatic, and like a true former Melburnian, took his sport very seriously. Following the Melbourne Storm, and the Demons were amongst his passions.
As a younger priest, Brian had briefly worked with Mother Teresa in India. He once told me that she had called out to him one day: 'Pray for me Father, because I'm the worst sinner in the world!' He understood her experience of the silence of God, something that is only just now being spoken about with the publication of her diaries. He espoused the silent promise of being understood, the famous Jesuit Karl Rahner's prayer 'into a silent darkness' where one 'knows that one is heard, although no answer seems to come back'.
He lived with street people in Sydney, not just worked with them, a tall order in anyone's book. He lacked boundaries needless to say. I remember one house colleague, Michael, now deceased, a volatile handful, and like many street or marginalised people and indeed some of the general population, beset with the usual cocktail of alcohol and mental health problems, on the odd occasion used to wander into Brian's bedroom in the early hours of the morning, bludging yet another cigarette.
Brian of course, would sleepily oblige, and sometimes chat to him. Many years previously Brian had worked at Greenvale, a hostel for homeless men in Melbourne. He was definite in his belief in the mysticism of the broken and always said to me: 'The more violent the alcoholic, the greater the hunger for spirituality.'
Of the things I learnt from Brian one of the most important was to embrace the wounded messiness of life, to embrace who I am, and to take all my concerns to the foot of the Cross, not try and fix them. This philosophy of Brian's was borne out in many of his eccentric, challenging and provocative ideas — including classics to the effect of: 'We should scrap all royal commissions and let police take bribes so they can stay in the pubs with ordinary people and be in touch with the realities of life!'
Indeed Brian loathed perfectionism, obsessive political correctness and society's attempts to 'fix' many human problems, or to deny what he always termed the 'primal' essence of human existence. A fan of the lessons of Greek mythology he believed we needed to be reminded of our own human frailty on a regular basis. Human nature may like to pretend it can 'clean itself up', but in fact it never really changes. We are who we are.
Brian was however in denial about some things including self care and I will never forget when I was working at St Vincent's Hospital in Pastoral Care and had to ring and remind him he was on the operation list for a heart bypass the next day. Lying in bed nonchalantly with the eternal cigarette in hand, he casually remarked, 'Oh am I?'
Brian had an enormous effect on anyone I introduced him to. My boyfriend who died recently was tremendously struck by his spiritual presence and gentleness, yet his profound ability to be a bloke, unphased by anything one might tell him. I expect they are both up in heaven exchanging jokes and talking about sport this very minute.
There are many other spiritual gifts I received from Brian, such as becoming enlightened by the spirituality of Karl Rahner, another devotee of the 'mysticism of everyday life.' Indeed Brian saw this mysticism often, especially the wandering mystic in many a disturbed human being — the inner cry to be at one with God; the immense hunger and longing for the God who longs for us too. Like Rahner, he always emphasized the importance of a direct, personal relationship with God, and the incomprehensibility of God, despite what Church or society might say.
For me a great gift from Brian's spiritual guidance was the bearing out of the prophesy of Hosea in the Bible: where the Lord says "But look, I am going to seduce her and lead her into the desert and speak to her heart." Many times Brian helped me see where God was speaking to my heart and how sometimes I needed to go into the desert to hear that message.
Why does anyone need a spiritual director? The value of love is emotional presence, because there Christ is present no matter how messy the situations and relationships we get ourselves into. Brian understood that about me; he understood that about everybody.
Brian was an odd mixture of love and passion, cynicism about the world, yet finding the sense of wonder of God in it still.
Was he the atypical spiritual director — full of calm words of wisdom when my world appeared under threat? Yes but his unconditional love always came from an unexpected place - the broken Christ, not the clean, calm measured icon, but a bloodied broken human being.
I cannot fully describe what Brian has meant to me, but perhaps the description by Teresa of Avila of her spiritual director, St John of the Cross says it all:
'You are the Father of My Soul.'
Thank you Brian for being a part of my life."

I loved this article by Joanna Thyer and related to what she so lovingly and articulately expressed about Brian. I was lucky enough to know Brian from the age of 15/16 in 1974, at Vaucluse College in Richmond. I loved what he saw in people and in particular what he sensed was in their hearts. Though not officially, he was, for me, along with a couple of other Jesuits, also a spiritual leader and we kept contact over the years. We would visit him at Greenvale and interact with the men who lived there. He performed my marriage service in 1981 and we would try to catch up when he visited Melbourne, once he'd moved to Sydney. The last time I saw him was when he was here recuperating,at The Way, in Fitzroy. His death was a great shock and although I attended a memorial sevice in Melbourne, I regret not flying to Sydney for his funeral. Denis Quinn, a former Jesuit friend of Brian, described it as incredibly beautiful and moving, and a deserving tribute.

I'd like to thank you Joanna, for such an insight to a truly wonderful human being. I feel somehow that it has helped me in my grief.

Sincere regards and love

Brenda Kovacevic

From : PROVINCE EXPRESS - by Fr Andrew Hamilton SJ

Living with the poor


On 18 November former Jesuit Brian Stoney was buried from St Canice's Church. The enduring significance of the event was evident in its trappings of transience. The transactions and shouting matches of the Kings Cross streets drifted into the church while a crowded church of people, homeless in many ways, spoke of how for over 40 years in Richmond, Salisbury, Fitzroy, Greenvale and Redfern, Brian had been for them a companion and homemaker.

For Jesuits and for Catholics more generally, Brian Stoney's life was significant also in another way. The 1960s saw a change in culture from Classical to Romantic. In this new climate, Brian Stoney embodied and advocated the priority that the Vatican Council had given to the poor.

By the 1960s, in a Catholic community that had become more affluent, Jesuit engagement with the poor was less direct than it had once been. It was easy for the poor to become the object of analysis, of assistance, of pastoral strategies, of theological reflection. This was consistent with a use of mind that privileged analysis over intuition, detachment over involvement, reflection over experience, the lasting over the transient, and general principles over the demands of particular situations.

The second Vatican Council provided a more concrete image of human needs. It coincided with the Romanticism of the 1960s, which emphasised the claims of experience, of the immediate, of the affective, and of experiment. Together these movements in church and society shaped a powerful spiritual rhetoric whose stories were dramatic, claims unbounded, and promises high. It also provoked a sceptical and often anxious response.

The Council invited Catholic religious congregations to re-examine their way of living and their pastoral priorities. Often their deliberations focused on poverty and on how they should address the poor in their works.

Brian Stoney was naturally at home in the rhetoric of the 1960s. Among his heroes were Robert Kennedy and Sally Trench. In his conversion to the poor through his contact with Matthew Talbot Hostel he recognised that reflection on the plight of the poor must begin in accompaniment, and that the poor were teachers, not topics. He also discovered that accompanying the poor could reveal, and perhaps heal, personal anguish.

As he explored ways of engaging personally with the poor he attracted many young people who instinctively resonated with his vision. They found him a compelling spiritual teacher. But when he represented his vision among Jesuits, he often felt marginalised. He relied on experience and intuition and was constrained by the disciplines of discursive argument. He was passionate but not articulate. He resorted to the rhetoric of gesture and of silence. This often shut down conversation and limited the communication that would have been helpful to both sides. But his presence and the attractiveness of his life ensured that other Jesuits could not evade the claim that the poor made on them.

Both the strength and the dangers of Brian's vision lay in the blurring of boundaries. He challenged and crossed boundaries between subjective and objective, between the reputable and disreputable, between the religious and the secular, between sinfulness and goodness, between the self and the other. If you want to share the lives of people who are marginalised in society, as Brian did, you have no choice but to test these boundaries. It also placed Brian in a position from which he could invite people to go beyond the boundaries that protected their comfort but threatened their happiness.

But people need boundaries if they are to nurture the springs of the self and to protect the health and balance necessary for living. Brian had discovered that if we enter the lives of the poor and marginalised on their own terms we shall discover our own weakness and come to accept it. That demands a strong sense of self. If however we collapse the boundaries between the self and the other, we cease to engage with others as persons. We project our own weaknesses on to them. We find, not healing but enervation and depression, and we neglect the ordinary disciplines that protect others from the consequences of our weakness.

These were the mines in the no man's land where Brian necessarily lived. It is understandable that he showed little care for his health, and felt estranged from many people who cared for him. His leaving the Jesuits was one part of this story. But even in his leaving the boundaries remained blurred, so that strong bonds remained on both sides.

His funeral revealed the depth of connection he had enabled deeply vulnerable and isolated people to make. It spoke of his affectionate and quirky personality. As another age and its spiritual rhetoric again invite us to cross boundaries and live at frontiers, his steadfast life displays the need and the costs of such an enterprise.

312. Arthur Ernest STREETON (1867-1943), artist
Sir Arthur Ernest Streeton (1867-1943), artist
Parents: Charles Henry Streeton, schoolteacher, and his wife Mary, née JOHNSON
Born: 8 April 1867 at Mount Duneed, near Geelong, Victoria,
Education: 1. his father's State schools: Duneed & Queenscliff; 2. night classes at the National Gallery of Victoria School of Design; 3. self-taught as an artist
Occupation: clerk, lithographic apprentice, sketcher, illustrator, Medical Soldier, War artist, Artist, Landscape painter
Christianity: received the Catholic faith in a late illness
Achievement: Sense of the Sacred in Australian Landscape; The 'romantic blue and gold vision of a pastoral Australia.' A Messager of the light as in the 'delicate portrayal of light.
Works: see Streeton Catalogue
Cross: facile repetition,
Marriage: 11 January 1908 Marylebone register office, London, England.
Wife: Esther Leonora Clench, a Canadian violinist
Military service: 1. 24 April 1915 Australian Army Medical Corps 2. Official War Artist from 1918
Death: 1 September 1943 Olinda, Mt Dandenong, Victoria
Burial: Ferntree Gully cemetery

from Australian Dictionary of Biography - ADB Online

Streeton, Sir Arthur Ernest (1867–1943)

by Ann E. Galbally

Sir Arthur Ernest Streeton (1867-1943), artist, was born on 8 April 1867 at Duneed, Victoria, fourth of five children of Charles Henry Streeton, schoolteacher, and his wife Mary, née Johnson, whom Charles had met on his voyage from England in 1854 and married in 1857 on his appointment to Queenscliff. The family moved to Melbourne in 1874 when Charles joined the administrative staff of the Education Department. They settled at Richmond and Arthur attended the Punt Road State School until 1880 when he became a junior clerk in the office of Rolfe & Co., importers, of Bourke Street.

As a child Arthur liked to draw and sketch in water-colour. He enrolled in night classes at the National Gallery of Victoria School of Design in 1882-87 and in 1886 his skill at sketching led to his being apprenticed as a lithographer to Charles Troedel & Co., of Collins Street. Streeton's first independently published black-and-white work, 'His First Snake', appeared in the Australasian Sketcher of 24 January 1889. He had no formal instruction in painting; his earliest extant oils date from 1884 and at this stage he was largely self-taught; he used such manuals as William Morris Hunt's Talks About Art (1877) which urged the emulation of plein air French painters Jean Millet and Camille Corot. Inspired by his reading, Streeton wrote to the compiler of Hunt's book for photographs of Corot's work.

In the summer of 1886 Streeton met Tom Roberts at Mentone. Seeing his work 'full of light and air', Roberts asked him to join a painting group which included Frederick McCubbin and Louis Abrahams. In their company Streeton continued to work on the problems of light and heat and space and distance which had already absorbed him. With the sale of 'Settler's Camp' and 'Pastoral', both exhibited with the Victorian Artists' Society in 1888, he was able to paint full time: for the next two years he worked at Box Hill and Heidelberg with his artist friends who now included Charles Conder, and also in the city where he did portraits and studies of the Yarra River and its bridges. A camp established at an old house at Eaglemont, overlooking the Yarra valley near Heidelberg, became the focus of their artistic fellowship. Streeton and Conder supplemented their income by giving painting lessons to young women; at weekends artists and students visited to paint and picnic beneath the pines.

On 17 August 1889 the Heidelberg painters opened their 9 x 5 (inches) Exhibition of Impressions at Buxton's Art Gallery, Melbourne. The exhibition was a statement of rebellion by young artists, influenced by international trends, against the prevailing academic tradition of Victorian painting. The 182 exhibits included forty by Streeton. Mostly painted on cedar cigar-box lids and hung among silks, they were Impressionist in the direct manner of painting and the study of momentary effects, while retaining the plein-airist tonal use of colour. The catalogue stated: 'An effect is only momentary: so an impressionist tries to find his place … So in these works, it has been the object of the artists to render faithfully, and thus obtain first records of effects widely differing, and often of very fleeting character'. The exhibition won popular success, but provoked critical scorn, expressed most virulently by the influential Argus critic James Smith. Streeton, Roberts and Conder responded in a letter to the Argus, asserting: 'Any form of nature which moves us strongly by its beauty, whether strong or vague in its drawing, defined or undefinite in its light, rare or ordinary in its colour, is worthy of our best efforts'.

The camp broke up in January 1890; three months later Conder left Australia for Paris, taking with him Streeton's 'Golden Summer' (1889) which was exhibited at the Royal Academy of Arts in London in 1891, and hung on the line and awarded an honorable mention at the Salon de la Société des Artistes Français, Paris, in 1892. Streeton, whose 'Still Glides the Stream and Shall for Ever Glide' (1890) had been acquired by the National Art Gallery of New South Wales, moved to Sydney. Julian Ashton saw him then as 'a slim, debonair young man … with a little gold pointed beard and fair complexion', who, when he was not painting, 'was quoting Keats and Shelley'. Streeton lived at 'Curlew Camp', Little Sirius Cove, Mosman, with Roberts and other impecunious artists, and painted a variety of harbour views, Coogee beach scenes, art-nouveau-inspired nudes and in 1893 two urban masterpieces, 'Circular Quay' and 'The Railway Station'. With Roberts he opened a teaching studio in Pitt Street.

In 1891 Streeton wrote to Roberts of his yearning to 'try something entirely new': 'to translate some of the great hidden poetry' of the immense, elemental outback. He travelled inland in New South Wales and painted directly in front of his subject, striving to capture—as he told Roberts—the 'great, gold plains', the 'hot, trying winds' and the 'slow, immense summer'. The paintings of this period, including 'Fire's On' (1891), are heroic landscapes which successfully balance bravura technique with real inspiration and feeling. His Hawkesbury River series (1896) is remarkable for the rendering of light, heat and distance. On the recommendation of John Mather the National Gallery of Victoria bought one, 'The Purple Noon's Transparent Might', shown at Streeton's first one-man Melbourne exhibition in December 1896.

After this success Streeton sailed for England, spending five months painting in Cairo en route. The early years in London were hard; he had few friends and felt none of the intuitive affinity with the English landscape that had inspired his Australian paintings. Homesick and nostalgic for his youth, he seems also to have suffered a time of artistic confusion. There was little interest in his work and little success at the major exhibiting venues, the Royal Academy and the New English Art Club. In 1906-07 he spent a year in Australia and had considerable acclaim with sales of his English and recent Australian work. G. W. Marshall-Hall and (Sir) Walter Baldwin Spencer were early patrons who became friends.

Returning to London, Streeton married Esther Leonora Clench, a Canadian violinist, on 11 January 1908 in the Marylebone register office. Apart from a visit home in 1913-14, he spent the years before World War I based in London whence he sent works for exhibition in Australia. During this period Streeton's art began to win recognition in England, France and at the international exhibitions held in the United States of America. His wife's extensive social contacts helped with commissions and Streeton's formerly rather reclusive personality had to respond to de rigueur 'country-house' weekends.

On 24 April 1915 Streeton enlisted as a private in the Australian Army Medical Corps and was posted to Wandsworth where he worked as an orderly for the next two years. Commissioned honorary lieutenant and appointed official war artist in 1918, he spent two periods in France documenting the Western Front for the Commonwealth government. In contrast to the Middle East paintings of George Lambert, Streeton concentrated on the landscape of war; his paintings show the desolation of the terrain, but none of the tragedy or drama of human suffering. As throughout his career, landscape views rather than figure-painting remained the core of his art. In July 1919 at the Alpine Club, London, he showed a series of war paintings entitled 'With Australians on the Somme'. His best water-colours recall his early work in their immediacy and delicate portrayal of light.

After the war Streeton and his family visited Australia. In 1922 they returned to London, via St Mary's, Ontario, Canada, where Nora Streeton's mother lived. Streeton's paintings of Canada were exhibited at the Montross Gallery, New York, in January 1923, but they aroused little interest in spite of a warm press reception. That year he returned to Victoria where he bought a home at Toorak and built a cottage at Olinda in the Dandenong Ranges. He made painting trips to many Australian sites and in 1928 was awarded the Wynne prize for landscape for 'Afternoon Light: the Goulburn Valley'.

In his later years Streeton became a national institution. He continued to paint sunny, pastoral landscapes, but many were mannered, fluent and facile, and devoid of the inspiration of his radical early work. Leading critics, particularly J. S. MacDonald and Lionel Lindsay, extolled his art which—with that of Roberts and McCubbin—was to some extent appropriated by the art establishment in the cause of a conservative, isolationist nationalism. Most responded to the optimism of Streeton's romantic blue and gold vision of a pastoral Australia. William Blamire Young was one of the few to contrast unfavourably Streeton's later canvases with the small 'gem-like' pictures of his early years. Reviewing a retrospective exhibition in 1933, he wrote that 'in many cases the poet has been over-powered by the technician'. As art critic for the Argus from 1929, Streeton himself became a tastemaker; although an early supporter of Hans Heysen and Norman Lindsay, he was not receptive to modern art. He frequently wrote in the press on art, the environment and public affairs. At the same time he embellished and consolidated the Streeton legend, writing his interpretation of the history of Australian painting, organizing his own numerous exhibitions and producing the Arthur Streeton Catalogue (1935). In 1937 he was knighted.

After his wife's death in 1938, Streeton retired to Olinda and devoted much of his time to his garden. He died there on 1 September 1943, having been received into the Catholic faith during his last long illness, and was buried in Ferntree Gully cemetery. His son survived him.

Widely read in English literature and poetry, Streeton was a Romantic. His love of music formed a great bond with his wife. Artistically he always preferred the tonal landscapes of the French plein air movement of the 1870s and late-Victorian Romantic landscapists like Alfred East. In the twentieth century he showed little interest in avant-garde art, believing to the end in the values of sound drawing and tonally orchestrated colour. He was of medium height and slightly built. Roberts's portrait, 'Smike Streeton, age 24' (1891), shows a fine-featured profile, wide, expressive, dark eyes, brown hair, a gold-tinged moustache and beard, and an eager, boyish expression. It is in the Art Gallery of New South Wales, as is a self-portrait, presented in 1924.

Select Bibliography
Smike to Bulldog—Letters from Sir Arthur Streeton to Tom Roberts, R. H. Croll ed (Syd, 1946)
B. Smith, Australian Painting 1788-1960 (Melb, 1962)
A. Galbally, Arthur Streeton (Melb, 1979)
G. Serle, From Deserts the Prophets Come (Melb, 1973)
Art in Australia, no 2, 1915, no 16, 1926
Meanjin Quarterly, 10, no 2, 1951
Streeton papers (Australian War Memorial)
Roberts papers (State Library of New South Wales).

312+. = Carl STREHLOW NT & Mrs Frieda STREHLOW NT = & T. G. H. ‘Ted’ STREHLOW NT

313. Reverend Father Anton 'Anthony' STRELE - born Austria. Rector, Jesuit Missionary, Roman Catholic Priest. Sevenhill & St Aloysius, Clare valley, South Australia & Daly River, Northern Territory

=Very Rev, Anton STRELE SJ. NT

Father Anton 'Anthony' STRELE was born in about 1825 at Nassereit, in the Tyrol District of the Östereich, (Austrian Empire). At age 57 after 15 years in Australia, Father Strele swore the Oath of his Aliens Memorial for Naturalisation when he was Rector at St Aloysius College, Seven Hill, Clare, South Australia on the 28th April 1882. Later he was the Jesuit Roman Catholic Missionary and Priest, at Rapid Creek, Northern Territory.

From Australian Dictionary of Biography - ADB Online : -

Strele, Anton (1825–1897)

by G. J. O'Kelly

Anton Strele (1825-1897), Jesuit priest, was born on 23 August 1825 at Nassereith, Austria. Educated at the Jesuit Gymnasium, Innsbruck, he entered the Society of Jesus at Gratz on 14 August 1845 and took his first vows in 1849. He completed his studies in France and was ordained priest at Laval on 23 September 1854. He was then appointed to the Jesuit colleges at Mariastein, Linz, and in 1859 to the College of Nobles at Kalksburg. He volunteered for the Austrian Jesuit mission in South Australia and sailed from London in April 1867. He reached Sevenhill on 22 December.

In March 1868 Strele was appointed the first Jesuit master of novices in Australia, an office he held intermittently until 1882. As superior of the mission in 1870-73 he supervised the expansion of Jesuit work in Adelaide and Sevenhill, the building of a separate residence at Georgetown and the establishment of a Polish settlement at Hill River. In 1873-80 he was rector of St Aloysius College, Sevenhill, lectured in philosophy and also undertook pastoral work around Clare, Farrell Flat and Manoora, where he built the church and presbytery. As superior again in 1880-82 he negotiated the transfer of some Jesuit parishes to local diocesan control and made arrangements to found the Northern Territory mission. To launch the mission he toured South Australia and Victoria seeking funds. With rare foresight he began to study Aboriginal lore.

On 2 October 1882 Strele and three confrères opened the first station at Rapid Creek near Palmerston (Darwin). He founded a second on the Daly River in 1886, and a third at Serpentine Lagoon in 1889. The mission was always short of money and in 1887-89 he toured the United States of America and Europe to raise funds. When Salvado resigned his nominal office of bishop of Port Victoria and Palmerston, Strele was appointed administrator apostolic of the diocese on 1 August 1888. He resisted the promotion in vain and moved to Palmerston where he tended the white Catholic population; he secured sites for churches and schools there as well as in Pine Creek, Burrundie and the new settlement. He remained superior to the three mission stations until 6 February 1891. The rigours of the life and his responsibilities told on Strele and he was forced to return south in October 1892, broken in health. He died at St Aloysius College on 15 December 1897, and was buried in the crypt of the church. His estate was sworn for probate at £90.

The breadth of vision of the Jesuit Aboriginal mission was due to Strele's painstaking efforts to accommodate as much of the findings of the early writers on Aboriginal anthropology as he could. Needing finance and deeply committed to the success of the mission, he often refused to admit failures that were obvious and maintained agricultural ventures that were patently not viable.

Select Bibliography
P. F. Moran, History of the Catholic Church in Australasia (Syd, 1895)
Our Australian Missions (Melb, 1899)
E. Bülow, Hundert Lebensbilder aus der Osterreichisch-Ungarischen Provinz der Gesellschaft Jesu (Vienna, 1902)
Society of Jesus, Centenary in Australia (Norwood, 1948)
G. J. O'Kelly, The Jesuit Mission Stations in the Northern Territory, 1882-1899 (B.A. Hons thesis, Monash University, 1967)
Austro-Hungarian Mission in NT, records (Jesuit Provincial Archives, Hawthorn, Melbourne).

314. Sir Alexander STUART, Anglican Premier of NSW 1885

315. =John McDouall STUART, SA , NT

316. Charles STURT

317. =Alphonse TACHON, Beagle Bay, WA

318. =George TAPLIN, missionary & anthropologist NSW & . =Martha TAPLIN NSW

319. =Christian G TEICHELMANN, Torrens River SA

319+. Soo Hoo 'George' TEN
Soo Hoo 'George' TEN

Birth: 1848 Hoiping, Kwangtung (Guangdong), China
Cultural Influence: Chinese
Occupation: Anglican deacon, Anglican lay leader, Anglican minister, tea merchant
Religious Influence: Anglican, Baptist
Death: 24 September 1934 Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

From: Australian Dictionary of Biography ADB Online -

Ten, George Soo Hoo (1848–1934)

by Ruth Teale

George Soo Hoo Ten (1848-1934
), Anglican missionary to the Chinese, left his birthplace Hoiping, Kwangtung, China, aged about 17, for San Francisco where he learned English and was converted to Christianity by a Baptist minister. In 1876 he was a tea merchant in Sydney, and in July 1879 first went among the market gardeners of Botany and Waterloo as a catechist sponsored by the Sydney Diocesan Corresponding Committee of the Australasian Board of Missions.

Despite ridicule and open opposition from many Chinese, especially gamblers and opium dealers, and bitter anti-Chinese feeling among some Europeans, Ten began Sunday afternoon services at Botany and the St Andrew's Cathedral schoolroom, as well as week-night classes in English. His first six converts were baptized in June 1882. In February 1884 he preached to the Chinese at Bathurst, and later in Sydney formed 'a Chinese YMCA' which met monthly 'for fellowship and special instruction'. In January 1885 his annual stipend was increased from £75 to £125 with house rent. On 20 December he was made deacon and licensed as 'missionary to the Chinese and to officiate at Christ Church, Botany', whose foundation stone had been laid in June.

Ten conducted missions in Brisbane in October 1887, in Melbourne in July 1888 and in Parramatta in May 1891. In February 1889 his stipend was doubled and by 1890 he was conducting 38 services a week at Botany, Waterloo, Cook's River, Canterbury, North Willoughby and at St Andrew's and St Philip's schoolrooms in the city, as well as training Chinese catechists. After 1894 he helped raise funds for land, a church and mission hall in Wexford Street, an area that was a centre of prostitution and gambling in Sydney; and in March 1898 St Luke's Church was opened there. On 24 June he was priested, his annual salary rose to £300 and he confined his ministry to the inner city; at the same time control of the mission passed to the New South Wales Church Missionary Association. By 1912 he appears to have retired to Homebush. On 24 September 1934, aged 86, he died of cancer in the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, survived by a daughter and predeceased by his wife Elizabeth, née Lett, a dressmaker, whom he had married in Sydney on 25 April 1889. His estate was valued for probate at £4882.

Select Bibliography
* Australasian Missionary News, Jan 1889
* Church Missionary Assn of New South Wales, Annual Report, 1903-04, 1912, and Diocese of Sydney, Official register, and Diocesan Corresponding Committee, * Australasian Board of Missions, Votes and Proceedings, Synod (Sydney Diocesan Registry).

320. =Watkin TENCH NSW

321. =Fr John Joseph THERRY, convict catholic priest NSW

322. Mesac THOMAS, 1st Anglican Bishop of Goulburn and Vicar to the Goldfields & Bishop Pilgrim through outback New South Wales
Born 1816 Typorth near Aberystwyth, Cardiganshire, Wales -
died 1892 Goulburn near where he is
Buried in the St Saviour's cathedral grounds, Goulburn, NSW)

From: Australian Dictionary of Biography - ADB Obline -

Thomas, Mesac (1816–1892)

by Barbara Thorn

Mesac Thomas (1816-1892), Anglican bishop, was born on 10 May 1816 at Typorth near Aberystwyth, Cardiganshire, Wales, son of John Thomas and his wife Elizabeth, née Williams. Educated at Oswestry Grammar School and Shrewsbury School, in 1836 he matriculated at St John's College and next year moved to Trinity College, Cambridge (B.A., 1840; M.A., 1843; D.D., 1863). In 1839 he became founding secretary of the Cambridge Camden Society (Ecclesiological Society, 1841) and retained a lifelong interest in church buildings. Made deacon in 1840 he was ordained priest on 25 July 1841 by the bishop of Worcester; in 1840-43 he served as curate at Birmingham and was incumbent at Tuddenham St Martin, Suffolk, in 1843-46. He married Mary Campbell Hasluck at Aston near Birmingham on 7 November 1843. He was vicar of Attleborough, Warwickshire, until 1851 when he became clerical organizing secretary of the Colonial Church and School Society; he extended and consolidated the work of the society as he gained insight into missionary life. Living at Islington, London, he inaugurated weekly services for cab drivers at their local depot.

On 14 March 1863 Thomas was appointed first bishop of Goulburn, New South Wales. His nomination had been opposed by Charles Campbell and Rev. Ernest Hawkins, of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, because of his Evangelical churchmanship, but Bishop Barker recognized that he had qualities of leadership and supported him; he was consecrated in Canterbury Cathedral on 25 March. Neither Thomas nor Campbell allowed this clash to colour their future relations and Campbell became his trusted chancellor and friend.

Thomas and his wife arrived in Sydney in the Bombay on 13 March 1864 and at Goulburn on 8 April. With an energy that concealed his despondency, he set about the task of building up an insufficiently endowed diocese in a sparsely populated district. As he increased the number of his clergy he provided spiritual comfort for isolated settlers and many diggers on the Araluen and Lambing Flat goldfields; finding this a missionary task beyond the resources of his diocese, he turned to the S.P.G., the Colonial and Continental Church Society and the Colonial Bishoprics' Fund, stressing that the needs of their own countrymen were greater than those of the heathen. In 1874-75 he visited England seeking further financial support.

With the formation of the Goulburn Church Society in 1864, Thomas introduced the principle of the interdependence of parish and diocese; thus he ensured that all his clergy received adequate stipends and that local building efforts were assisted from diocesan funds. By far-flung visitations and through his extensive correspondence, he made personal contact with his clergy and laity and guided his vast diocese. In some ways Thomas was aloof, the 'Lord Bishop', conscious of his position and dignity; he was authoritarian, setting high standards for his clergy, but he was also humane and tender, though these qualities were often concealed under his brusque manner. He developed a passionate loyalty to his diocese and learnt to love his strange adopted land.

The establishment of the diocesan synod in February 1867 extended the co-operation of the clergy and laity in Church management. Thomas insisted that legislation was necessary to validate synods and that they were the effective organs of Church government; his stance led to clashes with more liberal churchmen, particularly in the discussions about the formation of the Provincial Synod of New South Wales and the General Synod. In later years he questioned the usefulness of synods which he then saw as an interruption rather than a contribution to Church administration.

Thomas's responsibility increased with the growth of population and closer settlement in the western part of his see. The strain was eased by the formation of the diocese of the Riverina in 1884. In 1880 he supported John Gribble in establishing an Aboriginal mission at Warangesda on the Murrumbidgee River. For ten years he had spent much time and energy on raising funds to build the new St Saviour's Cathedral at Goulburn; designed by Edmund Blacket it was dedicated on 29 April 1884. His later years were saddened by disputes between himself, F. R. L. Rossi and Archdeacon A. T. Puddicombe about the trusteeship of the cathedral and its place as a parish church. The clash of personalities divided the Church of England in Goulburn, with the authority of the bishop questioned and the influence of the Church lessened. For Thomas there could be no compromise and the dispute dragged on with court cases.

Wracked by bouts of serious illness, Thomas lost control and the diocese foundered. He died of heart disease on 15 March 1892 and was buried in the cathedral grounds, survived by his wife to whom he left an estate valued for probate at £8226.

Select Bibliography
* B. Thorn (ed), Letters from Goulburn (Canb, 1964)
* Henry Parkes letters (State Library of New South Wales)
* M. Thomas letter-book, 1865-90 (St Mark's Library, Canberra)
* Diocese of Goulburn, Church Society reports, 1864-92, and
* Synod reports, 1866-92 (St Mark's Library, Canberra).

323. = "MARMINATA" William THOMAS, (1793-1867) Assistant Protector of Aborigines, Westernport, Narre Narre Warren, Upper Goulburn, Gipplsand & Melbourne.


Death: 1 December 1867 at his home, Merri Ville Lodge, Brunswick.


FROM : Australian Dictionary of Biography - ADB ONLINE

Thomas, William (1793–1867)

by D. J. Mulvaney

William Thomas (1793-1867), assistant protector and guardian of Aboriginals, was born in Westminster, England, of Welsh parents. His father and brother were army officers. His education was rounded off by a year on the Continent, mainly in Spain, but details of his upbringing are obscure. He opened a school in the Old Kent Road, London, for teaching potential civil servants. In this capacity, and possibly also because of his Wesleyan beliefs, he met members of the post-Reform Act government.

The humanitarian recommendations of the 1837 select committee on Aboriginals resulted in Glenelg's decision to appoint a chief protector and four assistants for the Aboriginals of the Port Phillip District. He offered an assistantship to Thomas at a salary of £250, with a free passage for his wife Susannah, née Jackson, and family. His acceptance of this task at the age of 44 reflects his dedication and zeal. However, he stipulated that his appointment should rank him as a permanent servant of the British and not of a colonial government.

The family reached Sydney on 3 August 1838 and arrived in Melbourne later that year. The chief protector, George Augustus Robinson, allocated the Port Phillip, Westernport and Gippsland districts to Thomas, who entered the field during April 1839 and soon established his base at Narre Warren. Years of privation followed during which Thomas moved with Aboriginal groups, rarely seeing his family, whose own housing was also primitive.

His early expectations of a rapid enlightenment of the natives were soon dispelled but, unlike most other protectors, he persisted. When hopes of civilizing the Aboriginals faded, he concentrated on the practical tasks of keeping them alive, shepherding them away from the temptations of city life and maintaining harmony between black and white. His task was hindered by Robinson who failed to support him in many disputes with settlers, bombarded him with excessive paper work, and was dilatory in getting him a field allowance. As he was housed in a tent and moved around with the Aboriginals, it is little wonder that some of his replies to Robinson were terse. Despite difficulties Thomas kept a detailed diary and made various notes for a projected book which never eventuated partly because he lost many of his notes around 1844. He wrote long memoranda on Aboriginal society for Robinson, Lieutenant-Governor Charles La Trobe and Judge (Sir) Redmond Barry; his data and ethnographic collections were basic sources for Robert Brough Smyth's Aborigines of Victoria, 1-2 (London, 1878).

The protectorate was terminated in 1849, but La Trobe retained Thomas as guardian in the Counties of Bourke, Mornington and Evelyn from January 1850. His presence ensured some protection during the next decade, although expenditure was minimal. Until his death he was chief government adviser on Aboriginal affairs and was the most influential witness at the 1858-59 select committee of the Legislative Council on Aborigines. His recommendation to establish reserves and supply depots throughout Victoria was accepted in a modified form and in 1860 became the policy implemented by the new Central Board for the Protection of Aborigines. Thomas was designated the official visitor to supervise the work of all stations and depots but after a tour of Gippsland in 1860 his health failed. Later he acted as adviser and as a justice of the peace on suburban benches. Failing eyesight caused his retirement from active duties two months before his death on 1 December 1867 at his home, Merri Ville Lodge, Brunswick. He was survived by three of his nine children.

With no gifts of leadership or strong personality, Thomas was overshadowed by Robinson in the 1840s. His anthropological knowledge was gained through experience, and his understanding of tribal complexity and spiritual bonds was thereby limited. However, he was more successful than any other first generation settler in attempting to comprehend and sustain Aboriginal society. His charges knew him as Marminata (Good Father), and he always administered indirectly through influence on their leaders. He had striking success in settling intertribal disputes and preventing racial strife. His bravery and moral conviction were undoubted, but his advocacy of Aboriginal causes made him unpopular in colonial society. Richard Howitt, who befriended him in 1842, commented upon the 'almost childlike simplicity of manners and … his goodness of heart'.

Select Bibliography
* T. F. Bride (ed), Letters from Victorian Pioneers (Melb, 1898)
* E. J. B. Foxcroft, Australian Native Policy: Its History, Especially in Victoria (Melb, 1941)
* William Thomas papers (State Library of New South Wales and State Library of Victoria).

323. = Dr. Alexander THOMSON - Aberdeen to Van Diemen's Lands, Melbourne, Geelong VIC VIC

Born: 1800 Aberdeenshire, Scotland
Died: 1 January 1866 Geelong, Victoria
Occupation: Cathechist for The Dutigalla Asscoiation;
Organised the first Christian Worship Service in Port Phillip District
Presbyterian Pioneer;
Mayor of Geelong.

Australian Dictionary of Biography - ADB Online


a pioneer of Melbourne and Geelong,

by Geoffrey SERLE

...son of Alexander Thomson, a shipowner of Aberdeen, Scotland, was born in 1800. He was educated at Dr Todd's school at Tichfield, Aberdeen university, and at London, where he studied under Sir Everard Home and qualified for the medical profession. In March 1824 he married Barbara Dalrymple, and in 1825 sailed to Tasmania as a surgeon on a convict ship, the first of several voyages made by him. He was then in comfortable circumstances having been left a sum of £9500 by his mother. In 1831 he decided to settle in Tasmania, and bringing with him his wife and daughter, obtained a grant of 4000 acres of land. In 1832 he bought two small steamers and established a service between Hobart and Kangaroo Point. He, however, sold both vessels during the next two years. He became interested in the colonization of Port Phillip, but did not join the Port Phillip Association, though invited to do so, and in November 1835 he sent across the first cattle to arrive in the new settlement, a draft of 50 Hereford cows. In March 1836 Thomson arrived with his wife and daughter. He came over as medical officer and catechist for the Port Phillip Association, and built a house near the corner of Flinders and Elizabeth-streets, Melbourne. In May he acted as one of three arbitrators in connexion with disputes between Henry Batman and Fawkner (q.v.), and before his house was completed he was in the habit of holding a service on Sunday in his tent. He was secretary to the first public meeting held in Melbourne, on 1 June, and in October Lonsdale (q.v.) appointed him medical officer at a salary of £200 a year. He resigned this position in January 1837, and having selected land on the present site of Geelong, settled there. He did some exploring, acquired more land in several localities, and in 1846 held about 150,000 acres. He was a director of the Port Phillip bank, which was a failure, and the Port Phillip Steam Navigation Company, and he was the first to make cash advances on wool. He was foremost in every movement connected with Geelong from the removal of the bar at the mouth of the harbour to the founding of a mechanics' institute. He also took much interest in church affairs and in the well-being of the aborigines. In these matters he gave not only time, he also spent considerable sums of money. The town was incorporated in 1849, then having 8000 inhabitants, and, as was fitting, Thomson was elected its first mayor. He field this position again in 1851, 1855, 1856 and 1857. He had been elected a member of the New South Wales legislative council as one of the representatives of the Port Phillip district in 1843, but as it was impossible to attend the meetings at Sydney, soon resigned. He was active in the anti-transportation movement, in 1852 was elected a member of the Victorian legislative council, and brought in and passed a bill incorporating the "Geelong and Melbourne Railway Company". Thomson presided at the first meeting of shareholders and was one of the directors. The line was completed in 1857. In the meanwhile Thomson had resigned his seat in the council and visited England where he found he could get no information about the Australian colonies bills. There had been a change of ministers and Lord John Russell, now in charge of the colonial office, had gone to Vienna. Thomson followed him there, obtained an interview, and got a promise that there would be a separate constitution bill for the colony of Victoria. In May 1855 Lord John Russell sent him a copy of the bill which soon afterwards became law. In 1857 Thomson was elected member for Geelong in the Victorian legislative assembly but retired in April 1859. His many activities had led to the neglect of his own financial affairs, and towards the end of his life he accepted the position of medical officer to the Sunbury boys' home. He died at Geelong on 1 January 1866. His wife survived him with a daughter.

R. H. Croll and R. R. Wettenhall, Dr Alexander Thomson; The Argus, Melbourne, 3 January 1866; R. D. Boys, First Years at Port Phillip; H. G. Turner, A History of the Colony of Victoria.


Dr. Alexander Thomson (c. 1800 - 1 January 1866) was elected as the first mayor of Geelong and held the position on five occasions from 1850 - 1858. Thomson was the first settler in the area known as Belmont, a suburb of Geelong and called his homestead Kardinia, a property now listed on the Register of the National Estate.

Early life

Thomson was the son of Alexander Thomson, a shipowner of Aberdeen, Scotland. He was educated at Dr Todd's school at Tichfield, Aberdeen University, and at London, where he studied under Sir Everard Home and qualified for the medical profession. In March 1824 he married Barbara Dalrymple.

Emigration to Colonial Australia

In 1825 Thomson sailed to Tasmania (then Van Diemen's Land) as a surgeon on a convict ship, the first of several voyages made by him. He was then in comfortable circumstances having been left a sum of £9500 by his mother. In 1831 he decided to settle in Tasmania, and bringing with him his wife and daughter, obtained a grant of 4000 acres (16 km²) of land.
In 1832 he bought two small steamers and established a service between Hobart and Kangaroo Point. He, however, sold both vessels during the next two years. He became interested in the colonization of Port Phillip, but did not join the Port Phillip Association, though invited to do so, and in November 1835 he sent across the first cattle to arrive in the new settlement, a draft of 50 Hereford cows. In March 1836 Thomson arrived with his wife and daughter. He came over as medical officer and catechist for the Port Phillip Association, and built a house near the corner of Flinders and Elizabeth streets, Melbourne. In May he acted as one of three arbitrators in connexion with disputes between Henry Batman and John Pascoe Fawkner, and before his house was completed he was in the habit of holding a service on Sunday in his tent. He was secretary to the first public meeting held in Melbourne, on 1 June, and in October William Lonsdale appointed him medical officer at a salary of £200 a year. He resigned this position in January 1837.


Having selected land on the present site of Geelong, Thomson settled there. He did some exploring, acquired more land in several localities, and in 1846 held about 150,000 acres (600 km²). He was a director of the Port Phillip bank, which was a failure, and the Port Phillip Steam Navigation Company, and he was the first to make cash advances on wool. He was foremost in every movement connected with Geelong from the removal of the bar at the mouth of the harbour to the founding of a mechanics' institute. He also took much interest in church affairs and in the well-being of the aborigines. In these matters he gave not only time, he also spent considerable sums of money.
The town was incorporated in 1849, then having 8000 inhabitants, and, as was fitting, Thomson was elected its first mayor. He field this position again in 1851, 1855, 1856 and 1857. He had been elected a member of the New South Wales Legislative Council as one of the representatives of the Port Phillip district in 1843, but as it was impossible to attend the meetings at Sydney, soon resigned. He was active in the anti-transportation movement, in 1852 was elected a member of the Victorian Legislative Council, and brought in and passed a bill incorporating the "Geelong and Melbourne Railway Company". Thomson presided at the first meeting of shareholders and was one of the directors. The line was completed in 1857. In the meanwhile Thomson had resigned his seat in the council and visited England where he found he could get no information about the Australian colonies bills. There had been a change of ministers and Lord John Russell, now in charge of the colonial office, had gone to Vienna. Thomson followed him there, obtained an interview, and got a promise that there would be a separate constitution bill for the colony of Victoria. In May 1855 Lord John Russell sent him a copy of the bill which soon afterwards became law.
In 1857 Thomson was elected member for Geelong in the Victorian legislative assembly but retired in April 1859. His many activities had led to the neglect of his own financial affairs, and towards the end of his life he accepted the position of medical officer to the Sunbury boys' home. He died at Geelong on 1 January 1866 and was buried in the old Geelong cemetery. His wife and a daughter survived him.
The suburb of Thomson was named after Dr. Thomson. A parish of the Uniting Church of Australia and the Alexander Thomson Cricket Club, competing in the Geelong Cricket Association, was also named after him.

Serle, Percival (1949). "Thomson, Alexander". Dictionary of Australian Biography. Sydney: Angus and Robertson.
Lyndsay Gardiner, 'Thomson, Alexander (1800 - 1866)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 2, MUP, 1967, pp 522-523.
Additional resources listed by the Australian Dictionary of Biography:
Garryowen (E. Finn), The Chronicles of Early Melbourne, vols 1-2 (Melb, 1888)
T. F. Bride (ed), Letters from Victorian Pioneers (Melb, 1898)
H. G. Turner, A History of the Colony of Victoria, vols 1-2 (Lond, 1904)
R. H. Croll and R. R. Wettenhall, Dr. Alexander Thomson: A Pioneer of Melbourne and Founder of Geelong (Melb, 1937)
A. D. Gilchrist (ed), John Dunmore Lang, vols 1-2 (Melb, 1951)
P. L. Brown (ed), Clyde Company Papers, vols 2-5 (Lond, 1952-63)

323+. Donald Finlay Fergusson THOMSON (1901-1970)
Donald Finlay Fergusson THOMSON (1901-1970) Presbyterian Christian, Cross-Cultural Professional, Field Anthropologist, Master Ethnographer, Champion of the Dignity of Aboriginal People of Arnhem Land. Explorer of the Tanami Desert & Great Sandy Desert. First European to contact the Bindubi People. Journalist, Writer. Medical Scientist. Academic at Melbourne University. Prophet of justice for the Aborigines.
Born: 26 June 1901 Brighton, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Cultural Heritage: English & Scottish
Religious Influence: Presbyterian Christian
Occupation: academic, air force officer, anthropologist, Indigenous rights activist /supporter, zoologist
Died: 12 May 1970 Eltham, Victoria, Australia

Professor Donald Thomson c.1946

From ADB Online- Australian Dictionary of Biography

Thomson, Donald Finlay Fergusson (1901–1970)

by Howard Morphy

Donald Finlay Fergusson Thomson (1901-1970), anthropologist and zoologist, was born on 26 June 1901 at Brighton, Melbourne, second child of Harry Alexander Fergusson Thomson, a Scottish-born musician, and his wife Isabelle Alice, née Davies, who came from England. Donald had a childhood passion for natural history and went on forays to collect birds' eggs. Inspired by Sir Robert Scott, he dreamed of joining polar expeditions. The 'born adventurer' initially proceeded from Scotch College to the University of Melbourne (B.Sc., 1925; D.Sc., 1934). While there, he asked Sir Baldwin Spencer to obtain him a place on (Sir) Hubert Wilkins's expedition to northern Australia. Persuaded to complete his degree first, he prepared himself for future field-work by learning photography. After graduating he was employed as a journalist on the Herald.

On 30 December 1925, in the memorial hall of his old school, Thomson married with Presbyterian forms Gladys Winifred Coleman; they were to have two sons. In 1927 he studied at the University of Sydney for a diploma in anthropology (1928). His teacher, Alfred Radcliffe-Brown, supported his application to the Australian National Research Council for funds to conduct anthropological and zoological field-work on Cape York Peninsula, Queensland.

Granted £600 by the A.N.R.C., Thomson set out in April 1928. He covered thousands of miles on horseback, took many glass-plate negatives and collected zoological specimens and ethnographic objects. In January 1929 he returned to Melbourne. The A.N.R.C. awarded him a grant for a second expedition, but he became involved in a dispute with its treasurer Henry Chapman who refused to provide the funds until he handed over material he had previously gathered. Thomson surrendered his grant. Accompanied by his wife, he left for Queensland, determined to support himself by journalism. Chapman, who falsely insinuated dishonesty on Thomson's part, was later found to have embezzled council money. The episode made Thomson deeply suspicious of the A.N.R.C. and may have turned Sydney's academic establishment against him.

By the end of his first period of field-work he had lost the support of Radcliffe-Brown who felt that Thomson, despite his scientific background, was 'not whole-heartedly a scientist'. The judgement reflected Radcliffe-Brown's narrow, structural-functionalist conception of anthropology. Thomson had a broader view of the discipline, an interest in art and material culture, and scant concern for new developments in social theory.

Back in Melbourne in late 1929, Thomson joined the staff of the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Research in Pathology and Medicine and worked on antivenenes. In 1932 he became a research fellow in the department of anatomy, University of Melbourne, which financed his last expedition (1932-33) to Cape York Peninsula. The publications resulting from his field-work included Birds of Cape York Peninsula (1935). He was to be attached to the university for most of the remainder of his career, as a research fellow (1932-37 and 1945-53), senior research fellow (1953-64) and professor of anthropology (1964-68).

Thomson supported Aboriginal rights. Appalled by conditions on William MacKenzie's Presbyterian mission at Aurukun, Queensland, he offered to address Church leaders behind closed doors, but they refused him a hearing. This experience may have coloured his attitude to missionaries in general. In 1932-33 Aborigines killed five Japanese and three Europeans near Caledon Bay and Blue Mud Bay, Northern Territory. The news led to talk of a punitive expedition. Thomson volunteered to investigate the conditions and concerns of the Aboriginal people, and to make policy recommendations. He received considerable support in Melbourne from academics and the press, particularly the Herald. His proposal was eventually accepted. In March 1935 he left for eastern Arnhem Land as a representative of the Commonwealth government.

Apart from a break in January-June 1936, Thomson remained in Arnhem Land until September 1937, acting as an investigator, an advocate and a mediator. He facilitated the establishment of peaceful relations between the Yolngu people and the Commonwealth government, and befriended Wonggu, leader of the Djapu clan from the Caledon Bay region. Thomson organized the release of Mau, Natjelma and Narkaya, three of Wonggu's sons who had been imprisoned in Darwin for the killing of the Japanese, and personally returned them to their homeland in 1936. He sought to protect the integrity and inviolability of the Arnhem Land reserve by excluding non-Aboriginal people, and he recommended that European administrators should have a detailed understanding of the laws and practices of Aboriginal society.

In early 1938 Thomson sailed for England to take up a Rockefeller Foundation fellowship at Christ's College, Cambridge (Ph.D., 1950). His research was supervised by A. C. Haddon, one of the founders of evolutionary anthropology. Although there was never a trace of evolutionism in Thomson's writings, his association with Haddon may have further distanced him from the Radcliffe-Brown school. The Royal Anthropological Society of Great Britain and Ireland awarded him the Wellcome medal (1939) for his pioneering work in applied anthropology.

Thomson returned to Australia when World War II began. On 8 January 1940 he was commissioned flying officer, Royal Australian Air Force. Attached to No.11 Squadron, Port Moresby, as an intelligence officer, he helped to establish the coastwatching system in the Solomon Islands. By April 1941 he was serving at Air Force Headquarters, Melbourne. Seconded to the Australian Military Forces in June, he was sent to the Northern Territory to raise and command the 7th Military District's Special Reconnaissance Unit. In 1942-43 Squadron Leader Thomson and his men, most of them Aborigines, patrolled the coast of Arnhem Land and trained to fight as guerrillas in the event of a Japanese invasion. He left the unit in mid-1943. As a temporary wing commander, he had charge of two expeditions which explored the south-eastern part of Japanese-occupied Netherlands New Guinea. Natives attacked his party during the second journey and he was severely wounded. For his leadership of these operations he was appointed O.B.E. (1945). His R.A.A.F. appointment was terminated on medical grounds on 13 October 1944.

After the war Thomson was offered a lectureship at Cambridge, but he remained in Melbourne where he published his major work, Economic Structure and the Ceremonial Exchange Cycle in Arnhem Land (1949). He won the patron's medal of the Royal Geographical Society, London, in 1951 and the Rivers memorial medal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland in 1952. It was, however, a difficult time for him. In 1944 he had been diagnosed as suffering from diabetes, and his health never fully recovered from the hardships of his field-work and war service. His long absences from home strained his marriage; he and Gladys were to be divorced in 1954. A fire in 1946 at premises controlled by the Department of Information destroyed the 20,000 ft (6096 m) of film he had shot in Arnhem Land. He regarded those films as perhaps the best record he had made of Aboriginal life.

In 1946-47 Thomson published a series of articles in the Herald on justice for the Aborigines. The articles brought into the open his underlying disagreement with Professor Adolphus Elkin, who had greater sympathy with the policy of assimilation. Thomson campaigned vigorously in 1947 against the establishment of a rocket range at Woomera, South Australia, because of the threat it posed to desert-dwelling Aborigines. Again, he was opposed by Elkin. Serving on the Victorian Aborigines Welfare Board from 1957, Thomson found that little notice was taken of his advice. He resigned in frustration in 1967.

At the Presbyterian Church, Warragul, on 7 May 1955 Thomson had married Dorita Maria McColl, a 25-year-old technical assistant. Between 1957 and 1965 he mounted three expeditions to study the Pintupi people of the Gibson and Great Sandy deserts. In this research he concentrated on the Aborigines' hunting and gathering practices; the results were less significant than his earlier work on Cape York Peninsula and in Arnhem Land. Bindibu Country (1975) provided an account of two of his trips. Thomson became increasingly removed from academic life and from mainstream developments in anthropology. A number of circumstances contributed to his isolation: the fact that he was the only anthropologist at the University of Melbourne, Elkin's constant and tiring opposition to his work and to the policies he advocated, and his tendency to work best alone.

On Thomson's retirement from the university in 1968, members of the professorial board praised him as 'a man of action and a distinguished scholar'. They thought that his work for Aborigines and his controversial personality merited his being described as 'Australia's Lawrence of Arabia'. Yet in many respects his life was tragic. He failed to gain the recognition as a scientist that he felt he deserved, and he failed to alter government policy towards Aboriginal people. Ironically, near the end of his life, events seemed to be catching up with him. Anthropologists were shifting towards the kinds of research that he had carried out and the movement to grant land rights to Aborigines was strengthening. But, by that time, Thomson had long been disillusioned with politicians and become alienated from most of his anthropological colleagues. He died of coronary artery sclerosis on 12 May 1970 at his Eltham farm and was cremated; his wife and their son and three daughters survived him, as did the sons of his first marriage.

The destruction of Thomson's films had made him determined to keep personal control of the other material he had acquired through his field-work. It was only after his death that the full richness of his achievement became apparent. The collection of more than 7000 artefacts, comprehensive in its scope and scrupulously described, together with 11,000 photographs documenting every aspect of Aboriginal daily and ritual life, enables the viewer to recapture the Aboriginal world of Cape York and Arnhem Land in the 1930s and 1940s. Thomson also left about 7500 pages of field-notes, 25,000 ft (7620 m) of film from later expeditions, and 2500 natural science specimens.

He had recorded in immense detail the cultural dimensions of Aboriginal society—its material culture, art, ceremonial performances, burial practices, and hunting-and-gathering economy. Moreover, Thomson wrote powerful evocations of the aesthetics of Arnhem Land life, and was sensitive to the poetics of Yolngu art and language. A meticulous ethnographer, he used his command of the language to identify central concepts that revealed the workings of Yolngu society from within, concepts such as 'marr' or ancestral power.

Donald Thomson - Select Bibliography
N. Peterson, 'Donald Thomson: A Biographical Sketch', in N. Peterson (compiler), Donald Thomson in Arnhem Land (Melb, 1983)
D. Carment (et al), Northern Territory Dictionary of Biography, vol 1 (Darwin, 1990)
'The Big Picture: Thomson of Arnhem Land', ABC TV, 29 June 2000 (ABC Archives, Sydney)
Donald Thomson collection (Museum Victoria)
private information.

324. =Lancelot Edward THRELKELD, missionary & anthropologist,NSW (1788-

325. 'Blind Moses' Uraiakuraia TJALKABOTA "BLIND MOSES" (born c.1869 Laprapuntja, Ntaria, NT - died 6 July 1954 Hermannsburg, NT) Traditional hunter, Arrente tribesman, Evangelist & Preacher
'Son of Tjeta of the 'Tnurangatja' (witchetty grub) totem, and Araniljilka, of the Western Aranda tribe, Moses was about eight years old when Lutheran missionaries founded Hermannsburg in 1877. One of the first school pupils, Moses enjoyed singing hymns and hearing Bible stories which led into learning the rudiments of reading and writing. Impressed by this new teaching, he passed on his knowledge to others until forbidden to do so because of conflict with traditional beliefs. He was withdrawn from school, but was later allowed to return to his lessons. With four others, he was baptised on 26 Dec 1890. Shortly afterwards, Moses was taken away by tribal elders for circumcision and initiation into Aranda ritual and the meaning of the sacred 'tjurunga'. This experience only confirmed his Christian belief and faith in God, to which he held firmly to the end of his life.

After leaving school, Moses helped to tend the mission flock of sheep for several years until eye disease left him totally blind. Forced confinement brought new direction to his life. He had people read the Bible to him so that he could learn passages by heart, especially St Paul's Epistles. He became an assistant teacher at the school, helping to prepare adult classes for baptism. He was an excellent linguist, and helped with interpreting and translating. He was one of Carl Strehlow's (q.v.) chief assistants in the missionary's study of Aranda and Loritja language and customs, and in his preparation of the Aranda New Testament.

Moses was a gifted story-teller and a compelling preacher. Pastor Friedrich Albrecht (q.v.) (1950) 'often listened with rapt attention to some of his addresses. To him the New Testament just lives, and he knows how to make it live again before his hearers. To his natural gift he has added a lot of hard work'. - Robin Radford'

Moses worked as a catechist and lay preacher at Hermannsburg until, on a visit to Horseshoe Bend, he arrived at Henbury station, where he was persuaded to stay and teach the word of God. So began his immensely influential Gospel ministry, in the course of which he visited Aborigines living at Deep Well, Alice Well, Horseshoe Bend, Idracowra, Jay Creek, Alice Springs, Undoolya, Arltunga and other places. He travelled by donkey, camel, buggy, on foot and occasionally on the back of a truck.
Mostly, Moses was welcomed. In a few places, however, his message that the men should put their trust in Jesus and give up their tjurunga (sacred objects) met with polite rejection... Moses used the methodology by which novices were instructed about their tjurunga, telling the story with Bible pictures, and teaching hymns and the Commandments, and prayers by rote. He had a prodigious memory and could recite whole chapters of the Bible."

326. Alfred Hermann TRAEGER

327. =William TREACY WA

328. =Margaret TUCKER NSW

329. =Francis TUCKFIELD , Birregurra, VIC



FROM : - Prisoner missionaries of Vunapope


From an interview by Barb Angell on Friday October 13th, 2000 at the Convent of Our Lady of the Sacred Heart, Sydney

- Sister Berenice was taken prisoner by the Japanese in Rabaul, New Britain, and interned for three and a half years along with a large group of missionaries from various islands and stations. They were detained first at Vunapope mission, then in native huts in a compound surrounded by barbed wire, then finally at the bottom of a ravine in the jungle at Ramale.

Sister M. Berenice of Our Lady of the Sacred Heart Convent was the eighth of 11 children. She had eight brothers and two sisters and was born at Tumbulgum, just out of Murwillimbah. She attended boarding school at Uki on the Tweed River, under Mount Warning. She was posted to New Britain as a teacher and was one of the group of about 350 missionary Fathers, Brothers and Sisters who were interned there by the Japanese for the duration of the war. This is a short summary of their experiences, told from her point of view in an interview with Barb Angell dated Friday October 13th, 2000.


The first battle fought in Rabaul was in 1914 when Australia took over the island of New Britain from the Germans. "It's not written in history and it should be there," Sr Berenice told me, "Because that's where we lost our first Australian soldiers, and on Australian soil. It became Australian territory when taken over from the Germans. So that's why there were so many German missionaries and so many German people there. We had an old Australian Sister who was there when that happened in the First World War and she was there for the Second World War too. And she lived through it all."

Sr M. Berenice of Our Lady of the Sacred Heart Mission was teaching in Rabaul when the war broke out. "The only condition that we Australians were allowed to stay in New Britain was that we would do Red Cross work. That was the Australian government's condition and we agreed to do that and promptly sewed Red Crosses onto our habits. Before the Japanese landed, I said I wanted to out to the (mission) station to learn a little bit of nursing. There were two Dutch sisters and myself there. One Dutch sister was a nurse, the other was a teacher."

The sister was out at this remote station of Tapo when the invasion of Rabaul took place. The first she knew about it was when she was told to go over to a plantation house to make a phone call to the people at Vunapope, the main mission centre. Before he left to hide in the jungle, the plantation owner had sent a message to the station to let them know that the phone still worked. When the Sr Berenice telephoned Vunapope she was told that the Japanese invasion was about to take place. They were instructed to remain at the station overnight and that she and one of the other Sisters should hurry to Vunapope on foot next day and report that a shell shocked Australian soldier was in their dug-out and would not move - the third Sister was to remain at her station.

The two Sisters set out to walk alone through the jungle and got lost. They wandered all day, finally locating the track, and found themselves to be almost at Vunapope. When they came to a fork in the road, a truckload of armed Japanese suddenly appeared. "We didn't even know they had landed. They stood up and they yelled and screamed and waved their bayonets about. And we thought, This is it. And then just as suddenly the truck turned around and went off. We ran for our lives up to the convent. And when we got there the Bishop was there with his council, with our Mother Martha (the Mother Superior). He said, Where have you come from? We're prisoners. We said we were from Tapo and he told us: You can't go back, we're prisoners. So that other poor sister was stuck out there for three months not knowing what happened to us or anything else."

331. =Daniel TYERMAN, LMS, NSW

332. The Redoubtable Jimmy TYSON - Pastoralist, Champion of the Dignity of Aborigines, Field Moralist, Philanthropist, Campaigner for Integrity, Australian Patriot, Benefactor

James TYSON (1819-1898),

Parents: William TYSON, farmer, and his wife Isabella, née COULSON, an Emancipist ex-convict
Birth: 8 April 1819 Narellan, New South Wales, Australia
Cultural Influences: Emancipist convict Australian, Yorkshire English Australian, Irish Australian, Aboriginal Australian
Christianity: Maverick Anglican, demanding, prophetic & moral Good Samaritanism
Qualities: Moral Courage, Christian Justice, Dignity, Reticence, Fair Treatment, Charity, Redoubtability, Astuteness, Liberty from any awe for Mammon, Liberty from mere beknighted or petty or popular Public Opinion, Magnanimous benevolence
Occupation: grazier (sheep); grazier (cattle & horses); Politician - Member of Queensland Upper House, Magistrate
Landscape:: New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland
Cross: Public Opprobrium, Popular Disapproval, Loneliness, Varied Traducements
Death: 4 December 1898, Felton, nr Cambooya, Darling Downs, Queensland, Australia
Burial: 1. at Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia;
2. Tyson Family Vault at St Peter's Church of England, Campbelltown, New South Wales.
Legacy: Roads, Watering Places & Civilisation in the Outback, Funded the whole Church of England building at Leyburn, NSW; Women's College, University of Sydney;

Writing about Jack Bates in her biography of Daisy Bates, Elizabeth Salter writes of Bates' first employer: 'the redoubtable Jimmy Tyson' as "an eccentric and compassionate man who effected the ragged clothes and unkempt beard of a swagman...

A generous man, capable of financing a church when asked for a donation, he was renowned amongst his fellow pastoralists for his protective attitude towards his Aboriginal employees...

Those rare men, like Durack and Tyson, who made an effort to understand the black mentality, found that a working arrangement could be arrived at. They discovered that, treated well, the native Australians were an endearing people, capable of sustained friendship and even devotion to the "white man boss".

But to young and unimaginative Jack Bates (by then Overseer of Tyson's Tinnenburra Station) the Aborigines working for him seem little better than animals. Of such was Combo, come to Tinnenburra with a reputation for killing two whites in the Gulf country farther north and spirited enough to answer back when given an order. The sun was high and Combo was lethagic. Jack, who was branding cattle, told him to "get a move one." - "Get a move on your plurry self," Combo retorted. This was to dare the white authority with a vengeance. Jack's iron was sizzling the hide of a calf. he lifted and swung it in one movement and Combo dropped where he stood. He did not recover consciousness till sundown.
Jack had no further trouble with his black employees but his action was reported to Tyson and judged as a betrayal of trust... Tyson dismissed him out of hand. He had been accused of ill-treatment of and Aboriginal, and Tyson, protector of Aborigines, gave him his pay and told him to go... Tyson's attitude was the exception rather than the rule, and Jack's dismissal enlisted considerable sympathy for him."

From Queensland Government, Business Leaders: HALL OF FAME: -

The Hon James Tyson MLC (1819-1898)

Although little known today, James Tyson was truly a legend in his own life time. He was Australia's first great cattle king and our first millionaire. When he died in 1898, not only were there obituaries in Australian newspapers, but also in The London Times and New York Times. Banjo Paterson wrote a poem about him entitled simply T.Y.S.O.N.

Yet James Tyson started with nothing. Born in 1819 near Narellan, he became a squatter on the Lachlan River with his brothers. He boosted his fortune by droving cattle to the Bendigo goldfields and butchering the meat for the miners. Leaving the goldfields with a personal wealth of £20,000, James Tyson acquired further property in New South Wales and Gippsland before moving to the Darling Downs. From there, he made huge Queensland acquisitions, including his flagship 2.1 million acre Tinnenburra, near Cunnamulla.

He was a loner who avoided people and was said never to have entered a church, a pub or a theatre. He never married and died intestate: his vast wealth was divided among his extended family.

James Tyson used his wealth to support his adopted state during tough economic times and to develop infrastructure and in 1893 he became The Hon James Tyson MLC, a member of the Queensland Upper House.

By 1898, James Tyson's properties covered 5.3 million acres. His success came from a strong innate business sense. He practiced 'management by walking around', literally, dropping in unannounced on his far flung properties. In today's terms, he ran a vertically integrated business. His biographer Zita Denholm wrote that there were "Tyson cattle shifted by Tyson drovers riding Tyson horses from Tyson breeding property to Tyson fattening country".

For James Tyson, "Money was nothing. It was the 'little game' that was fun. The little game was 'fighting the desert.' That has been my work. I have been fighting the desert all my life and I have won. I have put water where there was no water and beef where there was no beef. I have put fences and roads where there were no roads. Nothing can undo what I have done and millions will be happier for it after I am long dead and forgotten".

In 1898 James Tyson's wealth was estimated at £2.36 million (the equivalent of $13 billion today), which was 1.3% of Australia's GDP. This had been reduced from £5 million by the severe drought of the 1890s.

From Australian Dictionary of Biography - ADB Online -

Tyson, James (1819–1898)

by Zita Denholm

James Tyson (1819-1898), pastoralist, was born on 8 April 1819 near Narellan, New South Wales, third son of William Tyson and his wife Isabella, née Coulson, who had arrived in the colony on 19 August 1809 in the Indispensable with a seven-year sentence for theft in Yorkshire. Her husband and son William came free in the same transport; by 1819 William senior had a 40-acre (16 ha) grant at Narellan. James started work about 1833 as a farm-hand for the Vine brothers near Appin and spent a short time in Sydney in 1837 apprenticed to a bootmaker; he then worked as a pastoral labourer for Henry O'Brien at Douro near Yass. Later he took up Barwigery (Barwidgee) on the Ovens River for John Buckland.

James was unsuccessful with his brother William on Bundoolah (Goonambil) in 1845, and next year with his brothers William and John he moved to Tyson's run (Toorong) on the west bank of the Lachlan near its junction with the Murrumbidgee: this holding became the nucleus of his Tupra-Juanbung complex. Early in 1852 James and William arrived at the Bendigo goldfield with a small mob of cattle, set up a slaughter-yard and butcher's shop and in three years established a business which was sold late in 1855 for an estimated £80,000. James and John bought three sheep stations South Deniliquin, Conargo and Deniliquin, which they improved with fencing and earth tanks. James made important experiments in digging channels for water, and was interested in the Deniliquin-Moama rail link, the Deniliquin and Echuca Electric Telegraph Co. and the Riverina separatist movement as well as local matters. John died at Deniliquin on 3 June 1860 leaving his estate to James who, in 1862, sold most of his Deniliquin holdings and moved back to the Lachlan and began the aggregation of leasehold pastoral land. In 1864 when James McEvoy refused to pay his share of costs of arbitration in their dispute over a boundary, Tyson successfully sued him in the Supreme Court but McEvoy appealed to the Privy Council.

By 1898 Tyson held 5,329,214 acres (2,156,680 ha) including 352,332 acres (142,585 ha) freehold. His stations included Tupra, Juanbung, Bangate, Goondublui and Mooroonowa in New South Wales; Heyfield in Victoria; and Glenormiston, Swanvale, Meteor Downs and Albinia Downs, Babbiloora, Carnarvon, Tully, Wyobie, Felton, Mount Russell and Tinnenburra in Queensland. He held other runs as mortgagee. Uninterested in stud-breeding he bred and fattened stock for the metropolitan markets. At Tully his nephews tried to grow sugar on his behalf as well as run cattle. Tyson also owned some land in Toowoomba, Hay and Brisbane and made two abortive visits to New Zealand to investigate the possibility of land investment.

Tyson was a member of the Queensland Legislative Council in 1893-98 but made only one short speech. He was a magistrate on the Maude, New South Wales, and Jondaryan, Queensland, benches, and a prominent lobbyist against the building of the Queensland transcontinental railway line by overseas capitalists on the land grant system; he opposed the Victorian border stock tax and campaigned actively for the land tenure reforms embodied in the Crown Lands Acts of 1884 in New South Wales and 1885 in Queensland. Generous to a wide range of charities, he contributed £2000 for two years to the New South Wales Sudan Contingent and variously to the building funds of the Women's College, University of Sydney, and the Church of England at Leyburn.

Unmarried and intestate, Tyson died 'apparently [of] inflammation of the lungs' at Felton near Cambooya, on 4 December 1898. He was buried in the Toowoomba cemetery, but his remains were moved to the family vault at St Peter's Church of England, Campbelltown, New South Wales. His estate, realizing £2 million, was divided among his next of kin after an extended series of court cases involving the question of his domicile. A byword for wealth and a legend in his own lifetime, Tyson was usually called 'Hungry' by the Bulletin and was commemorated by Banjo Paterson in 'T.Y.S.O.N.'. Frugal, he was never known to drink, smoke or swear.

Select Bibliography
Z. Denholm, ‘James Tyson, employer’, Wealth & Progress, A. Birch and D. S. Macmillan eds (Syd, 1967)
T. M. Z. Denholm, James Tyson 1819-1898: A Man in His Environment (M.A. thesis, University of Queensland, 1969)
Tyson papers (National Library of Australia and State Library of Queensland)
Regina v. Queensland Trustees, CRS/85-98, SCT/514A, 218/1898 (Queensland State Archives).


James Tyson

James Tyson (8 April 1819 - 4 December 1898) was an Australian pastoralist. He is regarded as Australia's first self-made millionaire. His name became a byword for reticence, wealth and astute dealing.
His mother, Isabella, was a convict, sentenced to transportation for theft. His father, William, and his eldest brother, also William, came with her. Receiving a grant from Governor Lachlan Macquarie in the Narellan area, the Tysons set themselves up as small farmers, later moving with their growing family to East Bargo. As a youth James commenced work for neighbours such as Major Thomas Mitchell, and John Buckland who contracted him to take cattle to the north-eastern border area of the colony of Victoria (Australia). Then, with his brothers, he took up squatting licences in western New South Wales. Eventually they settled on land at the junction of the Lachlan and Murrumbidgee Rivers, in the reed-beds which had defeated John Oxley's exploration in 1837. He travelled much about Australia, but eventually made his principal home at Felton station on the Darling Downs.
In 1893 he became a member of the Queensland Legislative Council but did not take a prominent part in its proceedings.
The legendary Tyson fortune was founded on success in butchering on the Bendigo goldfields. It was extended by canny buying, knowledge of cattle and of stockroutes, pastoral lending and the judicious selection of enormous leaseholds to provide a chain of supply which stretched from North Queensland to Gippsland and which fed beef to Melbourne, Sydney and Brisbane. It is on record that on one occasion he offered the Queensland government a loan of £500,000 towards the cost of constructing a proposed transcontinental railway, and in 1892 at a time of economic depression he took up £250,000 in treasury bills to assist the government.
At the time of his death his estate was the largest in Australia to that time. However he died unmarried, childless and intestate. His estate was sold off, realising about £2.36 million, which was divided among his closest relatives.

Banjo Paterson (in T.Y.S.O.N.), Breaker Morant and Will Ogilvie all wrote about him.

Serle, Percival (1949). "Tyson, james". Dictionary of Australian Biography. Sydney: Angus and Robertson.
Denholm, Z. Tyson, James (1819 - 1898), Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 6, Melbourne University Press, 1976, pp 319–320.

333. W.B ULLATHORNE, Benedictine, Vicar Apostolic for Australia 1833

334. + David UNAIPON South Australia

335. Henry VARLEY,
Brethren evangelist (The War between Heaven and Hell In Melbourne) Baptist

"Henry Varley was born in 1836 in Lincolnshire, but moved to London at 13 to work as an errand boy. He became a Christian in 1851 while training as a butcher ..."

HENRY VARLEY (1835-1912)
VARLEY, HENRY (1835-1912) - by Margaret Yarwood Lamb
(b. Tattershall, Lincolnshire, England, 25 Oct 1835;
d. Brighton, England, 30 March 1912).
Non-denominational (Brethren) evangelist.

Henry Varley, whose father was a brewer and evangelical mother a headmistress, learned the butcher's trade. Converted under Baptist Noel's ministry in 1851 he sailed to Australia in 1854. Unsuccessful as a gold seeker, he prospered as a butcher in Geelong. Returning with his trade to London he married Sarah Pickworth and won an honest reputation. Varley commenced working with a mission to pig feeders at Notting Dale. Each Sunday he walked the streets which reeked of boiling pig wash, encouraging residents to meet for hymn singing and a short Bible message. From 12 adults, numbers quickly grew to 700. Though criticised for commencing an unaffiliated church Varley insisted his congregation would not feel at home in a traditional church.

Varley's persuasive premillennial preaching attracted Charles Spurgeon who invited him to preach to 5000 at The Metropolitan Tabernacle. Varley prayed for effectiveness in the 'wholesale business' of winning souls. Aware of his dependence on the indwelling Christ he strove for personal holiness; as his people prayed his ministry was inspired by God's Spirit and following his meetings in Brantford, Canada, there was a 'blaze of revival'. Varley's work as international evangelist commenced in Melbourne in 1877 with over 1000 responses; many employers remarked great change in converted workmen. Varley, always forthright, criticised Bp Moorhouse for encouraging Christians to attend the theatre. His Sin and Social Wickedness in Melbourne, (Melbourne, 1891) denounced gambling rackets, land boom swindlers and newspaper editors whose policy was 'serve God in such a way ... [that] the devil and bad men are not offended'. From 1888 Varley, who retained a lifelong passion for evangelism, regarded Melbourne as home; he rejoiced that many Australians converted in 1877 remained vital. One of the Youngs, a significant evangelical family, was converted through Varley's preaching. He had challenged Dwight Moody to become wholly committed for God's use; under Varley's preaching Gypsy Smith's father was converted. F B Meyer regarded him as one of the great evangelists of the Victorian era.

R Torrey, Why God Used D. L. Moody (New York, 1923); H Varley, Henry Varley's Life-Story (London, nd); Willing Work, 3 Nov 1877.

(1835-1912) - Non-denominational (Brethren) evangelist. Australia Dictionary of Eveangelical Biography - online at

335+. "EFFIE" Ethel Russell VARLEY - missionary to Nigeria - and grandaughter of Henry Varley
"EFFIE" Ethel Russell VARLEY - missionary to Nigeria - and grandaughter of Henry Varley

FROM : - Australia Dictionary of Eveangelical Biography - online at

VARLEY, Ethel Russel ('Effie') (1900-1966)


David Turnbull

' (b. Melbourne, Vic, 6 July 1900; d. Jos, Nigeria, 15 March 1966). Missionary in Nigeria.

Effie Varley was the grand daughter of Henry Varley (q.v.) a world renowned evangelist. Frank Varley, her father, was a prominent evangelical in Melbourne. Whilst attending the Chapman Alexander Mission in Melbourne, she gave her life to Jesus Christ and was later baptized at the age of 11 or 12. Her church involvement was primarily with the Baptist Church, especially in East Malvern, and the Melbourne Gospel Crusade. She had three sisters and one brother. After completing her schooling at University High School, she, attended the Pharmacy College and became the first woman dispenser at the Melbourne Hospital. She also completed a short nursing course at Bethesda hospital, a Diploma in Sunday School Teaching and night classes at MBI.

Effie explained to a supporters' dinner in 1927 that 'at the age of 8 definitely wanted to be a missionary and as the years went on the desire increased'. Her cousin, Charles Hummel, who served in Nigeria, earlier directed her thoughts to West Africa. She applied in 1922 to Sudan Interior Mission in Toronto because this society was unrepresented in Australia. On arriving in Nigeria in 1923, she took up an appointment at Miango amongst the Iregwe people.

She received no formal language training but a facile tongue and the creation of a bush dispensary facilitated her reception. As a church developed and thrived there, she branched out into the surrounding countryside. She was famous for her trekking, 20 or 30 miles a day in the tropical heat, knitting as she walked, to seek out enquirers, encourage isolated believers, alleviate physical needs and assist local churches. In addition, Varley contributed to the translation of the Scriptures for the Iregwe people. She was also very supportive of attempts to rescue the second twin from being killed after birth, a local custom. Not surprisingly, Effie Varley was beloved by Nigerians and during her last illness an old pastor held her hand as she died.

* W S Clack, We Will Go: The history of 70 years training men and women for World Missionary Ministry (Melbourne, 1990)

* SELECT WRITINGS: E R Varley, Stories from Miango (London: SIM, nd)


Electronic Version © Southern Cross College, 2004 - Content © Evangelical History Association of Australia and the author, 2004

336. John VERRAN (1856-1932), Primitive Methodist Labor Politicion, Premier of South Australia, Temperence campaigner
& son John Stanley VERRAN (1883 Moonta SA –1952 Unley SA) Rechabite, Temperence campaigner, people.
-From Ausralian Dictionary of Biography - ADB Online
Verran, John Stanley (1883–1952) - by Arnold D. Hunt

John Stanley Verran is a minor entry in this article

[His father] John Verran (1856-1932), miner and premier, was born on 9 August 1856, and baptized in the pit at Gwennap, Cornwall, England, twin son of John Spargoe Verran, copperminer, and his wife Elizabeth Jane, née Harvey. The family migrated to South Australia in 1857, living for eight years in Kapunda before moving to the Cornish settlement at Moonta. Having received only a few months elementary education, at the age of 10 John started work as a 'pickey-table boy' in the copper-mines. The ministers of the Primitive Methodist Church encouraged him to read and influenced him by their support of trade unionism. Through teaching in the Sunday School and through preaching, he learned to argue a case in public and was later to say, 'I am an M.P. because I am a P.M.' After a short spell gold-mining in Queensland, Verran returned to Moonta where he was a miner for over thirty years and a popular president of the Amalgamated Miners' Association (1895-1913). As a gradual reformist, he was suspicious of direct action. On 21 February 1880 at Moonta he had married Catherine Trembath (d.1914); they were to have eight children.

Defeated in the elections of 1896 and 1899, Verran was returned as Labor member for Wallaroo in the South Australian House of Assembly by-election of 1901. In 1909, on the death of Tom Price, premier of a Labor-Liberal coalition, Verran took over the Labor leadership and the coalition was dissolved. Labor won the subsequent election and on 3 June 1910 he became premier of the first all-Labor government in South Australia; he was also commissioner of public works.

His administration lasted less than twenty-one months. Shortly after taking office, it faced a drivers' strike which led to riots in the streets of Adelaide and to criticism of Verran's handling of the problem. The ministry spent considerable sums on railways and harbours, and its Advances for Homes Act (1911) allowed the State Bank of South Australia to grant loans to poorer people, but the Legislative Council thwarted the government's attempt to establish state brickyards and timber mills. Relations between the assembly and the council bedevilled the government; Verran petitioned the British parliament to legislate to override the council; in January 1912 he called an election over the Upper House's power to veto legislation passed by the Lower. Labor lost. One factor in his defeat had been the transport strike on the eve of the elections which divided the labour movement and frightened voters. Having lost support within his party, Verran resigned the leadership. He was excluded from Crawford Vaughan's Labor cabinet in 1915-17.

During World War I Verran became a vituperative critic of South Australians of German birth or descent. He made no allowances for those from pioneer families or for those who had been naturalized: 'They have German names and a German is a German. I have no bowels of compassion on this matter'. Wishing such persons to be removed from government departments, he also supported the closure of Lutheran schools and introduced a bill to prevent 'Germans' from voting in State elections, unless their sons had enlisted.

The bluff, flamboyant Verran was short and stout, with a goatee that had been full and black in his youth. While he often used Cornish idiom, his grammatical lapses gave a comical dimension to his repartee: 'Ef yore brains wuz dynamite and they wuz to iggsplode, 'twouldn't blaw yer 'at off'. His parliamentary speeches were replete with Biblical allusions and stories were repeated for years about his idiosyncratic sermons: 'There are no flies on God' was one of his comments on the divinity. 'Honest John' was an 'unconventional champion of the conventions' who was respected even when he espoused unpopular causes.

In the national debates over conscription in 1916-17 Verran supported W. M. Hughes and became a Nationalist. Campaigning for conscription, he alienated his Moonta constituency and lost his seat in 1918 to R. S. Richards, a fellow Methodist and future Labor premier. Verran lost when he again contested Wallaroo as an Independent in 1921 and a Liberal in 1924. President of the National Party in South Australia in 1922, he unsuccessfully stood for the Senate that year and for the House of Representatives in 1925. The South Australian parliament appointed him to a casual vacancy in the Senate in 1927; he was defeated at the elections next year. He found it hard to get work, but was employed briefly as a timekeeper for a construction company and as a supervisor on the wheat stacks at Wallaroo.

Apart from the Methodist Church and Freemasonry, Verran's main interest was the temperance movement. He had signed the pledge as a young man and joined the Rechabites. 'Your signboard has fallen down', he once said to a publican, pointing to a drunkard in the gutter. Verran often appeared on temperance platforms, especially during the State referendum on early-closing in 1915. Survived by three sons and four daughters, he died at Unley on 7 June 1932; after a State funeral he was buried in Moonta cemetery.

His son John Stanley (1883-1952) was born on 24 December 1883 at Moonta. With his brothers and sisters, he experienced a strict Methodist upbringing which was relieved by his mother's wit and flexibility. Having worked in the mines as a youth, he took a job as a clerk at Port Adelaide and became president of the State branch of the Federated Clerks' Union and of the Australian Government Workers' Association. On 21 April 1913 in the Methodist manse, South Terrace, Adelaide, he married Ethel Clara Watson; they were to have two children before they divorced. He was a Labor member of the House of Assembly for Port Adelaide in 1918-27, but failed in his bid to enter the Senate in 1931. Survived by his son and daughter, John Stanley Verran died of a coronary occlusion on 30 August 1952 and was buried in Moonta cemetery.

Select Bibliography
H. T. Burgess (ed), Cyclopedia of South Australia, vol 1 (Adel, 1907)
O. Pryor, Australia's Little Cornwall, (Adel, 1962)
D. J. Murphy (ed), Labor in Politics (Brisb, 1975)
D. Dunstan, Felicia, the Political Memoirs of Don Dunstan (Melb, 1981)
D. Jaensch (ed), The Flinders History of South Australia (Adel, 1986)
Parliamentary Debate (South Australia), 24 Nov 1915, 31 Oct 1917
Mail (Adelaide), 20 July 1912
Australasian, 8 July 1922
News (Adelaide), 7 July 1931
Chronicle (Adelaide), 16 July 1931
Advertiser (Adelaide), 8 June 1932, 2 Sept 1952, 16 June 1984
Australian Christian Commonwealth, 17 June 1932
R. J. Miller, The Fall of the Verran Government, 1911-12 (B.A. Hons thesis, University of Adelaide, 1965).

337. = Arthur James VOGAN (1859-1948) – Argus Newspaper, Rights campaigner, VIC

-‘Caught by the troopers’, 1890. From Arthur Vogan, The Black Police: a story of modern Australia, 1890.
Arthur James VOGAN, (1859-1948) Artist (Draughtsman). Sketcher,

Sources: -
1. The Black Police : a story of modern Australia /​ by A.J. Vogan ; with illustrations and map by the author. London : Hutchinson, [1890] [The University of Melbourne. The University Library & other Australia libraries.]

2. Letters to A. J. Vogan from the Secretary of the Association for the Protection of Native Races - The Australian Women's Register
- Fryer Library and Department of Special Collections, University of Queensland.

338. George Washington WALKER, Quaker TAS

339. R. WALKER, Methodist Parramatta, NSW

339+. Pastor Peter Walker, Aboriginal Pastor, organised Praise Corroboree

340. Rev. Dr Sir Allan WALKER, Sydney , Lifeline

341. Ernst Gottlob WANKE Berwick, Vic

342. Fr Gerald WARD - Australia Pioneer of the St Vincent De Paul Society

343. = James Gibson WARD, English Moravian, Mapoon QLD martyr
& Matilda WARD, (née Barnes), Mapoon QLD

From Australian Dictionary of Evangelical Biography

WARD, James Gibson (1857-1895)

Bill Edwards

(b. Fairfield, Jamaica, 14 May 1857; d. Mapoon, Qld, 3 Jan 1895). Moravian missionary to the Aborigines.

Born to Moravian (q.v. Hagenauer) missionaries, James and Anna Ward, he spent his first eight years in Jamaica before attending Fulneck School in England for seven years and Niesky College in Germany. He taught at Neuwied College in Germany for three years and at Ockbrook School in England. He was ordained deacon in the Moravian church on 20 May 1885 and ministered in Brookweir and Ballinderry in Ireland. He m. Matilda Hall Barnes on 15 Jan 1889.

While at Ballinderry he received a call to serve in a new mission station which the Moravians had been asked by the Presbyterian Church to establish in north Qld. His diary entry on receiving the call reflected his Moravian training and personal commitment: 'May the Lord make us that blessed aim attain of willingness to do His will, no task or trial to refuse; only to do what He shall choose'. The Wards and the Rev J N Hey (q.v.) left London on 5 June 1891 and arrived in Melbourne on 15 July. Following preaching and lecturing tours in Melbourne, Sydney and Brisbane, they arrived at Thursday Island, where the government resident, John Douglas, supported the mission, hoping it would counter the breakdown in relationships between Aborigines and the multiracial population engaged in fishing, pearling and trading. Ward and Hey left Thursday Island on 27 Nov 1891 and arrived at Port Musgrave the following day. Ward returned to Thursday Island for his wife who had been ill and arrived back on the 20 Dec.

Ward and Hey built their houses, and encouraged Aboriginal people to settle at the new Mapoon Mission. Ward supervised fishing operations and Mrs Ward opened a school. Gardens and cattle work were developed to provide employment for the Aboriginal men. A church building was opened on the 24 Nov 1892. Ward and Hey were ill with fever in 1893 and financial recession in the southern colonies limited support for the mission. Ward travelled south to seek continuing support. In Sept and Dec 1894 Ward travelled on the Batavia River to search for a better site for the mission and on the latter trip developed a fever, from which he died at Mapoon. Although his period of service at Mapoon was short, his name lived on in the Ward Memorial Church, dedicated in 1896, and a lugger, the J G Ward, launched in 1901 to serve the needs of the Gulf of Carpentaria missions. His widow returned to Mapoon in July 1895 to join her sister who had married Hey, and to continue her work as a teacher until 1917. by BILL EDWARDS

A Ward, The Miracle of Mapoon (London, 1908)

344. Traugott Friedrich WARMBRUNN, Klemzig, Adelaide, > Harkaway VIC

345. Mr WATKINS, Mount Evelyn VIC

346. =Miss J. WATSON LaPerouse Mission NSW

347. =Ann WATSON Wellington NS=William

348. =William WATSON, Wellington NSW

349. Bäpa (Rev. Fr) James WATSON ~ pioneer missionary in Papua & New Guinea, also Goulburn Is. Northern territory (Methodist)

"Bäpa" on The Aborigines: "These are not vermin to be got rid of, but people whose lives should be enriched from the treasures of knowledge and especially the knowledge of God. people whose minds should be freed from superstition and fears of thee devil-devil. Strange that the Methodist Church should have neglected such interesting people all these years. I wonder why?" -from 'Ramblings in the Northern Territory' 1915

"Bäpa" James WATSON
Parents James WATSON , engineer & Margaret RYAN
Birth: 21 February 1865 Sandhurst Goldfield, Bendigo, Victoria
Cultural Heritage: Mediterranean-European Judeo-Christian, Anglo-Irish Inheritance, Victorian Goldfields Cosmopolianism, Colonial Indigenous Papua, Torres Strait & Arnhem Land Indigenous Australian
Education: Bendigo Schools, Methodist Training by Rev Dr W E Bromelow, NSW
Ordination: 1891 Ministry of the Methodist Church
Marriage: 21 July 1896 Emu Plains, NSW
Theatre of activity: 1. 1891-1893 Papua, British New Guinea; 2.1893 Mission deputation;
Wife: Isabella Duncan FRASER, daughter of shipwright, Daniel Fraser, & Jane Condon of Emu Plains, NSW (d. 1949 Ashfield NSW)
Minstry: 1896 Narrabri, NSW; 1897 Inverell, NSW; Broken Hill, NSW; Walleroo, SA, Kempsey, NSW.
Missionary Theatre: 1914 Appointed State Secretary for Overseas Mission in NSW & QLD
Initiative for Mission to aborigines: 1914 -
Immigration: 1915 Sailed on the ship 'ST ALBANS' to Darwin, visiting Bathurst Island, Fort Dundas, Melville Island, East Alligator River, Cahill's Landing, Oenpelli, Goulburn Island. Travelled overland by bicycle from Pine Creek to Katherine, to Mataranka, Elsey Station, and wrote a Report "Ramblings in the Northern Territory"
Appointment: 1916 Superintendant of Mission
Character: Diligence, Tireless Zeal, Sanctified Audacity, Unselfishness, Statesmanship
Death: 27 September 1946, Ashfield, NSW -
Burial: Sydney, New South Wales

"OBITUARY : Rev James Watson
The death has occurred in Sydney of Rev James Watson, a veteran Methodist missionary to Papua, where he was stationed in 1891. Later he was for many years a missionary to the aborigines of North Australia. Mr Watson was born in Bendigo, and for some time acted as state secretary for Methodist Missions in Victoria." [The Argus (Melbourne, Vic.) Saturday 12 October 1946]

MILLINGIMBI - " Milingimbi has a long history of contact and trade with the Maccassans who came each season to collect trepang. Tamarind trees on the beach and surrounding an old Maccassan well are an obvious legacy of this period. Traditionally the name Milingimbi belongs only to a small section of land surrounding this well, now known as Bush Camp.
Milingimbi was chosen as a mission site in 1916 by Rev. James Watson of the Methodist Overseas Mission. Building commenced in 1923. In 1940 the mission undertook a contract to build a landing strip for the RAAF on Milingimbi. As a consequence the mission was bombed by the Japanese on the 9th and 10th of May 1943. One Aborigine was killed, and others were wounded. The raids caused substantial damage."

From NORTHERN TERRITORY Dictionary of Biography Volume Three

WATSON, JAMES (1865-1946)

by Arch W Grant

WATSON, JAMES (1865-1946) Wesleyan Methodist Minister, was born in Bendigo, Victoria, on 21 February 1865, the son of James Watson, an engineer, and his wife Margaret nee Ryan. Little is known of his early life but he came to reside in New South Wales as a young man and offered himself for service in the ministry of the Wesleyan Methodist Church.

350. Francis WEBB , poet, Roman Catholic Orange, Sydney NSW

351. Sarah WENTWORTH 1805~1880, The Damned Whore of Sydney

352. D’Arcy WENTWORTH c.1762-1827

353. William Charles WENTWORTH 1790-1872

354. Morris WEST 1916~1997

355. Reuben WEST (Melbourne City Mission)

356. Rev John WEST Launceston, VDL/TAS, Historian

357. Rev. John WESTACOTT, Methodist, Lilydale, VIC

358. William WESTGARTH VIC

359. =Thomas WILKINSON, Wybalenna, Flinders Is. VDL/TAS

359+. Dr Esther Marian WILLIAMS, Kongwak (Vic) & Fiji, missionary teacher & doctor 1901-2002
Doctor Esther Marian WILLIAMS
Heritage: from Westport, Somerset, England
Born: 19 February 1900 Kongwak, South Gippsland
Father: William John Williams [24 Oct 1858 New Town (Geelong)- 24 Sep 1935]
Mother: Euphemia Annie Downie [20 Nov 1862 - 1946]
Ministry: - Fiji, missionary teacher & doctor
Died: 29 September 2002 @ age 101, at Korumburra Hospital, South Gippsland, Victoria. [Herald Sun (Melbourne) -1 OCT 2002]
Buried: 3 October 2002 Korumburra Cemetery, South Gippsland, Victoria

360. John Williams of the South Seas, Martyr

Williams' Australian Declaration: 'Prosper, O Australia! in your mercantile pursuits, in the extent of your dominions, in the numbers of your flocks and herds, in the fineness of your fleeces; yet recollect, that in your prosperity you are neglecting the work that God, the author of all your prosperity, has assigned you.'

John Williams of the South Seas, Martyr

Parentage: Baptist John WILLIAMS and Hannah MAIDMENT
Birth: 27 June 1796 Tottenham High Cross, London, England
Cultural Heritage: Mediterranean-European Judeo-Christian, Lower Class English, Southsea Islander
Christianity: Baptist, Calvanist Temple Methodist, Congregational, Methodist
Occupation: Methodist minister, Missionary
Organisations: Tabernacle Church, Methodist Church, London Missionary Society
Australian: Hobart VDL (Tasmania); Paramatta, Sydney, NSW; Queensland
Martydom Death: 20 November 1839 Eromanga, New Hebrides (Vanuatu)

FROM Australia Dictionary of Biography ADB Online _

Williams, John (1796–1839)

by Niel Gunson

John Williams (1796-1839), missionary, was born on 27 June 1796 at Tottenham High Cross, London, the son of John Williams and Hannah (?) Maidment. His ancestors on his father's side had been Baptists for many generations. His mother was influenced by the Calvinistic Methodist movement and brought her son up as a Congregationalist. Williams was taught writing and arithmetic at Lower Edmonton; he was apprenticed to an ironmonger in 1810 and was soon entrusted with the management of the business. In 1814 he underwent an Evangelical conversion and became a member of the Tabernacle Church (Calvinistic Methodist). He was taught grammar and exegesis by Rev. Matthew Wilks and in 1816 volunteered for missionary service with the London Missionary Society.

Williams was accepted and on 3 September 1816 was ordained at Surrey Chapel. On 29 October 1816 he married Mary Chauner, formerly of Denston Hall, near Cheadle, Staffordshire. Williams, Robert Bourne (1794-1871), David Darling (1790-1867), and George Platt (1789-1865) formed the third party of missionaries to arrive in the islands after the nominal conversion of Tahiti in 1815. They sailed in November 1816 and were joined by Rev. Lancelot Threlkeld at Rio de Janeiro. They arrived at Hobart Town in March 1817 and held the first Evangelical service conducted in Van Diemen's Land, Williams defying opposition by preaching in the open air. In May the party arrived in Sydney where already an itinerant Evangelical ministry had been established by earlier missionaries. William Ellis (1794-1872), who arrived in July 1816, had visited the 'interior', conducted regular services based on Parramatta, taught reading and writing in a Sunday school at Prospect, and set up the mission press in the home of Rowland Hassall. When Ellis left for Tahiti this work was carried on by John Muggridge Orsmond (1788-1856) and Charles Barff (1792-1866) who had arrived in the Surry in December 1816. Orsmond and Barff had taught many of the young Irish convicts to read and write and Barff continued this work in the country districts after Orsmond went to the islands in February 1817. Orsmond later returned briefly to New South Wales, and on 25 December 1819 married Isabella, daughter of Isaac Nelson, an emancipist farmer and the first schoolteacher at Liverpool. Orsmond was better educated than most visiting missionaries, and studied with the family of Dr William Redfern. He later became principal of the South Sea Academy in Moorea, and as a Polynesian scholar and educationist influenced John Dunmore Lang.

All these Dissenting missionaries were received favourably by Governor Lachlan Macquarie and assisted the evangelistic labours of both Anglicans and Wesleyans. Particular friendships were formed with Edward Eagar and Rev. Samuel Leigh. Williams, in particular, impressed Samuel Marsden with his ability. The entire mission party left for the islands in September 1817.

Williams was regarded as the most enterprising missionary in the islands. In December 1821 he and his wife paid a three-month visit to Sydney, where he preached and addressed public meetings. On his own initiative he also bought a ship with Marsden's reluctant approval, to trade between Raiatea and Sydney; and he engaged Thomas Scott to instruct the people of Raiatea in the culture of sugar-cane and tobacco. Governor Sir Thomas Brisbane was so impressed by Williams that he supplied stock to the mission and gave him magisterial authority for the islands.

In 1838, when Williams had become a public figure, he returned to Sydney in the mission ship Camden, and drew considerable crowds to his meetings. Having recently given evidence before the committee of the House of Commons on Aborigines, he was influential in the establishment of the local Aborigines Protection Society, and was also responsible for founding an Auxiliary Missionary Society in Sydney. News of his violent death at Eromanga in the New Hebrides on 20 November 1839 was received with much public sorrow and a new impetus was given to Australian Congregationalism. His widow died in England in June 1851. Their eldest son, John Chauner Williams (1818-1874), was for a time a produce merchant in Sydney before returning to Samoa where he was appointed British consul in 1858.

Besides the well known Baxter prints of Williams, including those of his landing and death at Eromanga, there is a miniature of Williams in the London Missionary Society archives, Westminster.

Several of Williams's colleagues, besides Threlkeld, returned to Australia. Bourne, who arrived in February 1827, went into partnership with Charles Appleton, merchant, in January 1829 before returning to England where he dissolved connexion with the London Missionary Society. He finally settled in Sydney and assumed full management of the business in May 1831. At the end of 1835 he opened a separate business, resigning his Sydney partnership to David Jones, then Appleton's London partner. With William Pascoe Crook and J. Hayward, he took a prominent part in the formation of the Pitt Street Congregational Church in Sydney and was also a prominent member of various philanthropic organizations. Later he moved to Brisbane where he helped to found the Wharf Street Congregational Church in 1859 and among other duties was secretary of the Board of Public Education. He died at Brisbane on 1 June 1871. One of his sons, George Bourne, was William Landsborough's colleague when he crossed the continent in 1862. A daughter, Harriet, married the parliamentarian, George Raff. Four of his grandsons held important positions in the Queensland civil service. Both Darling and Barff retired to Sydney and died there. Barff's grandson, Henry Ebenezer Barff (1857-1925), was registrar of the University of Sydney.

The presence of these missionaries in the colonies aroused public interest in missions and drew attention to trade with the Pacific islands. Williams, who had a dynamic personality, believed that the Christianization of the islands in the Pacific would lead to the greater prosperity of Sydney's business houses. But he also believed Australia had a duty to evangelize and civilize, and wrote to the Sydney Gazette, 22 March 1827: 'Prosper, O Australia! in your mercantile pursuits, in the extent of your dominions, in the numbers of your flocks and herds, in the fineness of your fleeces; yet recollect, that in your prosperity you are neglecting the work that God, the author of all your prosperity, has assigned you'.

Select Bibliography
* J. Williams, A Narrative of Missionary Enterprises in the South Sea Islands (Lond, 1837)
* E. Prout, Memoirs of the Life of the Rev. John Williams (Lond, 1843)
* J. E. Ellis, Life of William Ellis (Lond, 1873)
* J. J. Ellis, John Williams (Lond, 1890)
* J. King, Ten Decades, the Australian Centenary Story of the London Missionary Society (Lond, 1895)
* N. Bartley, Australian Pioneers and Reminiscences, ed J. Knight (Brisb, 1896)
* B. Williams, Memorial of the Family of Williams (np, 1904)
* LMS archives (Westminster).


John Williams (missionary)

John Williams (1796–20 November 1839) was an English missionary, active in the South Pacific. Born near London, England, he was trained as a foundry worker and mechanic. In September 1816, the London Missionary Society commissioned him as a missionary in a service held at Surrey Chapel, London.
In 1817, John Williams and his wife, Mary Chawner, voyaged to the Society Islands, a group of islands that included Tahiti, accompanied by William Ellis and his wife. John and Mary established their first missionary post on the island of Raiatea. From there, they visited a number of the Polynesian island chains, sometimes with Mr & Mrs Ellis and other London Missionary Society representatives. Landing on Aitutaki in 1821, they used Tahitian converts to carry their message to the Cook islanders. One island in this group, Rarotonga (said to have been discovered by the Williamses), rises out of the sea as jungle-covered mountains of orange soil ringed by coral reef and turquoise lagoon; Williams became fascinated by it. John and Mary had ten children, but only three survived to adulthood.[1] The Williamses became the first missionary family to visit Samoa.

The Williamses returned in 1834 to Britain, where John supervised the printing of his translation of the New Testament into the Rarotongan language. They brought back a native of Samoa, named Leota who came to live as a Christian in London. At the end of his days, Leota was buried in Abney Park Cemetery with a dignified headstone paid for by the London Missionary Society, recording his adventure from the South Seas island of his birth. Whilst back in London, John Williams published a "Narrative of Missionary Enterprises in the South Sea Islands", making a contribution to English understanding and popularity of the region, before returning to the Polynesian islands in 1837 on the ship Camden under the command of Capatin Robert Clark Morgan.

Most of the Williamses' missionary work, and their delivery of a cultural message, was very successful and they became famed in Congregational circles. However, in November 1839, while visiting a part of the New Hebrides where John Williams was unknown, he and fellow missionary James Harris were killed and eaten by cannibals on the island of Erromango during an attempt to bring them the Gospel. A memorial stone was erected on the island of Rarotonga in 1839 and is still there. Mrs. Williams died 14 January 1842 at age 85. She is buried with their son Rev Samuel Tamatoa Williams, who was born in the New Hebrides, at the old Cedar Circle in London's Abney Park Cemetery; the name of her husband and the record of his death were placed on the most prominent side of the stone monument.[2]

In December 2009 descendants of John and Mary Williams travelled to Erromango to accept the apologies of descendants of the cannibals in a ceremony of reconciliation. To mark the occasion, Dillons Bay was renamed Williams Bay.[3][4]
[edit]See also

"John Williams" (ship) – the missionary ship named in his honor.


* "Wills & Admons = Pt II, KÜCK, John". q.v. Public Record Office (PRO). Retrieved 2010-02-06.
* Walks in Abney Park Cemetery' by James French
* 18.817°S 169.008°W
* "BBC News - Island holds reconciliation over cannibalism". 7 December 2009. Retrieved 2009-12-07.
* French, James. 1888. Walks in Abney Park Cemetery.
* Hiney, Tom. 2000. On the Missionary Trail: a journey through Polynesia, Asia and Africa with the London Missionary Society.
* Prout, Ebenezer. Memoirs of the Life of the Rev. John Williams, Missionary to Polynesia."
* Williams, John. A Narrative of Missionary Enterprises in the South Sea Islands: With Remarks Upon the Natural History of the Islands, Origin, Traditions, and Usages of the Inhabitants", George Baxter Publisher
Memorial to John Williams's wife and son, at the Congregationalists' pioneering nondenominational place of rest, Abney Park Cemetery (April 2006)

361.Doctor Richard D'Alton Williams, Young Irelander, Writer, Poet, Editor, Newspapersman, Political prisoner in Van Diemens Land, Lousiana USA citizen

Doctor Richard D'Alton Williams,
Richard D'Alton Williams (8 October 1822 – 5 July 1862) was an Irish physician and poet, "Shamrock" of the Nation.[1]

He was born in Dublin, son of Count D'Alton and Mary Williams. He was educated at Tullabeg Jesuit College and St. Patrick's College, Carlow.[1]
He came to Dublin in 1843 to study medicine. He started contributing verses to the Nation in the 1840s. In 1848 he brought out a newspaper, the Irish Tribune, to take the place of the suppressed United Irishman, founded by John Mitchel. Before the sixth weekly publication, it was seized by Government, and proceedings were instituted against the editors, Williams and his friend Kevin Izod O'Doherty. On 30 October 1848, at a third trial, O'Doherty was convicted and transported to Australia; while Williams, tried two days afterwards, was acquitted. He then resumed his medical studies, took out his degree at Edinburgh in 1849 and emigrated to America in 1851.[1]
In the USA he practised medicine until he became ill and died of tuberculosis in Thibodaux, Louisiana in 1862. He is buried there in St. Joseph's Cemetery. His headstone was later erected that year by Irish members of the 8th New Hampshire Infantry Regiment, then encamped in Thibodaux.[2]
He was married to Elizabeth Connolly, with whom he had two children.

The Poems of Richard D'Alton Williams, edited with biographical introduction by P. A. Sillard, Third Edition, Dublin, 1901

- a b c Boylan, Henry (1998). A Dictionary of Irish Biography, 3rd Edition. Dublin: Gill and MacMillan. p. 448. ISBN 0-7171-2945-4.
- Irish-American Index
- "Williams, Richard D'Alton". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.

361+. + Ronnie WILLIAMS(1940-2003) Aboriginal Pastor, Fatherhood Foundation, NSW

363. William John WILLS ~1861

364. Willie WIMMERA

- Illustrated London News, February 14, 1846

'An Australian boy'

by Ralph Sanderson

On Wednesday March 10, 1852 an 11-year-old boy died in Reading from the effects of tuberculosis and peritonitis. Several days later his body was buried in the London Road Cemetery and a headstone placed upon his grave as a memorial by those who knew him. In part it read 'Sacred to the memory of William Wimmera an Australian boy...'

A century and a half has now elapsed since William 'Willie' Wimmera's death yet the headstone that was erected still exists and is today both a rare and poignant reminder of his short existence.

Rare, because the grave it marks shares a common history with only a handful of other known graves in cemeteries across Britain
- it contains the remains of an indigenous Australian.

The oldest burial site of an indigenous Australian in Britain is the grave of Yemmerrawanie (Yemmerrawanyea), a 19-year-old native of the Eora tribe who died on May 18, 1794. With Bennelong he was one of the first two indigenous Australians to visit England. They arrived in London from the fledgling Colony of New South Wales aboard the Atlantic in 1793 and were presented to King George III. Within a year Yemmerrawanie was dead and his body interred in the churchyard of St. John the Bapfist at Eltham, Kent.

The Warstone Lane (Church of England) cemetery in Birmingham is the final resting place of Edward Warrulan (Warru-loong). He was about nine years old when he arrived in London aboard the Symmetry in 1845. Warrulan was the son of a tribal chief in the Colony of South Australia and had been brought to England by Edward John Eyre, the noted explorer. He and a companion were presented to Queen Victoria in January 1846. Following Eyre's appointment and departure to New Zealand as LieutenantGovernor, Warrulan remained in England where his benefactors placed him in an agricultural school at Sibford, in Oxfordshire. He later moved to Banbury where he learnt saddlery and harness work before joining the harness manufacturing firm of J. Middlemore in Birmingham. He also was aged about 19 years when he died from the effects of exposure on October 23,

At a park in Tower Hamlets in London's East End lies Bripumyarrinin (also known as 'King Cole', Brippokei, and Charles Rose). He was a native of the Colony of Victoria and had the distinction of being one of the members of the first all-aboriginal cricket team to visit and play in England. The team surreptitiously arrived in London aboard the Parramatta in May 1868 and had already played several matches when 'King Cole' tragically succumbed to tuberculosis within a month of their arrival and died on June 24, 1868 in Guy's Hospital, London.

William Wimmera was not a cricketer or the son of a tribal chief. Nor was he ever presented to royalty or had a well-known patron or benefactor. He was the youngest known 'Australian boy' to die and be buried so far from his land of origin. 'Willie', as he was referred to by his benefactors and acquaintances in England, was a native of the Wotjobaluk tribe who occupied lands in the Wimmera district in the Colony of New South Wales. He was born about 1840, only four years after Major Thomas Mitchell and his expedition had first traversed the region and in whose wake came the eventual demise of its native inhabitants.

By the time the boy was six years of age, the Wotjobaluk country had been encroached upon by white squatters who brought with them thousands of head of sheep to graze the lands. Clashes between the Wotjobaluk and the European invaders became inevitable as both culture and commercial interests collided.

In a punitive measure for some unknown aggression or act, in February 1846, a party of white settlers set upon a camp of these aboriginal people by the banks of the Wimmera River. Amongst this native group was our six-year-old boy who, by the end of the attack, was left clinging to his dead mother - a bullet through her heart. The woman was buried on the spot and the 'orphaned' boy removed to the home of a Belgian settler, Horatio Ellerman, who had both participated in the raid and was reputed to have fired the shot that had killed the boy's mother.

At the home of Ellerman he was brought up and worked in the household as a servant. In December 1850, Willie's life took another dramatic turn. He was invited to join some men on a trip carting wood to Melbourne. But while in the city he became lost and wandered the streets.

He was soon discovered by a group of young white children and, either at the invitation of his young peers or through curiosity followed them home where he was both fed and allowed to sleep. Willie also accompanied the white children to their school and it was there he came to the attention of the 33-year-old Reverend Septimus Lloyd Chase, an Anglican clergyman and former curate of St. Johns Church, Reading.

After discovering the boy in the school it wasn't long before the Reverend Chase eventually took him into his own home. Chase was soon to return to England and so, with the thought of educating and evangelising the boy into the Christian Church, he asked Willie if he wished to accompany him. But Chase didn't realise that the boy was not an orphan, as his father and brothers were still alive in the Wimmera district, a fact that was realised many years later when his story was told to a local aboriginal congregation.

The barque Sacramento departed Melbourne on the March 29, 1851. A local newspaper recorded that among her passengers were the Reverend Chase and his 'servant'. It was a very long passage to England but it provided Chase with ample time to give the young aboriginal boy instruction in reading and writing and prayer. Following their arrival in London in September 1851 Chase and his young charge travelled to Reading, to the residence of Chase's father, Samuel. Over the next six months, the boy was cared for and educated by Chase's family and his acquaintances at Reading and at Iver nearer London. He was given lessons in writing and drawing and taught practical skills in plaiting straw and making shoes. His education into the Bible and Christianity also continued.

Whilst at Iver, the boy became ill with congestion of the lungs and so it was decided that he should return to Australia as it was considered that the English climate could prove fatal. He returned to Reading before Christmas but his condition continued to deteriorate. On January 8, 1852 Chase was married at St. Giles in Reading and because of this and other commitments was not able to provide the boy with his full attention.

Nevertheless, with Willie's understanding and acceptance of his new faith, Chase had the young Wotjobaluk boy baptized into the Church where he received the name 'William Wimmera' - a reflection of his origins because his traditional or given aboriginal name was probably never known or had been long forgotten.

Sadly, over the next few months the boy's condition scarcely improved. He lost a great deal of weight and he suffered great pain. Although his passage back to Australia in the company of Chase had been arranged Willie did not live long enough to make the journey home. Despite the efforts of his benefactor and carers he finally succumbed before dawn on that spring morning of Wednesday, March 10, 1852.

Plot 10, Row A, Section 44 of the London Road Cemetery, Reading holds more than the body of that eleven-year-old boy. It holds a glimpse into our history and although there may be none now who will mourn or mark the sesqui-centenary of his passing we can at least remember and reflect.


Aborigines' friend and colonial intelligencer, London. V. 1, No. 1, January-December 1855.

Argus, Melbourne, 1895.

Christie, M. F. / Aborigines in colonial Victoria, 1835-86. Sydney: Sydney University Press, 1979.

The Encyclopedia of Aboriginal Australia: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander history, society and culture. Canberra: Australian Studies Press for the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, 1994. Illustrated London News, London, 1846.

Massola, Aldo. Aboriginal mission stations in Victoria. Melbourne: Hawthorn, 1970.

Mulvaney, D. J. Cricket walkabout: the Australian aborigines in England. 2nd ed. South Melbourne: Macmillan in association with the Dept. of Aboriginal Affairs, 1988.

Scholefield, Mrs H. A short memoir of William Wimmera: an Australian boy who sailed from Melbourne, April 1851 died at Reading, March 10 1852.

365. Samuel Vincent WINTER (23 March 1843 –1904)

366. Joseph WINTER (26 October 1844 - 1915)

367. Hannah WISEMAN, née Parker b. 15 Jan 1832 Widford, Herts d. 22 Aug 1920 Broadmeadows Vic. - TRY

368. Albert WISEMAN, philanthropist b. 27 August 1838 Widford, Herts d, 22 Oct 1906 Glenroy Vic. - TRY B. MGC

369. Arthur & Elizabeth née Parker WISEMAN, Melbourne

370. Annie WISEMAN, Glenroy VIC, murdered at home,1932

371. =Edward WILSON, ARGUS Newspaper, Melbourne

372. =Rev & Mrs F.W. WOOD, Coolarenebri


374. = Ernest Ailred WORMS WA

375. +VFred WOWINDA Point Pearce VIC

373. Florence YOUNG (1856 Motueka, NZ -1940 Sydney, NSW, Missionary IN QLD & China
from ADB ONline

Young, Florence Selina Harriet (1856–1940) by Helga M. Griffin

Florence Selina Harriet Young (1856-1940), missionary, was born on 10 October 1856 at Motueka, near Nelson, New Zealand, fifth child of Henry Young, farmer, and his wife Catherine Anne, née Eccles, both Plymouth Brethren from England. Educated at home and for two years at a boarding school in England, at the age of 18 Florence experienced 'a crisis' during a prayer meeting at Dunedin: perceiving God's powers of forgiveness, she asked to be baptized.

Settling in Sydney in 1878, after the death of her parents Florence moved in 1882 to Fairymead, a sugar plantation near Bundaberg, Queensland, run by two of her brothers. With timidity, she began to hold prayer meetings for planters' families and, with one assistant, established the Young People's Scriptural Union which eventually attracted 4000 members. Her attentions were increasingly devoted to the Melanesian sugarworkers whose responsiveness to kindness she applauded and whose 'heathen' customs and 'addictions' to 'white men's vices' she abhorred. Asking that God instruct 'the teacher and the scholars', she conducted classes in pidgin English, using pictures, rote biblical phrases and a chrysalis to explain the resurrection.

Under Miss Young's guidance, the Queensland Kanaka Mission was formally established at Fairymead in 1886 as an evangelical, non-denominational church. Relying on unsolicited subscriptions and stressing 'salvation before education or civilization', it spread to other plantations and won considerable approval. The Q.K.M. aimed to prepare the Melanesians for membership of established Christian churches after their repatriation and employed paid missionaries and members of Florence's extended family. Reassuring in its message of hope, its open-air hymn singing and its mass baptisms in local rivers, at its height in 1904-05 the Q.K.M. engaged nineteen missionaries and 118 unpaid 'native teachers', and claimed 2150 conversions. As she embraced departing converts, Florence exhorted them: 'No forget 'im Jesus'.

Tall and slender, with her hair worn austerely, the clear-eyed evangelist dressed in well-cut suits and bore herself confidently. Between 1891 and 1900 she had spent six precarious years with the China Inland Mission. Despite a nervous breakdown, she recognized her work as a preparation for the South Sea Evangelical Mission which became a branch of the Q.K.M. in 1904 in response to appeals for help from repatriated Q.K.M. teachers. That year, singing hymns during the crossing, she helped to settle White missionaries on Malaita in the Solomon Islands in the hope of nurturing an indigenous church.

Miss Young administered and dominated the expanding S.S.E.M. from Sydney and Katoomba, New South Wales, and made lengthy annual visits to the islands until 1926 when her modest autobiography, Pearls from the Pacific, was published in London. She regarded universities as 'hot-beds of infidelity' and was opposed to women entering them. Inflexible though serene in later years, she died on 28 May 1940 at Killara, Sydney, and was buried in Gore Hill cemetery with Presbyterian forms. By then, the S.S.E.M. had recorded over 7900 conversions.

Select Bibliography
H. I. Hogbin, Experiments in Civilization (Lond, 1939)
A. R. Tippett, Solomon Islands Christianity (Lond, 1967)
P. Corris, Passage, Port and Plantation (Melb, 1973)
D. Hilliard, God's Gentlemen (Brisb, 1978)
R. M. Keesing and P. Corris, Lightning Meets the West Wind (Melb, 1980)
QKM and SSEM, Not in Vain (Annual Report), 1887-1940
Pacific Islands Monthly, 15 June 1940, p 70
Journal of Pacific History, 4, 1969, p 4
private information.

376. Rev. Robert YOUNG

377. href=""> Helga Josephine (1909-1980) & Pastor Alfred Freund ZINNBAUER (1910 - 1978)- Jewish Lutheran refugee Pastor to Internees, Sailors, Refugees, Tatura Internment Camp, Victoria, & Adelaide, South Australia


377. W G C COLE - Rechabites



380. John Henning THOMPSON - Kew High School/ Trinity Grammar




384. Joseph DALTON (2 December 1817 Waterford, Ireland –5 January 1905 St Ignatius College, Riverview, North Sydney (St Leonards) NSW. @ 88 yrs.) holy priest, Jesuit Priest,

385. James Alipius GOOLD (1812–1886) 1st Roman Catholic archbishop of Melbourne












EDIT TOOLS: née Émigre, émigré Prüßen Heßen Naßau König Königreich Württemberg
MEŶER Meӱer Thüringen Österreich ö ü ä é ë ß Ü Ö Ä Ë Ŷ ӱ Ӱ ƒ


CALENDAR of Christians Of The Australian Clay


1. -
2. -
3. - James Gibson WARD, 1895 Mapoon, Qld, Moravian Missionary
4. -
5. -
6. –
7. –
8. –
9. – Anthony Martin FERNANDO - 1949 Illford, Essex
10. –
11. –
12. –
13. –
14. – John GREEN Jnr -1897 martyr, New Guinea
15. –
16. –
17. –
18. –
19. –
20. – Bernard Alfonso O'REILLY - 1957
21. –
22. – Dr. Graham Stuart STAINES & sons -1999 Orissa, India - Martyrs
23. –
24. –
25. –
26. –
27. –
28. –
29. –
30. –
31. -


1. –
2. – Rev.'James' Lee MOY LING, 1911
3. –
4. –
5. – 'Len' Leonard Noel KENTISH 1943 Dobo, Aru Islands
6. –
7. –
8. –
9. –
10. – Annie LOCK - 1943 at Cleve, SA
11. –
12. –
13. – Ella SIMON- 1981 Taree, NSW
14. –
15. –
16. –'MARANOOKA or Mr Maloga' Daniel MATTHEWS -1902, Mannum, SA (dod 17)
17. – Fr Claude-Francois Joseph Louis RECEVEUR 1788 La Perouse NSW
18. –
19. –
20. –
21. –
22. – Sir David Fletcher JONES - 1977 Warrnambool, Vic
23. – "KAMOTO" George Hubert HOLLIS - 1955 Cape Town, South Africa
24. –
25. –
26. –
27. –
28. –
29. -


1. –
2. –
3. –
4. –
5. –
6. – 'Tolpuddle Martyr' George LOVELESS - 1874 London, Ontario, CA
7. –
8. –
9. –
10. – 'Willie WIMMERA' - 1852 @ Reading, England
11. –
12. –
13. –
14. –
15. – Bishop Mesac THOMAS - 1892 Goulburn, NSW
16. –
17. –
18. –
19. –
20. – "JIBANYAMA" James JAPANMA 1962 (March) Roper River (Ngukurr), NT
21. –
22. –
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27. –
28. –
29. –
30. –
31. –


1. –
2. –
3. –
4. –
5. –
6. –
7. –
8. – 'TAMATE' James CHALMERS - 1901, martyr, Goaribari Island, Papua
9. –
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18. –
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20. –
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25. –
26. –
27. –
28. –
29. –
30. – Rev. Douglas Fowler PIKE 1929 Missionary Martyr, China (dofb)


1. –
2. –
3. –
4. –
5. –
6. –
7. –
8. –
9. –
10. –
11. –
12. –
13. –
14. –
15. –
16. –
17. –
18. –
19. –
20. –
21. – Sister Irene McCORMACK, martyr of Peru 1991
22. –
23. –
24. –
25. –
26. –
27. – "GARBARLA" Barnabas ROBERTS - 1974, Ngukurr, Roper River, NT
28. – Florence Selina Harriet YOUNG -1940, Killara, NSW
29. –
30. –
31. – Captain Hillel Fredrik LILJEBLAD - 1924 Rozelle, Sydney, NSW


1. –
2. – Pastor Bert MARR - 1970 Purfleet, NSW
3. –
4. –
5. –
6. –
7. –
8. –
9. – Don Angelo Bartolomeo CONFALONIERI - 1848 Cobourg, NT
10. –
11. –
12. –
13. –
14. –
15. –
16. –
17. –
18. –
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20. –
21. –
22. –
23. –
24. –
25. – William Augustine DUNCAN - 1885 Petersham, NSW
26. –
27. –
28. –
29. –
30. –


1. – Sydney Colin BEAZLEY 1942 Sinking of the 'MONTEVIDEO MARU' off Luzon
2. –
3. –
4. –
5. –
6. –
7. –
8. –
9. –
10. –
11. –
12. –
13. – Alex Derwent HOPE – 2000 Canberra
14. –
15. –
16. –
17. –
18. –
19. –
20. –
21. –
22. –
23. –
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25. –
26. –
27. –
28. –
29. –
30. –
31. – Hermann Alfred TRAEGER - 1980 SA


1. – Annie GORDON & Nellie & Topsy SAUNDERS - 1895 Mission Martyrs, China
2. –
3. –
4. –
5. – 'BERUK' - William BARAK - 1903
6. –
7. –'Rod' Samuel Rodolphe SCHENK -1969 Esperence, Western Australia
8. – Blessed Mary MacKILLOP - 1909 Nth Sydney, Feast Day.
9. –
10. –
11. –
12. –
13. –
14. – Fr James HAROLD -Convict Priest. 1830 Dublin, Eire (dofd 15th?)
15. – James Robertson BRUCE - 1902 China - Martyr -
16. –
17. –
18. –
19. –
20. –
21. – Kapiu Masi GAGAI - 1946 Thursday Island, QLD
22. –
23. –
24. –
25. –
26. –
27. – Widow Hester HORNBROOK - 1862 Ragged Schools, Melbourne
28. –
29. –
30. –
31. –


1. – Arthur Ernest STREETON Artist, Olinda, Mt Dandenong,
2. –
3. –
4. –
5. –
6. –
7. – Fr Georg Heinrich BACKHAUS - 1872 - Bendigo
8. –
9. –
10. –
11. – ‘MAKANAB’ Father Duncan McNAB - 1896 Melbourne
12. –
13. – Beulah Madeline LOWE - 2005 Belrose, NSW
14. –
15. –
16. –
17. –
18. –
19. –
20. –
21. – "MERWULIDJI" Rev. Lazarus LAMILAMI 1977 Darwin, NT
22. –
23. – Pastor Cec GRANT - 2005 Albury, NSW
24. – Soo Hoo 'George' TEN - 1934 Sydney,
25. – Richard "Dick" PIETY - 1918 Moruya NSW (dod 24)
26. – "Bapa" Rev. James WATSON - 1946 Ashfield, NSW (dod 27th)
27. – Fr Thomas GIL O.S.B. 1943 Drysdale River Mission, (Kalumburu WA)
28. –
29. –
30. –


1. – Rev Dr. KIWI David John PENMAN - Fitzroy
2. –
3. – John Albert LEACH - 1929 Richmond
4. – Brother ANDREW (Father Ian TRAVERS-BALL) 2000 Fitzroy, Vic.
5. –
6. –
7. –
8. –
9. – Seaman's Chaplain Rev. Kerr JOHNSTON - 1887 Kew
10. – Hilde Sarah KNORR - 2009 Greensborough
11. –
12. –
13. – Lady Rose Sarah MOORE - 1971 Kalgoorlie
14. –
15. – James Phillip McAULEY - 1976 Lakemba
16. –
17. –
18. – Ernest Richard Bulmer GRIBBLE - 1957 Yarrabah
19. –
20. –
21. –
22. –
23. –
24. –
25. –
26. –'The Outlawed Pastor' Gotthard Daniel FRITZSCHE, 1863 Lobethal, SA
27. –
28. – Harold Roy COVENTRY - 1965 Mentone
29. – Robert HODDLE - 1881 Melbourne
30. –
31. –


1. –
2. –
3. –
4. – William Small FLEMING - 1898 Mission Martyr, Kweichau, China
5. – Bishop Alain Marie Guynot De BOISMENU 1953 Kabuna, PNG
6. –
7. –
8. –
9. –
10. – Lady Jacobena Victoria Alice ANGLISS - 1980
11. –
12. – Fr Brian Anthony STONEY, ex-s.j 2008 Sydney
13. –
14. –
15. –
16. –
17. –
18. –
19. –
20. – John WILLIAMS of the South Seas, 1839 Martyr
21. –
22. –
23. –
24. –
25. –
26. –
27. –
28. – Dr Mary BOOTH - Sydney 1956 / Rev. Freidrich August HAGENAUER Lake Tyers
29. –
30. – Sister Elizabeth KENNY - Toowoomba 1952
31. –


1. – "MARMINATA" William THOMAS - 1867 Brunswick, Vic.
2. –
3. –
4. – 'The Redoubtable' Jimmy TYSON 1898, Felton, nr Cambooya, QLD
5. – "TJILPI" Dr Charles DUGUID - 1986 South Australia
6. –
7. –
8. –
9. –
10. – Edmund Besley Court KENNEDY 1848 Martyr, Escape River, QLD
11. –
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18. –
19. –
20. –
21. –
22. –
23. –
24. –
25. – Fr.Jeremiah Francis O'FLYNN - 1831 Pennsylvania
26. –
27. – George BARRINGTON -1804 Parramatta, NSW. (Ex-Prince-of-Pickpockets)
28. –
29. – Fr Rosendo SALVADO OSB - 1900 Rome, Italy
30. –
31. –


Christians Of The Australian Clay


Apocalyptics, Aborigines, Anti-Slavers, artists, altruists, amnesiacs, ambulancemen, arch- conservatives, actors, Anglicans, anklebiters, Archbishops, airmen, alcoholics, apostles, abbots, archaeologists, amen’ers, Archpriests, abos, asylumseekers, apologists, arrivistes, Anticeders, Alms Askers, Arguers

Backsliders, babies, Believers, babysitters, blackbookers, badgewearers, bagladies, Baptists, beggars biblebashers, bikies, bibliogians, bishops, bikers, bluesmen, brown-joeys, Bishops, brigadiers, builders, brothers, beachmissioners, bookmen, boatmen, botanists, boys, British Israelites, businessmen, bushmen, Bible Society both British & Foreign, Black Biblers, Barnacle Biblers, Bands, Branchers

Clergymen, children, Carpenters, Christadelphians, Countrymen, Canons, choirs, clerics, Council-of-Churchists, carers, chalkies, Convicts, Converts, Chaplains, Catholics, catechists,cleaners, captains, Calvinists, clerics, cattleticks, Charismatics, Civic-councillors, collars, Cardinals, corporals, Chestertonians, Con-men, Crashers-through, Conservatives, Congregationalists, Church of Christists, Campaigners, co-religionists, Coptics, Communitarians, Cheap-Gracers, Creeping Jesusers, Christian Brothers, Convicters, Calathumpians, Creationists, criminals, Christians, chauvinists, Correspondents, Carmelites

Deacons, dagos, dogcollarmen, doctors, Deniers, Dutch Reformists, democrats, Darkeners, Dispensationalists, draftdodgers, doorknockers, Divines, deaconesses, drivers, dunkers, drummers, Demogogues, Denouncers, Downright Losers, Doers, Divers Devotees, discalced Carmelites, Disk-Jockeys

Eschatologists, exrapers, elders, exthieves, engineers, ethicists, Episcopalians, excriminals, evangelists, exfrauds, explorers, Eremites, exmurderers, Endeavourers, exmafiosi, emasculators, Epistlers, exsinners, Evolutionists, exprostitutes

Firebrands, fishermen, Fishers of Men, fathers, financiers, Faithists, full Gospellers, Fundamentalists, flyers, Fusionists, friends, foreigners, flyers, farmers, Festival of Lighters, Full Gospel Businessmen, Faith followers, Flying Doctors, Frauds, Fanatics, Fellow Travellors, Franciscans

Gardeners, Gospellers, the ex-God-damned, gate-crashers, Generals, the Godly, girls, Givers, Godbotherers, globalists, gospelsingers, gasbaggers, Gideons, Good News Readers, Gadabouts, God's Squad, the Generous,

Hallelujah-criers, hymnologists, hands, hermits, historians, highchurchers, the Holy, the Humble, hieromonks, Homilists, Humanitarians, Holy-warriors, horsemen, hunters, headmasters, healers, humorists, Happyclapers, Holy-rollers, Hot-Gospellers, Heaven-stormers, Haranguers, Helpers, Hellfire Preachers

Immersionists, Insiders, Infants, impressionists, interpreters, Ideologues, Irascables, Church of Irelanders, Inductors, Invisible Christians,

Jesuits, journeymen, Jews, jokers, Jesus freaks, justificationists, journalists, Jesus People, Justifiers, Society of Jesus, Church Jumpers, Jingoists, Josephites, Jockeys

Kalithumpians, King Jamesists, kids, Knoxians, Keswick-Conventioners, Kingsmen

Laypreachers, linguists, laymen, Low-down cheats, Lutherans, laity, low churchmen, liberals, Lapsii, Lunatic Fringers, Lay Readers, Liars, Last Trumpeters, Livers-by-faith, Little Sisters of Jesus,

Milleniumists, Monsignors, Master Preachers, Moderates, mothers, madmen, monarchists, mystics, monastics, Marian Brothers, medics, Methodists, Marionites, mechanics, monks, Missionaries, Mennonites, musicians, market-gardeners, Mother-superiors, Mercy nun’s, mentors, Micks, mates, malcontents, Messiah mongers, Mother of God Brothers, Milers, Missioners

Navigators, nurses, nannies, natives, NGOers, Nuncios, Nuns, Naysayers, Negro-Spiritualists, Nunawadingites, Narrowgaters

Open air preachers, Orators, Officers, Over Oral Speakers, opthalmists, Orderers, octogenarians, outlaws, opticians, Orders, Organists, Orthodox: Russian, Greek, Syrian Copts, Ontologists, Oxford Movementers,

Pilgrims, Pacifists, Preachers, Patriarchists, Paramedics, Protestants, politicians, pontificators, Philanthropists, pastors, Presbyterians, privates, primitive methodists, Protomen, prodidogs, premiers, prayers, prime-ministers, prodoes, prophets, prisoners, poets, Pentecostals, prodigies, pioneers, priests, philosophers, prayer warriors, pastoralists, publishers, printers, Puritans, perfectionists, Players, Patriarchs Pietists, Promise Keepers

Quacks, Quambyers, Quixotics, Quantitators, Quangoists, Quakers, Queer Fish, Qualitators, Queuers

Redemptrists, reformeds, revivalists, Rechabites, Roo-shooters, reformers restorationists, Retro-Christians, refo’s, republicans, ratbags, religionists, Reverends, Rascals, Radicals, Revelationists, Religionists, Race-Runners,

Sinners, Shepherds, Sermonisers, Salvationists, Sufferers, Sandwich-boarders, Socialists, spiritualists, Sunday school teachers, songwriters, Sawdust-traillers, stockmen, singers, Spruikers, sprinklers, sundowners, shepherds, Servants, sergeants, Salvos, swagmen, speakers, scientists, soldiers, Slaves, Salvos, sisters, sailors, Salvation Armies, Soap-box Speakers, solidaritists, songsters, Sectarians, Secular Franciscans, Sandal-Wearers, Street-workers,

Thumpers, Travellors, Tractarians, translaters, telephonists, Tub Thumpers, Teachers, thesbians, theologians, truckers, Tradesmen, Turners, Trumpeters, Transportees, Transporters, Tent Missioners, Tramps

Unctionists, Unionists, Ultramontanists, Unitarians, Unitings, Unitingers, ex-Unbelievers, Ultrists, Uber Christians, Unbelievables, the Unemployed

Volunteers, Vineyardists, visionaries, Vicars, Virgins, Vinnies, St Vincent de Paul, Vicariousisers

Wowers, Wowsers, Wonders, Wonderers, Wanderers, Witnesses, Witnessers, Writers, walkabouters, Wesleyans, waggoners, welfarers, workers, Whingers, Whiners, Wilberforcians, Wonder-workers

Xenophiles, ex-xenophobes, Xtras, Xanaduists, Xmas-antists, Xrayists

Yachties-for Christ, Youthworkers, Young people, Yackers, Yarnspinners, Yellers, Youth for Christ, Youth movements, Yackandandites

Zietgeisters, Zebedeers, Zietbusters, Zion Hillers, Zookeepers, Zionists.


Here is my outline

Issues for MIni-Biographies

POTTED BIO’S Questions /


hints for significant detail and info.

BIRTHPLACE? Where born?




Nickname (affectionate title)















KEY Sayings /QUOTES:





RAPORE? Missionfield?

Causes pursued? BENEVOLENCE? Dates?

Date? particular WITNESS?


Appreciations by others/ Awarded OBE (Dates?)

Date? REPORTS? Obituary?

Date? Place? DIED?



1. Lloyd Rees, painter?????????????????????????

2. Peter Lalor??????????????

3. Weary Dunlop?????????????????

4. J.A Leach Nature Educationalist VIC?????????????????

5. William Ricketts, Kalorama VIC ??????????????????????????

ME: baptised, Cof C, Methodist lay preacher, charismatic background Keswick movement, Baptist mentor, Qauker experience, Anglican minsitry of healing an dwholenes, Catholic convert, othrodox interest.

POTTED BIO’S Questions/ hints for significant detail and info.


Nickname: The Blackfellows Friend

bORN 1848

Died 3 June 1893 Age 45

Buried; Anglican Section, Waveley Cemetery, Sydney


DATE: WHEN BORN? 23 November 1868
BIRTHPLACE? Geelong, Victoria

PARENTS? John Brown Gribble Coalminer Geelong

Background? Cornish miners


School Kings School Parramatta

Nickname (affectionate title)






Watchword? SAYING?














RAPORE? Missionfield?

Causes pursued? BENEVOLENCE? Dates?

Date? particular WITNESS?


Appreciations by others/

Date? REPORTS? Obituary?

Date DIED? 18 october 1957 Place? Yarrabah Qld

Date ? WHERE BURIED? behind St Alban’s Chriuch Yarrabah

[1] 1. A Terribly Wild Man, Christine Halse,2002 Crows Nest, Allen & Unwin 2. Ernest Gribble: Forty Years With The Aborigines 1930 Angus & Robertson; 3. Ernest Gribble: The Probelm of eth Australain Aborigines

[3] Gribble, John 1. Black, But Comely. 2. Dark Deeds In A Sunny Land

[4] Strelhow, T.G.H., Journey To Horseshoe Bend,

[5] Wiencke, Shirley ~ When The Wattles Bloom Again

[6] Santamaria, (Bob)

[7] Pepper, Phillip - 1.You are What You Make Yourself To Be; 2.The Kurnai of Gipplsand

[8] 1. Ian Jones: Ned Kelly- A Short Life. 2. John Cowley Coles, Ned Kelly Condemned. from footnote (below), quoted in ‘Tim Flannery: The Birth Of Melbourne’ pp313/4

[9] The Life and Christian Experience of John Cowley Coles 1893 Melbourne M/L Hutchinson, also quotes in Tim Flannery. The Birth of Melbourne Text Publishing Melbourne 2002


[11] Bonwick, James ~ John Batman, Founder of Victoria;

[12] Ussher, Blair - The Salvation War - The Outcasts of Melbourne, Allen & Unwin 1985 Nth Sydney

[13] Ussher, Blair - The Salvation War - The Outcasts of Melbourne, Allen & Unwin 1985 Nth Sydney

[14] Davison, Graeme ~ Introduction - Th e Outcasts of Melbourne, Allen & Unwin 1985 Nth Sydney

[15] Davison, Graeme ~ Introduction - Th e Outcasts of Melbourne, Allen & Unwin 1985 Nth Sydney

[16] Davison, Graeme ~ Introduction - Th e Outcasts of Melbourne, Allen & Unwin 1985 Nth Sydney

[17] Otzen, Roslyn ~ The Doorstep Evangelist* - Th e Outcasts of Melbourne, Allen & Unwin 1985 Nth Sydney

[18] Otzen, Roslyn - The Doorstep Evangelist* - Th e Outcasts of Melbourne, Allen & Unwin 1985 Nth Sydney

[19] Letters From Brother Andrew

[20] she died playing the organ in chruch age 28.A plaque in her memory is inside the Wesleyan (formerly, Methodist Church in Silvan VIC,

[21] Below the statue of him in Geelong Road, Footscray, the plaque reads: Rev Joseph Hunter Goble, Born 18 Feb 1862 Died 31 Jan 1932 Pastor Baptist Church 1895~1932, A tribute of faithful service from the citizens of Footscray. “Well done, good and faithful servant.”

[22] Historical Records of Victoria Volume 2A

[23] Simon Ella. Through My Eyes Collins/Dove

[24] Trudgen Richard, Why Warriors Lie Down & Die Openbook 2000 pp40

[25] p29-42 Trudgen Richard, Why Warriors Lie Down & Die Openbook 2000

[26] Durack, Mary ~ The Rock and The Sand

[27]Webb, Francis - Poems, + Eyre Alone; Griffith,Michael ~ God’s Fool

[28] Scrimgeour,R.J. ~Robert Mitchell , Pioneer Missioner to the Inland Open Book Adelaide 1994

[29] Kate Grenville: Lillian’s Story ; Les Murray’s poem ‘ The Quality Of Sprawl’

[30] A Man Called Possum

[31] HFW Proeve. A Dwelling Place at Bethany, Adelade 1996

[32] Reynolds Henry ~ The Whispering In Our Hearts

[33] Reynolds, Henry


[35] Harris, John, One Blood; Durack, Mary. The Rock and The Sand

[36] Durack, Mary,~ The Rock and The Sand.; John Harris~ One Blood

[37] Worms E.A. ~ Australian Aboriginal Religion

[38] West, Morris~ a View From The Ridge, The Testimony Of A Pilgrim, 1996 Harper Collins Sydney

[39] Morris, Leon ~ The Cross in The New Testament

[40] Andersen, N.O., How to Evaluate Cultural Practices by Biblical Standards in Maintaining Cultural Identity in the Anglo-Saxon World - in (Let The Earth Hear His Voice - International Congress on World Evangelisation Lausanne, Switzerland 1974) World Wide Publications Minneapolis, Minnsota USA 1975 p 1278-1294

[41][41] Jackel W, ~ The Enemy Within

[42] Knowles, MM ~ Fronds from the Blacks Spur etc


[44] 1. Clarke, Frank, The BIG history question - Snapshots of Australian History, ABC Books 1988; 2. Summers, Anne - Damned Whores and God’s Police

[45] 1.Everard Leske. For Faith & Freedom. The Story of Lutherans & Lutheranism in Australia 1838~ 1996 Adelaide 1996 p.272

2. Margaret Rillet And You Took Me in: Alfred and Helga Freund-Zinnbauer - a Biography, Adelaide 1992

3. Erna Mayer Lang Niemand Hot Grossere Liebe: Pastor Alfred Freund Zinnbauer, Adelaide 1989

[46] ‘Gum’ Eucalyptus. .; Snugglepot & Cuddlepie

[i] A

[ii] Mary Wickham poem: in ‘In The Water Was The Fire’

[iii] Obituary by Marian Scarlett, The Age, Tuesday Dec 3 2002 p 11


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