Wednesday, September 14, 2011

E- F- G- H- Surname List


83.a. * Fred EATON, Nepubunna SA

84. Captain ‘Ironsides’ EDWARDS Nth Melb 1880s Salvation Army

85. =Alexander ELDER SA

86. =Rev. Dr Adolphus Peter ELKIN, NSW anthropologist,

87. * Horatio Cockburn ELLERMAN born Antwerp, Belgium. "ANTWERP Station" Wimmera, Victoria

"Horatio Ellerman had a distinguished career ministering God's word to Aboriginals in Victoria. It is interesting to speculate how much he was driven by a desire to make amends for an unfortunate event that is outlined below. "

On Wednesday March 10, 1852 an 11-year-old boy died in Reading from the effects of tuberculosis and peritonitis. Several days later his body was buried in the London Road Cemetery and a headstone placed upon his grave as a memorial by those who knew him. In part it read 'Sacred to the memory of William Wimmera an Australian boy...'
A century and a half has now elapsed since William 'Willie' Wimmera's death yet the headstone that was erected still exists and is today both a rare and poignant reminder of his short existence.
Rare, because the grave it marks shares a common history with only a handful of other known graves in cemeteries across Britain- it contains the remains of an indigenous Australian.
The oldest burial site of an indigenous Australian in Britain is the grave of Yemmerrawanie (Yemmerrawanyea), a 19-year-old native of the Eora tribe who died on May 18, 1794. With Bennelong he was one of the first two indigenous Australians to visit England. They arrived in London from the fledgling Colony of New South Wales aboard the Atlantic in 1793 and were presented to King George III. Within a year Yemmerrawanie was dead and his body interred in the churchyard of St. John the Bapfist at Eltham, Kent.
The Warstone Lane (Church of England) cemetery in Birmingham is the final resting place of Edward Warrulan (Warru-loong). He was about nine years old when he arrived in London aboard the Symmetry in 1845. Warrulan was the son of a tribal chief in the Colony of South Australia and had been brought to England by Edward John Eyre, the noted explorer. He and a companion were presented to Queen Victoria in January 1846. Following Eyre's appointment and departure to New Zealand as LieutenantGovernor, Warrulan remained in England where his benefactors placed him in an agricultural school at Sibford, in Oxfordshire. He later moved to Banbury where he learnt saddlery and harness work before joining the harness manufacturing firm of J. Middlemore in Birmingham. He also was aged about 19 years when he died from the effects of exposure on October 23.

At a park in Tower Hamlets in London's East End lies Bripumyarrinin (also known as 'King Cole', Brippokei, and Charles Rose). He was a native of the Colony of Victoria and had the distinction of being one of the members of the first all-aboriginal cricket team to visit and play in England. The team surreptitiously arrived in London aboard the Parramatta in May 1868 and had already played several matches when 'King Cole' tragically succumbed to tuberculosis within a month of their arrival and died on June 24, 1868 in Guy's Hospital, London.
William Wimmera was not a cricketer or the son of a tribal chief. Nor was he ever presented to royalty or had a well-known patron or benefactor. He was the youngest known 'Australian boy' to die and be buried so far from his land of origin. 'Willie', as he was referred to by his benefactors and acquaintances in England, was a native of the Wotjobaluk tribe who occupied lands in the Wimmera district in the Colony of New South Wales. He was born about 1840, only four years after Major Thomas Mitchell and his expedition had first traversed the region and in whose wake came the eventual demise of its native inhabitants. Illustrated London News, February 14, 1846

By the time the boy was six years of age, the Wotjobaluk country had been encroached upon by white squatters who brought with them thousands of head of sheep to graze the lands. Clashes between the Wotjobaluk and the European invaders became inevitable as both culture and commercial interests collided.
In a punitive measure for some unknown aggression or act, in February 1846, a party of white settlers set upon a camp of these aboriginal people by the banks of the Wimmera River. Amongst this native group was our six-year-old boy who, by the end of the attack, was left clinging to his dead mother - a bullet through her heart. The woman was buried on the spot and the 'orphaned' boy removed to the home of a Belgian settler, Horatio Ellerman, who had both participated in the raid and was reputed to have fired the shot that had killed the boy's mother.

At the home of Ellerman he was brought up and worked in the household as a servant. In December 1850, Willie's life took another dramatic turn. He was invited to join some men on a trip carting wood to Melbourne. But while in the city he became lost and wandered the streets.
He was soon discovered by a group of young white children and, either at the invitation of his young peers or through curiosity followed them home where he was both fed and allowed to sleep. Willie also accompanied the white children to their school and it was there he came to the attention of the 33-year-old Reverend Septimus Lloyd Chase, an Anglican clergyman and former curate of St. Johns Church, Reading.
After discovering the boy in the school it wasn't long before the Reverend Chase eventually took him into his own home. Chase was soon to return to England and so, with the thought of educating and evangelising the boy into the Christian Church, he asked Willie if he wished to accompany him. But Chase didn't realise that the boy was not an orphan, as his father and brothers were still alive in the Wimmera district, a fact that was realised many years later when his story was told to a local aboriginal congregation.
The barque Sacramento departed Melbourne on the March 29, 1851. A local newspaper recorded that among her passengers were the Reverend Chase and his 'servant'. It was a very long passage to England but it provided Chase with ample time to give the young aboriginal boy instruction in reading and writing and prayer. Following their arrival in London in September 1851 Chase and his young charge travelled to Reading, to the residence of Chase's father, Samuel. Over the next six months, the boy was cared for and educated by Chase's family and his acquaintances at Reading and at Iver nearer London. He was given lessons in writing and drawing and taught practical skills in plaiting straw and making shoes. His education into the Bible and Christianity also continued.
Whilst at Iver, the boy became ill with congestion of the lungs and so it was decided that he should return to Australia as it was considered that the English climate could prove fatal. He returned to Reading before Christmas but his condition continued to deteriorate. On January 8, 1852 Chase was married at St. Giles in Reading and because of this and other commitments was not able to provide the boy with his full attention.
Nevertheless, with Willie's understanding and acceptance of his new faith, Chase had the young Wotjobaluk boy baptized into the Church where he received the name 'William Wimmera' - a reflection of his origins because his traditional or given aboriginal name was probably never known or had been long forgotten.
Sadly, over the next few months the boy's condition scarcely improved. He lost a great deal of weight and he suffered great pain. Although his passage back to Australia in the company of Chase had been arranged Willie did not live long enough to make the journey home. Despite the efforts of his benefactor and carers he finally succumbed before dawn on that spring morning of Wednesday, March 10, 1852.

Plot 10, Row A, Section 44 of the London Road Cemetery, Reading holds more than the body of that eleven-year-old boy. It holds a glimpse into our history and although there may be none now who will mourn or mark the sesqui-centenary of his passing we can at least remember and reflect.

Aborigines' friend and colonial intelligencer, London. V. 1, No. 1, January-December 1855.
Argus, Melbourne, 1895.
Christie, M. F. / Aborigines in colonial Victoria, 1835-86. Sydney: Sydney University Press, 1979.
The Encyclopedia of Aboriginal Australia: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander history, society and culture. Canberra: Australian Studies Press for the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, 1994. Illustrated London News, London, 1846.
Massola, Aldo. Aboriginal mission stations in Victoria. Melbourne: Hawthorn, 1970.
Mulvaney, D. J. Cricket walkabout: the Australian aborigines in England. 2nd ed. South Melbourne: Macmillan in association with the Dept. of Aboriginal Affairs, 1988.Scholefield, Mrs H. A short memoir of William Wimmera: an Australian boy who sailed from Melbourne, April 1851 died at Reading, March 10 1852.

Horatio Cockburn ELLERMAN, son of Sir Abraham Danfire Ellermand and Georgina Hughes, was born in London, England.

"The children of Sir Abraham Ellerman dispersed to all parts of the globe. Whilst his son Charles Frederick Ellerman (my GG grandfather) went to England, another brother came to Australia. Here follows an account of their history.
The sons of Abraham III, Horatio (b. 1/9/1822) and Henry (b. 23/10/1827) had gone to Australia and it is possible that this decision was made as there was not sufficient room for them all in the family business. However, Horatio was not quite 17 years of age when he set sail from London on 14/8/1839 in the barque “Florentia” which arrived in Sydney 162 days later on 23/1/1840. Horatio spent about 3 years in NSW, possibly in the Goulburn, Yass and Cooma districts, and then we find him about 120 km north-west of Port Phillip (Melbourne) with 80 head of cattle. Here he became associated with overlanders Darlot and Carter with 400 head of cattle and they set off westward looking for country on to set up as squatters. They travelled with two teams of bullocks pulling wagons, with the country in a dreadful state with incessant rains and with the wagons bogged to the axles on occasions. Eventually, after about 3 months, they selected some land close by the present town of Horsham, on the Wimmera river and called the property North Brighton. About two years later, Horatio selected his own land further down (north) the Wimmera river on a property he called ‘Antwerp’ after the town of his birth. Horatio’s Antwerp was of about 128,000 acres with the river passing through its centre from south to north. About the end of 1846, Horatio was joined by his brother Henry and they operated the property together. In 1854, the brothers acquired Lake Hindmarsh station and later Henry went there to reside. In the meantime, Horatio was married on 20/3/1851 to Anne Westgarth and they subsequently had six children:-"

Horatio Ellerman was married in the Presbyterian Church Melbourne in 1851 to Anne WESTGARTH, (daughter of William Westgarth).
Their children were:
1. Clarence Henry Ellerman b. 22 September 1853 Horsham;
2. Eliza Ellerman b. 30 July 1855 Antwerp, Wimmera;
3. John Westgarth Ellerman b. 2 April 1857 Antwerp, Horsham;
4. Lydia Anne ELlerman b. ? > Antwerp,
5. Gustavus Ellerman b.1861 Antwerp, Wimmera;
6. Abraham Daniel Frederick Ellerman b.1865 Antwerp, Wimmera.

"On 2 June 1874, Horatio Snr. Received a call from the Lismore parish and he was inducted there as the minister on 4 August 1874."
Moravian Church, Dimboola, 1885 - by Samuel Roberts, 1865-1886, artist.
"The new limestone church consecrated on 1 January 1875 and the foundation stone laid by the Reverend Horatio C. Ellerman."


Horatio Cockburn ELLERMAN died at age 64 at Lismore, Victoria, in 1887.

Lismore is a small town with a large parish, about 25 miles north of Camperdown Victoria.
Horatio Snr. Continued ministering at Lismore for some 13 years until his death from pneumonia on 8 January 1887 at the age of 64 and he was buried in the Lismore cemetery.

- His wife and members of his family who had not already left to pursue their own vocations, went to live in a house in Power St in Hawthorn, (Boroondara) a Melbourne Suburb."

- Reverend Septimus Lloyd CHASE; John BATMAN; Rev. Friedrich August HAGENAUER; Charles Joseph LATROBE; John Batman; Thomas McCOMBIE; Nathaniel PEPPER; Phillip PEPPER; Friedrich SPIESEKE; William WESTGARTH.

1. Robert KENNY - The Lamb Enters The Dreaming: Nathaniel Pepper & the Ruptured World 2007 Scribe. Carlton North, Victoria. Note: Part III Chapter 9. 'The Conversions of Horatio Ellerman'

88. =Fr Nicholas M. EMO born Spain ( ? - 8 March 1915), Trappist Monk, Beagle Bay-Lombadina, died 8 March 1915 Broome, Western Australia

"Only one Trappist monk was left, Father Nicholas Emo, had been carrying on his work as parish priest in Broome. Father Nicholas, from an influential Spanish family, was eager to spend his life with the Aboriginal people. He wrote that it was “the secret attraction I felt for this unfortunate race” (A.C.A.P. Letter to the Aborigines Protection Board with 27 signatures, August 1897). This was his intention upon entering Sept Fons as a novice in 1894. - Before long Father Nicholas established a small school for the Aboriginal children and a hostel for mixed race girls. He had obtained help from a Filipino, Caprio Anabia, and his mixed race wife. Father Nicholas carved a stone cross in the sandhill near his new school and, with the help of Filipinos, put up beside it a church and small presbytery."

"... Keen to build on the work of his predecessor, Bishop Gibney negotiated for the establishment of an Aboriginal mission in the Dampierland area. A mission site was selected a few kilometres inland from Beagle Bay (Nyul Nyul country) which was a popular lay-up base for the pearling luggers. In 1890, Trappist (Cistercian) monks from Sept Fons in France founded a mission at Beagle Bay. Their activities extended into the growing metropolis of Broome in 1895. In 1901, the Pallottine Fathers from Germany took over Beagle Bay Mission with two priests and four brothers and, in 1907, they were joined by the Sisters of St. John of God from Ireland. The Sisters assisted the priests and brothers in evangelising the coastal and desert areas of the vast Kimberley.

In 1895 Father Nicholas Emo was placed in charge of the mission station in the town of Broome which was developing at a steady pace. The population of approximately 500 consisted of about 50 ‘white’ residents with the remainder being Japanese, Chinese, Malays and Filipinos.@

89. George Essex EVANS poet/ writer, Toowoomba QLD

90. =Edward John EYRE

91. John FAIRFAX, passionate preacher, founder of the Sydney Morning Herald & Fairfax, Mary Elizabeth (1858 - 1945) - Community worker, Philanthropist

92. Lady Rose Sarah HOWLETT / FENNELL / MOORE
Reverend Herbert Hortin FENNELL
& Sir Richard Greenslade MOORE

A young Rose Sarah Howlett
Lady Rose & Reverend Herbert Hortin FENNELL & Sir Richard MOORE

When Rose Sarah Howlett was born on the 1st December 1890 at Agery, near Moonta, among the saline wheat-fields and copper mines of the Yorke Penisula, South Australia, she was the seventeenth and last child of her parents. When they discovered that she was to be born, her father, Henry Howlett, himself born in South Australia, and who'd married Rose’s mother, Mary Watson from Sussex, England who'd emigrated as child with her family to settle in the Adelaide Hills, then said: ‘We will have a little girl who will look after us in our old age,’ in words that proved to be prophetic. The Howlett family were Methodists and Rose grew up in the Faith. To her local State School education was added visits to Adelaide for training in singing and music. It was while playing the organ in the Methodist Chapel at Agery that she met the new minister of the Moonta Circuit; young Reverend Herbert Hortin Fennell.

Herbert Hortin Fennell was born in early 1883 to modest prospects at Daventry, Northamptonshire, England, son of an agricultural labourer at nearby Charwelton, Joseph Fennell, and his wife, Ann Hortin, daughter of a local shepherd. But Fennell had a vigour of spirit and the call of the Gospel on young Herb’s life gripped him into a response that soon found him trained to the Faith and powered across the world, as Methodist Minister in Moonta and far-flung places of south-western Australia. Fennell had already ministered to the Methodist folk at Dowerin, Western Australia, and had been at his post at Coolgardie, before he came east to marry his former organist Rose Howlett, at the Agery Methodist Chapel on the 5th July 1917. Rose, who had cared for her aged father until he died in 1915, took her mother to the West in her care at the Manse in Coolgardie.

In Coolgardie, Rose Fennell befriended a Chinese laundryman, Joss, maybe a saint himself, for he did all the clergyman’s starch-collars in return for a few flowers from the manse’s garden, a grace in an arid zone. They lived with the wartime scarcity with shortcomings common to a desert fringe community. As Minister the Fennells had one of only two cars in Coolgardie, and it became the usual ambulance, taking patients and expectant mothers to Kalgoorlie for medical aid. By 1919 they were at the Vivian Street church in Boulder City, where their second son was born, and then, in about 1921, at Bruce Rock, where Rose’s mother died, also where their daughter Marjorie was born.

When the Western Australian Methodist Conference decided to send an Inland Missioner to the remote north of Western Australia, they asked the senior Reverend A J Barklay of Perth just who might be sent to fill that intrepid and important post. Without hesitation Barclay answered: ‘Fennell.’ So, wise man that he shows himself to be, he found himself out at Wagin to ask Rose Fennell, ‘would she be prepared to go north with husband and children. Her answer was: “If that is my husband’s calling, that is were we will go.”
The West Australian, Friday 8 April 1927 -page 12 -THE NORTH-WEST. - First Methodist Mission. Recently the General Mission Board appointed by the Methodist Conference selected the Rev. H. H. Fennell and Missioner W. J. Ormandy to open the first North-West mission to be conducted by the Methodist Church. A dedication service was held last night in the Wesley Church, the Rev. D. Dundas presiding. The general secretary for home missions (the Rev. A. J. Barclay) said that the call of settlers in the North-West was an insistent one. The missioners would carry a message to those men and women who had made their homes, in the distant parts and been forgotten. It was anticipated that within a few years a chain of 10 missions would be established from Western Australia to Queensland. Each of the missionaries would have a specially equipped motor car in which he would carry the necessaries of life, together with Bibles and good literature for the settlers. Mr. Fennell would establish his base at Meekatharra and he would traverse the country from that centre to Carnarvon, Port Hedland, and Marble Bar. Mr. Ormandy would have his headquarters at Wyndham and Derby and Daly Waters would be included in his circuit. The men were going on a great adventure, but they carried a living message and were confident of success. Representatives of the Endeavour Society and the Young Women's Auxiliary, formally bade the missionaries farewell. The members of the latter organisation presented each of the missionaries with a medical outfit, arranged by Dr. F. W. Carter.
- In the course of a brief response, Mr. Fennell said that home mission work in Western Australia could be carried on only with the cooperation of members of the metropolitan churches.
- Mr. Ormandy said that never in the history of Australia had there been such an opportunity of taking the country for Christ. People were dissatisfied with the endless struggle between capital and labour; and they longed for a settlement of issues. Satisfaction and contentment could only be created through faith in Jesus Christ. This afternoon Mr. Ormandy will leave for Wyndham by the "M.S.Koolinda." Mr. Fennell will proceed to Meekatharra early next week
So in 1927 the Fennells were at Meekatharra, Western Australia as outback Methodist Missioners. Meekatharra was hot, dusty, and the only water was mineralised with magnesia. The local Aborigines took to Rose as ‘The Nice Missus,’ and one indigenous woman, another saint maybe, took it upon herself to mend all Reverend Fennell’s clothes. Sometimes Rose went with ‘H. H.’ as he visited lonely homesteads and distant scanty-towns to bring the word of God afresh into the wilderness, from Nullagine to Marble Bar. The bush people loved a visit, hungry as they were for news, company and spiritual solace. As well as being concerned with 'Divinities' the Rev. Herbert H. Fennell was also a practical 'Water Diviner' and this became known, so that, by March 1929 he had given placements for well or water-bore digging directions on at least seventy outback stations.

Rev. Herb H. & Rose Sarah Fennell; Bill, Marjorie & John Fennell

When the children reaching high school age the Fennell’s were transferred into the city, serving over a period of a decade, variously at West Perth, Leederville, and Northam. Rev. Fennell had been an ardent footballer and sportsman as a young man in South Australia and he then got involved in arbitration among local Australian Rules Football of the Perth district. He became known for fair and sporting judgements. Then, with their children grown and become independent, Reverend Fennell accepted the position of Kalgoorlie in 1945. This time Rose took more convincing about a return to the desert. But the friendliness of the people of the goldfields, was welcome warmth at the Egan Street manse next door to the 1897 stone Wesley Church. Reverend Herbert H Fennell was also President of the Western Australian Temperence League.
In his last message, Temperance Sunday 8 September 1946, Rev. Fennell said: "No one is more enslaved than a drunkard. He is responsible for giving way to impulses that once it was in his own power to resist. He destroys his own power of resistance. Every time he takes alcohol into his system he intensifies his slavery. It is not possible for him to be saved by human means."
Rose Fennell was soon involved in the Ladies guild, the choir, and a support for her husband on his travels as Superintendent in a Goldfields-wide district circuit. It was on one of his perambulations, while on a preaching trip in Norseman, that he suffered a heart attack and suddenly died on 20 September 1946.
After the Kalgoorlie funeral the manse had to be vacated for the incoming minister, and Rose went to stay with a friend, thinking her Kalgoorlie life was over. She went to her daughter Marjorie’s wedding in Melbourne, but soon returned for the warmth of Kalgoorlie, where she offered to work in the Kalgoorlie Hospital. She eventually became ‘matron housekeeper with complete control over the hospital domestic staff.

Matron Fennell of Kalgoorlie Hospital

She then got around Kalgoorlie on her cycle, and continued her involvement at Wesley Church. It was there she met and married, widower, Richard Greenslade Moore, then Mayor of Kalgoorlie, on 31 January 1953. Richard Moore was a fellow travelling Christian whose first wife had been a Salvation Army officer.

Rose resigned her position at the hospital to take up her duties as Lady Mayoress of Kalgoorlie. Like her husband she got behind any movement working for the public good. She then became patroness of the Royal Flying Doctor service, The Pensioners Lodge, The Ladies of the YMCA, The Girl Guides Association, the Croquet Club, and the Women’s Hockey Association. The Moores were recognized for a graced humanity. Richard Moore was known with affectionate respect to the Kalgoorlians who appreciated his humanity and down-to earth approach as ‘Dickie Moore.'

Sir Dicky Moore

In 1958 Mayor Moore and his wife, welcomed Queen Elizabeth, the Duke, the Queen Mother and a whole Right Royal retinue to the grace of Kalgoorlie. Later, in the 1960 Honours list, Richard Greenslade Moore was endowed with the title ‘Knight Bachelor’ and so the ‘outback rose’ became Lady Rose Moore. Sir Richard was, like her first husband, a man of steadfast Christian faith, but also a highly respected man who was affectionately regarded for his tolerant and approachable humanity. Sir Richard Greenslade Moore died much mourned in Kalgoorlie on 15 September 1966.

Lady Rose Fennell-Moore

Lady Rose survived as a ‘relic’ of the grand old public way of life in Kalgoorlie, dying there on the 13th October 1977. Lady Rose Moore was then buried next to her first, and nearby to her second husband, in the Kalgoorlie cemetery.
All three, the Reverend Herbert Horton Fennell, Lady Rose, and Sir Richard Moore, gave a generous Christian witness and example to the people of early and remote Western Australia. *

REFERENCES: Source: - 1. LADY ROSE MOORE by June O’Brien (16 pages) Published about 1980? (after Nov 1977) Western Australia
2. MOORE, Sir Richard Greenslade (Dick) (1878–1966) Tess THOMSON, Australian Dictionary of Biography - ADB Online
3. Photos and Personal Communication courtesy of Mr Darryl Thompson.

93. 'DOC' Dr. Clyde Cornwall FENTON (1901-1982) Flying Doctor
'DOC' Dr. Clyde Cornwall FENTON

Father: George Augustus Frederick Boyd Fenton, a Victorian-born bank manager,
Mother: Kathleen Mary, née Clarke
Born: 16 May 1901 Warrnambool, Victoria, Australia
Cultural Influence: Mediteranean-European Judeo-Christian, Irish, English
Christianity: Catholic, broad church Christian, Presbyterian
Education: St Patricks Christian Brothers College, Warrnambool; Natimuk State School, Xavier College, Melbourne (dux 1917), Newman College, University of Melbourne (B.Sc., 1922.
Occupation: Medical Doctor, arialist, air force officer, aviator, flying doctor, air ambulanceman, medical administrator, autobiographer, memoirist, public servant
Qualities: Daring, Devotion to Duty, Kindness, Courage, Determination, Resoluteness, Risk-taking - `wilful disregard of personal hazard’, Unselfishness, Intrepidity, Resilience.
Death: 27 February 1982 Malvern, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Legacy: 1. unequaled medical aid and rescue on the frontier of the Top End;
2. The example and pioneering of Life-saving Medical services in the Northern Territory & Top End;
3. Fenton World War Two wartime Airfield;
4. Clyde Fenton Primary School in Katherine, NT.

From Australian Dictionary of Biography - ADB Online -

Fenton, Clyde Cornwall (1901–1982)

by Brian Reid

Clyde Cornwall Fenton (1901-1982
, flying doctor, was born on 16 May 1901 at Warrnambool, Victoria, second of four surviving children of George Augustus Frederick Boyd Fenton, a Victorian-born bank manager, and his wife Kathleen (Catherine/Katherine) Mary, née Clarke, from England.

Educated at Natimuk State School and Xavier College, Melbourne (dux 1917), Clyde acquired an early reputation as a wit and an expert with machinery and mathematics. He proceeded to Newman College, University of Melbourne (B.Sc., 1922; MB, BS, 1925).

After working as a resident medical officer at St Vincent’s Hospital, Fitzroy, and practising privately at Geelong, Fenton attempted to drive across Australia in record time with his younger brother Frederick. A motor accident in South Australia terminated this escapade and in 1927 he ended up at Wyndham, Western Australia, as district medical officer. There he purchased a small single-engine, single-seater aircraft, assembled it and taught himself to fly. After crashing his aeroplane, he sailed for Melbourne in 1928, calling at Darwin on the way. He was persuaded by the chief medical officer, C. E. A. Cook [q.v.], to remain; he spent five months in North Australia’s health service, becoming very aware of the communication problems there.

Fenton subsequently made his way to England and in October 1929 joined the Royal Air Force as a flying officer (medical). He gained navigation qualifications, but resigned in February 1930 after disputes over regulations. On 11 November 1932 at the register office, St Martin, London, he married Eve Ryan-Gallacher; they were later divorced. Back in Australia next year, he took various short-term posts while seeking flying medical positions.

He maintained contact with Cook and in March 1934 was appointed medical officer, Katherine, Northern Territory. There the attraction was the offer of mileage for the small Gipsy Moth aircraft he had acquired. Operating as pilot as well as doctor (unlike those of what was to become the Royal Flying Doctor Service), with Cook’s support he formed the Northern Territory Aerial Medical Service.

Fenton's Gypsy Moth

Over the next six years Fenton, tall, lean and bespectacled, became well known and respected by communities, pastoral properties and missions throughout the Top End. His kindness and determination to help became legendary. He also received attention from the media, both local and national, for his daring rescues, escapades, and occasional pranks, which often brought him into conflict with aviation regulatory authorities. Cook remarked on his `resolute devotion to duty’, his `compulsive acceptance of challenge’ and his `wilful disregard of personal hazard’. Fenton’s solitary, resilient figure contributed much to an enduring Northern Territory self-image. His other historical contributions to the Territory were to demonstrate the usefulness of aircraft as a means of communication in the difficult terrain and to press for the construction of rural landing strips. Awarded King George VI’s coronation medal (1937) and the Oswald Watt gold medal (1937), he was appointed OBE (1941).

On 17 June 1940 Fenton was called up for active service as a pilot officer in the Royal Australian Air Force. He completed a flying instructor’s course at Camden, New South Wales. Posted to the Northern Territory in February 1942, he was appointed commanding officer of No.6 Communication Unit in December. His group of aircraft, known as `Fenton’s Flying Freighters’, provided transport and rescue services to military bases as well as unofficial medical support to missions. In August 1943 he was promoted to temporary squadron leader. His RAAF appointment terminated on 11 January 1946.

That year Fenton joined the Commonwealth Department of Health in Brisbane. While he was there he wrote a lively and popular account of his pre-war years in the Territory, Flying Doctor (1947). At the registrar-general’s office, Sydney, on 10 October 1949 he married Sheila Ethyl Young, née Pigott, a trained nurse and a widow; they were to be divorced in October 1959. Transferring to Melbourne in 1949, he remained with the department until his retirement in March 1966.

On 29 March 1963 he married Lavinia Florence Catalano, née Robinson, a divorcee, at the Presbyterian Church, Winchelsea. He was awarded the Cilento [q.v.] medal in 1971. Survived by his wife, he died on 27 February 1982 at Malvern, Melbourne, and was cremated. He had no children.

Select Bibliography
* E. Hill, Flying Doctor Calling (1948)
* S. Baldwin (ed), Unsung Heroes & Heroines of Australia (1988)
* D. Carment et al (eds), Northern Territory Dictionary of Biography, vol 1 (1990)
* E. Kettle, Health Services in the Northern Territory: A History 1824-1970, vol 1 (1991)
* Commonwealth Dept of Health, Health, June 1966, p 27
series A1928, item 716/9, and series A9300, item Fenton C C (National Archives of Australia)
* Commonwealth Dept of Health, staff file, 1936-46 (Northern Territory Archives)
interviews with L. Lockwood, C. E. A. Cook, C. C. Fenton and B. A. Fenton (typescript, 1980-83, Northern Territory Archives).

1. FENTON, Doctor C. C - Flying Doctor, 1982
2. CARMENT, MAYNARD & POWELL - Northern Territory Dictionary of Biography, Volume One: to 1945

Fenton's first Plane in the Northern Territory aviation Museum


94+. + =
William 'Bill' FERGUSON the Elder/span> NSW

'Bill' Ferguson (1882 – 1950) aboriginal leader
William Ferguson = Bill Ferguson
stood tall, with a calm and reliable manner, and his strong Presbyterian faith supported his pride in Aboriginal people In 1949 he went to lobby the national Chifley Labor government in Canberra as a representative of the Australian Aborigines’ League, asking for many administrative reforms, which he had drafted.

Ferguson, William (Bill) (1882–1950)

by Jack Horner

This article was published in Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 8, (MUP), 1981

William (Bill) Ferguson (1882-1950), trade unionist and Aboriginal politician, was born on 24 July 1882 at Waddai, Darlington Point, New South Wales, second of seven children of William Ferguson, shearer and boundary rider from Scotland, and his wife Emily, née Ford, formerly an Aboriginal housemaid in a prosperous station homestead—she died in childbirth in 1895. Ferguson's brief education (1895-96) came from nearby Warangesda mission school. Working in Riverina shearing sheds from 1896, he later became shed organizer for the Australian Workers' Union. On 18 February 1911 at Narrandera Presbyterian Church he married Margaret Mathieson Gowans, domestic servant of Carrathool, whom he had known as a station-manager's daughter at Darlington Point; they lived at Santigo near Narrandera, but travelled about for shearing work. The family settled in 1916 at Gulargambone, where Ferguson re-formed the local branch of the Australian Labor Party, being its secretary for two years. In 1920-24 he worked as mailman between Quambone and Gular, but returned to shearing. From 1928 he took labouring jobs, speaking in his union on reform of government relief work. He settled his wife and twelve children at Dubbo permanently in 1933.

Ferguson had been aware since the early 1920s of the control imposed on the Aboriginal people by the New South Wales Aborigines Protection Board, which expected Aborigines of mixed descent to 'absorb' into society, and others to die out. Young men expelled from reserves by managers became bushworkers. Inspectors took girls away for training as domestic servants; 'pocket-money' was held in trust. When parliament amended the Aborigines Protection Act (1909) in 1936 to increase the powers of the board, Ferguson began organizing the 'dark people'. On 27 June 1937 he launched the Aborigines' Progressive Association at Dubbo, opening branches later on reserves. In November he was a witness before the Legislative Assembly's select committee on the administration of the Aborigines Protection Board; when the proceedings failed to initiate reform Ferguson, with two Aboriginal leaders, William Cooper and John Patten, organized a 'Day of Mourning' conference for Aboriginals, on Australia Day, 1938. That year Patten and Ferguson wrote the pamphlet, Aborigines Claim Citizen Rights!, and petitioned the prime minister Joseph Lyons, for a national Aboriginal policy.

From 1938 Ferguson organized the A.P.A., conducting five annual conferences in country towns, formulating its policies, arranging publicity and welfare work. Among his assistants were Pearl Gibbs, Herbert Groves and William Onus, and a few white people. The Aborigines Welfare Board, replacing the old Protection Board, in 1940, was concerned with 'assimilating' Aboriginals to European ways, in nuclear families. Responding to A.P.A. demands for democratic rights, the government in 1943 had two Aboriginal representatives elected to the board. Against many candidates Ferguson won easily, but could not sit at first because officials vetoed Walter Page's nomination; but Aboriginal voters later confirmed Page in office.

Ferguson was with the Welfare Board in 1944-49. Listening to complaints from reserve residents, he was astounded at the poor conditions. He demanded an inquiry into Menindee Aboriginal station, and though the board exonerated the manager, it recommended finding a better site. In July 1946 board members resolved to ask Ferguson to resign but next month reinstated him. Despite better housing, state school education in reserves and welfare work, segregation remained, and Ferguson denounced individual exemption from the Act as conditional citizenship.

By February 1949, Ferguson was vice-president of the New South Wales branch of the Australian Aborigines' League, a national body with Onus as president. In June it sent a deputation to Canberra, asking for many administrative reforms drafted by Ferguson. Ben Chifley's minister for the interior, Herbert Johnson, was unresponsive; Ferguson, furious, left for Sydney intending to stand for parliament. Both political parties, he felt, ignored Aboriginal welfare; resigning from the Labor Party, he stood as Independent for Lawson, the Dubbo seat, in the December elections. The United Nations Declaration of Human Rights inspired his policy of civil rights for all people; but he won only 388 votes. He collapsed after his final speech, and died of hypertensive heart disease on 4 January 1950 in Dubbo Base Hospital.

Ferguson habitually checked his facts with reserve residents before attacking official policies on land, housing and control, and he inspired young Aborigines to take up politics. The A.P.A. resolutions, mostly Ferguson's work, were ahead of their time. He stood tall, with a calm and reliable manner, and his strong Presbyterian faith supported his pride in Aboriginal people.

Select Bibliography

* J. Horner, Vote Ferguson for Aboriginal Freedom (Syd, 1974)
* New South Wales Public Service Report, Aug 1938, and Select Committee on Administration of Aborigines Protection Board, Proceedings … Parliamentary Papers (New South Wales), 1938-40, 7
* Abo Call, 1 (1938), no 2, p 1, no 3, p 2
* Sydney Morning Herald, 27 Jan, 18 Apr 1938, 14, 15 Feb, 26 Nov, 3 Dec 1949
* Smith's Weekly (Sydney), 18 June 1949
* A. T. Duncan, A Survey of the Education of Aborigines in New South Wales … (M.Ed. thesis, University of Sydney, 1970)
* Aborigines Protection Board, Minutes (State Records New South Wales).

95. Anthony Martin FERNANDO (1864-1949) Aboriginal Christian Prophet

Portrait of Anthony Martin Fernando by Raj Nagi.
Anthony Martin FERNANDO - (1864-1949)
Believed himself 'Called' by God as proto Aboriginal Activist in Europe: -@ ..his long grey beard damp with mist, his frail elderly frame wrapped in a large overcoat'. Pinned to his coat were scores of small, white, toy skeletons and he wore a placard proclaiming: He would wear his coat sewn all over so it was covered in toy skeletons and say: 'This is what the Australian Government has done to my people.’

- from ADB Online -
Fernando, Anthony Martin (1864–1949) by Alison Holland and Fiona Paisley

Anthony Martin Fernando (1864-1949), Aboriginal activist and toymaker, was by his own account born on 6 April 1864 at Woolloomooloo, Sydney, son of an Aboriginal woman, probably of the Dharug people. He may have been descended from John Martin, an African-American convict in the First Fleet who had children with Dharug women. Separated from his clan as a child, Anthony worked as an engine driver in Sydney. By the time he returned to his people, his mother had died. The thought of her, he was to assert, was 'the guiding star' of his life. In 1887 he witnessed the murder of an Aborigine by two White men, but was refused the opportunity to give evidence; the murderers were acquitted.

Disgusted with Australia, from about 1890 he publicized the Aboriginal cause overseas. In the following decades he travelled through Asia to Europe, working as a welder, toymaker, jewellery-maker, trader and servant. He lived for a time in Italy where, out of respect for the Italian people, he adopted what he described as a plain, Italian workingman's name. By 1910 'Fernando' was in Austria. British authorities repeatedly denied his claims to be a British subject. Interned in Austria during World War I, in June 1916, stating that he had been born in Australia, he requested prison relief through the consul for the United States of America in Vienna. The British Foreign Office, describing him as 'a negro', referred the matter to the Australian government, which found no evidence of his birth, and his appeal was rejected.

After the war Fernando settled in Milan, Italy, where he worked in an engineering workshop. According to surveillance reports, he attempted to present a private petition to the Pope, interviewed members of the League of Nations in Geneva and protested in a German newspaper against Australian injustice towards Aborigines. Returning to Italy, he was arrested for distributing pamphlets declaring that the British race was exterminating his people. In 1923 he was deported to Britain.

Fernando became the servant of an English barrister who offered him a stipend to settle down and write his life story; but he preferred his independence and travelled again in Europe. By 1928 he was back in London where he continued his crusade by picketing Australia House, 'his long grey beard damp with mist, his frail elderly frame wrapped in a large overcoat'. Pinned to his coat were scores of small, white, toy skeletons and he wore a placard proclaiming: 'This is all Australia has left of my people'. He also spoke at Hyde Park. In January 1929, described as a toy hawker, he appeared at the Old Bailey, charged with drawing a revolver in response to a racial taunt. After some resistance on his part, Fernando spoke to Mary Bennett, who visited his cell while he was awaiting trial. She reported a small man with a gentle demeanour, self-educated, well spoken, with a command of many languages and a good knowledge of the Bible. Bennett found him to be sane, intelligent yet driven. The prison doctor agreed, reporting that 'although he held strong views about his race, there was no indication of any delusions', and no reason to commit him to an asylum. When Fernando appeared in court, he received a sympathetic hearing. He accused Whites of murdering and ill-treating Aborigines, adding, 'I have been boycotted everywhere . . . It is tommyrot to say that we are all savages. Whites have shot, slowly starved and hanged us'. Given a gaol sentence, suspended on two years probation, he briefly worked as a cook in the barrister's employment, then continued his agitations.

In January 1938 Fernando was back before the courts, accused of assaulting a fellow lodger. Unrepentant, once more he protested at the treatment of his people. He was sentenced to three months imprisonment. Later Fernando retired to an old men's home. He died on 9 January 1949 at Ilford, Essex.

Select Bibliography
* M. Bennett, The Australian Aboriginal as a Human Being (Lond, 1930)
* M. Brown, ‘Fernando: the story of an Aboriginal Prophet’, Aboriginal Welfare * * Bulletin, vol 4, no 1, 1964, p 7
* Aboriginal Law Bulletin, 2, no 33, 1988, p 4
* F. Paisley, ‘An education in white brutality’, in A. Coombes (ed), Making History Memorable (Manchester, England, forthcoming)
* Sydney Morning Herald, 2 Feb 1929, p 17, 21 Mar 1929, p 11, 7 Feb 1938, p 8
* GRG 52/32/31 (State Records of South Australia)
* A11803/1, 14/89/475 and D1915/0, SA608 (National Archives of Australia)
* H. Goodall, Anthony Martin Fernando: Angry Ambassador (manuscript, 1989, privately held).

In 'Fernando's Ghost', we hear about the extraordinary international career of the Aboriginal rights activist Anthony Martin Fernando, who is slowly emerging from the shadows, 60 years after his death.

He was an Aboriginal man who pinned toy skeletons to his overcoat and picketed Australia House in London in the 1920s. He tried to petition the Pope and was accused of being a German spy.

Fernando was born in Sydney in 1864, the son of an Aboriginal mother, his 'guiding star' from whom he was separated as a child. He claimed to have been brought up in the home of a white family who denied him an education and treated him like a pet. He complained bitterly about the mission system, describing its settlements as 'murderhouses' -- instead proposing that an Aboriginal state be established in Australia's north, free from British and Australian interference, under the mandate of a neutral power.

Even though Fernando is relatively unknown, he has a mythology. This program explores the documentary evidence of his random but constant political activity -- from letters he wrote, to newspaper reports and secret communiques between British and Australian authorities.

As far as historians can ascertain, Fernando was driven into self-imposed exile in the early 1900s, after being excluded from giving evidence in the trial of white men accused of the murder of Aboriginal people. He believed the only way to secure justice for his people was to go to Europe. There he believed he might confront the British, whom he accused -- through the Australian Government -- of 'systematically exterminating' Indigenous people.

A religious man who could quote tracts of the Bible, he believed that God had entrusted him with a mission to save Aboriginal people from the colonial system that oppressed them." - from Hindsight ABC

Anthony Martin Fernando, Aboriginal Australian, died 9 January 1949 at Ilford, Essex, and was buried out of London, England.

James Cowley Morgan FISHER - 'The Nunawading Messiah' (1831-1913) J C M Fisher was born on 27 November 1831 in Nailsworth, Gloucestershire, England, and married in 1858 Victoria, Australia to Emma Pickis Kefford, (1838-1910) a lass born in Lower Hamlets, Hackney, London, and with close family links the Reverend Moses Rintel, Chief Rabbi of Melbourne. Fisher died on the 20th January 1913 at Wickepin, Narrogin, Western Australia. After his marriage Fisher lived at Lilydale, Victoria, where his first child was born. Between 1860 and the 1890s he lived in the land parish of Nunawading, where he became a outdoor evangelist and bush preacher, dubbed by his enemies 'The Messiah of Nunawading.'

96. = Lorimer FISON, missionary & anthropologist

96+. Rev Tom & Pat FLEMING - Missionaries of Yuendumu

The Missionaries: Tom Fleming (1909–1990) and Pat Fleming (1914–1995)

Tom Fleming and his wife Pat were Baptist missionaries at Yuendumu for 25 years.
After theological training in Melbourne, Tom Fleming worked with the Baptist Home Mission and then when war intervened in 1939, he enlisted in the Second A.I.F., eventually transferring to the Y.M.C.A. He served with the Eighth Division, first in Malaya and then as a prisoner of war in Singapore. From there, the Japanese sent him to the Sandakan prison camp in British North Borneo (now Sabah) and then to Kuching.
Although his time in the Japanese prison camps left him in ill health for some months after the war, he became interested in inland missions, Yuendumu in particular. He applied for and was accepted for the position of Baptist missionary at Yuendumu, where Tom and Pat arrived in April 1950. They remained there until Tom’s retirement to Alice Springs in July 1975.

The Flemings were well known and respected throughout the Northern Territory for their work at Yuendumu. Their achievement at Yuendumu is the church with its stained glass windows. After Tom Fleming’s death in 1990, his widow Pat received many written tributes that express the esteem in which Tom was held. Extracts from three of these tributes follow.

By Ted Egan, Superintendent at Yuendumu 1958–62, Administrator of
The Northern Territory 2003–07

It’s not surprising that a benign man like Tom Fleming would end up being called “Tom Father”. His hair was prematurely white, no doubt one of the health-shattering results of years in a Japanese POW camp. But it was more his gentle, wise, reliable
presence that gave him the father figure stature. You always felt that here was a well of knowledge and wisdom that you could always draw from. His intelligent eyes would focus his undivided attention on you, and he made you feel you were the most important person in the world, and that your beliefs and attitudes were eminently worth his time. He had a wry sense of humour, and the sort of tolerance you would expect from a man who was truly Christ-like.

He was obviously a deeply religious man, yet I never once discussed religion with him. I feel sure his thesis on religion was that it was something you displayed by your own lifestyle and code of ethics, rather than something you tried to impose on people by rigid precepts. I met Tom, his dear wife Pat, and their boys Adrian and Jolyon at Yuendumu, where Tom was the Baptist Minister for many years, and I was the Superintendent of the Aboriginal Reserve for four of those years 1958–62.

Tom and Pat were wonderful support for me in what were often difficult times, and we developed a lifelong friendship therefrom. We shared a lot of dramas, and some parental laughs for I had young children of my own, and they and the Fleming boys mixed freely, as friends and playmates, with the local Aboriginal kids. One day we
all raised our eyebrows as five-year olds Greg Egan and Jolyon Fleming got into a dust-up and began to use language that Tom said “took him back to the war years”.

Among the Aboriginal people and the station people of Central Australia, the Reverend Tom Fleming was much-loved and deeply respected. He went slowly about the work of spreading the Christian message, for he did not seek miracles, or too forcefully proselytise, or create “rice Christians’ through gifts or coercion. His own demeanour, and his unabashed love of his fellow human-beings, unsoured by his horrible war experiences, were the attributes which caused him to have such a
profound influence on everybody he met.

While as a friend I mourn his passing, I know that men such as “Tom Father’ never really die. One of the cleverest catch-lines of advertising I have ever seen was the bye-line used to promote the film Crocodile Dundee. Above the poster of the laconic Paul Hogan was the statement “There’s a little bit of him in all of us”. Well, there’s a bit of Tom Fleming in all the people who ever met him, for he gave you all he had, and asked nothing in return.

By James Marshall, Warlpiri man from Yuendumu

We will never forget old Fleming.

He was like a father for us. He helped and guided us, and was always thinking
of the future and taught and trained us for the future.
In the early days when there was no policeman, when there was trouble and
fighting he would go and help sort it out.

Jungarrayi started everything here - the Social Club, the sports weekend, the museum. He had a lot of feeling for yapa [1. Yapa - the term for Warlpiri people. (TB)]. He wanted to help them go the right way.

He was always there in trouble. He helped me when I was in trouble and they were going to spear me. He went and talked to them in the camp for me and helped sort things out.
He was always with the old people - always helping them. He knew them.
He was always in the sorry camps with the people.
He wasn’t in a hurry to make people Christians. He didn’t force people. He thought about Christianity yapa way. He never tried to throw our culture away. He was a man of God but he was always thinking of supporting the culture.
Today there are a lot of people in this community who have been trained to
do different things because of Jungarrayi. He loved Yuendumu and Central Australia and died close to here. He knew everything about Warlpiri people. The paintings in the church window show that. When he died and they had a service for him, all the people came. People came from other places too. That is what they all thought of him.

Jolyon Fleming and Ted Egan, both of Alice Springs, permitted us to use tributes to Jolyon’s father, the late Reverend Tom Fleming, in Chapter 7. Those were among the many forwarded to the late Pat Fleming after Tom’s death in 1990. FROM - YUENDUMU : - Legacy of a Longitutinal Growth Study in central Australian - Univeristy of Adelaide

97. William Small FLEMING

Birth: 25 Sept 1867Broughty Ferry, Scotland,

Death: 4 Nov 1898 Kweichau, China,

FROM: Australian Dictionary of Evangelical Biography: -

FLEMING, William Small (1867-1898)

Don Goldney


(b. Broughty Ferry, Scotland, 25 Sept 1867;
d. Kweichau, China, 4 Nov 1898). CIM missionary.

Fleming left his native Scotland at the age of 17 for a seafaring life. After seven years at sea he landed in Adelaide. Under the influence of John Virgo of the YMCA, Fleming was converted. Despite little education he became an ardent reader of the Bible and was one of the most earnest and regular attenders of the YMCA Bible and prayer classes. The rugged experiences of sea life proved useful with rescue work in Adelaide. Through open air meetings he developed the power of simple speech and was always forceful and impressive. Linking himself with the Adelaide City Mission he assisted in the work of educating and evangelising the many Chinese then in Adelaide.

Fleming was one of the earliest students of Rev Lockhart Morton's (q.v.) Training Home, Belair. Here he spent 3 years in training before being accepted by CIM in Oct 1894. He left for China in Jan 1895 cheerfully working his own passage, for he was very strongly built. Fleming was one of the 'Special 100' sent to China from Australasia in the ten years prior to 1899.

After reaching China, Fleming worked at mastering the language. As soon as possible he was out among the people where he worked as an itinerant evangelist. Like other CIM missionaries, William Fleming wore Chinese dress to identify himself with the local people. His field appointment was to work among the aboriginal people known as the Miao. Even in his brief period of service there were about two hundred enquirers in his district. He was assisted by a native Miao evangelist.

In a nearby mission station five days journey away, sickness and isolation had taken toll of missionaries and so the young missionary went to Pang-hai to help. Fleming had already been away from his base for 16 days. The party consisted of Fleming on a mule followed by his coolie carrying a load, then the native teacher and finally the native evangelist. Suddenly the evangelist was attacked by a group of men, one with a sword. Seeing the evangelist in trouble Fleming, rather than sparing his own life, went to his aid but after a violent struggle he too was killed. During the struggle the other two escaped and reported the matter to the nearest missionaries. The reason for the planned attack from those opposing the gospel was to place the blame for the murders on the responsive Miao people.

Thus William Fleming was the first CIM missionary to have lost his life as a result of an act of determined violence. Many more were to lose their lives in the later Boxer rebellion in 1900. A colleague wrote of Fleming, 'I have seldom met anyone so hungry for the Word of God. His large heart and merry laugh and absolute willingness to spend and be spent had won William the love of so many and his heart was so right with God'. His last letter was to a YMCA friend and part of it goes as follows: 'I hope to go on a journey tomorrow. I will be going alone yet not alone. How precious is the text "Lo, I am with you alway." ... I am a bit like Paul, I like to stretch out to untouched parts'.

Following Fleming's death, the flow of candidates for China increased and the work among the Miao became one of the more responsive groups in China. The work begun by Fleming and fellow missionaries not only brought a great work among the Chinese Miao but also the Miao in Northern Thailand and Burma.

* China's Millions (China Inland Mission monthly publication);
* W Lockhart Morton, Drifting Wreckage (Adelaide, 1913);
* M Loane, The Story of the CIM in Australia and New Zealand 1890-1964 (Sydney, 1965);
* M Broomhall, Martyred Missionaries of the CIM (London, 1900);
* M Broomhall, The Jubilee Story of the CIM (London, 1915)


97+. FLYNN OF THE INLAND John FLYNN of the Inland NT

98. = Sister Peg ( Margaret Mary FLYNN), Gnowangerup WA (1921-1982)

SISTER PEG FLYNN - Sharing life with the people - by Edward Campion

" Two smiling nuns in full traditional habits walk under umbrellas through the rain on the cover of Mary Ryllis Clark’s acclaimed recent history of their order, Loreto in Australia. Inside, the book gives their names and tells you that they were on holidays at the beach, in 1968. The nun on the left is Sister Peg Flynn, who is pictured later in the book with the Loreto community at Claremont, WA, in the mid-1970s. In this picture Sister Peg looks different because she was no longer wearing an identifiable habit. By then, her life was changing.

The daughter of a doctor, Peg had been a boarder at Claremont school and then entered the Loreto order. She became a primary school teacher, serving in Adelaide, Melbourne and Sydney before returning to Claremont as principal of the junior school. She was an innovative, talented principal but increasingly she longed for more direct engagement with the problems facing Australian society. She wanted to learn more about Aborigines.

Here she was responding to the special charism of the founder of the Institute of the Blessed Virgin Mary (IBVM—the Loreto sisters), Mary Ward. As her Australian biographer Jennifer Cameron has shown, in the 17th century Mary Ward envisaged a new type of nun, one that stepped away from older models of religious life to work for God closer to the everyday lives of ordinary people. So Peg Flynn felt drawn to the Nyungars of the south-east of Western Australia. With full support of her IBVM superiors, she went to live in Gnowangerup, 350 kms from Perth.

Early on, she had glimpsed what she might be in for when she attended a meeting in the Swan valley with her chum, Sister Veronica Brady, the literary critic. At issue was the recent arrival of Nyungar residents in town. British migrants thought the Aboriginal presence would depress property values. They were very angry, hooting Veronica Brady down when she attempted to speak and bad-mouthing the Nyungars as ‘dirty, noisy’ folk given to ‘wild parties’. The air was toxic with their anger.

In Gnowangerup, Peg found a friend in the local community nurse, Ruth Hicks, with whom she stayed. This gave her a swift introduction to Aboriginal health problems. Then her brother Mick, a farmer, bought her a house of her own where people could visit her. (Mick was a sort of guardian angel in those Gnowangerup years.) Life in a religious community had not taught her to cook so her meals were somewhat basic, often consisting of bread and cheese and an apple. Later, for health reasons, she would stick to raw vegetables and fruit.

She found that there were some Aborigines in town but most Nyungars lived on a reserve out of town, where they had been placed by the state. A contemporary government report ranked reserve houses as ‘lowest on the scale of desirable dwellings’—no water laid on, with communal toilets, showers and laundries. Cats and dogs were everywhere and wet weather turned the reserve into mud that was tracked through the houses. ‘A sad picture’, she wrote in her diary, ‘women saving and slaving; men rotting away.’

Peg collected stuff in Perth—blankets, clothes, beds, washing machines—and held cut-price sales, knowing that Nyungars didn’t want to be given things, they wanted to own them. Yet Aboriginal ‘sharing’ culture meant that often her cupboards were raided or her money borrowed. She learned to accept poverty the hard way. And she worked to persuade the government to move everyone off the reserve into town, with notable success.

She found plenty to do with the children. As a teacher, she prized literacy and so she was soon teaching them reading and writing one-on-one with the cooperation of the local school principal. She made friends easily with these Nyungar children, who treated her as an elder sister. On bush walks with them she admired their knowledge of wildflowers and she praised their innate creativity.

For their part, Nyungars were awed by her religious dimension. They observed her sitting in the church, so still that they thought she might be dumb. When they asked her about prayer, she told them to listen to Jesus: ‘It won’t be a voice … perhaps an idea or thought.’ She fed her spiritual life with scripture tapes, retreat notes and Madonna given to her by brother Mick. ‘I often just sit and say nothing’, she said, ‘but God knows and he’s with me.’

Peg Flynn’s story was not a lengthy one—she died of cancer early in 1982. More recently, however, Mary Ward has inspired other Loreto sisters to venture into similar innovative ways of serving God. The charism continues. "

99. +Tom FOSTER, La Perouse, NSW

100. William Mark FORSTER (1846-1921) Melbourne Founder of the TRY EXCELSIOR SOCIETY and the City Newsboys Society which became the Gordon Institute Newsboys' Try Excelsior Class - The Gordon Institute in now R.M.I.T. The TRY Society continues in Melbourne, maybe the longest-lived charity society in Australia.
Failing health had finally curtailed Forster's active participation in his societies but his humanity, tolerance and respect for the boys had gained him a special place in their affections. Deeply religious and by creed a Presbyterian, he had great moral courage. With evangelical fervour he continually exhorted the boys to be honest, truthful, kind, courageous and hard working and, above all, to seek guidance from the Scriptures. 'If God be for us, who can be against us?' was the Try Society's motto. Forster's unswerving belief in the literal truth of what he took to be a promise, and his faith in the power of prayer, made all his achievements seem, to him, a natural outcome. Through his magnetism of personality and infectious enthusiasm he carried with him the membership of his societies, and his wife and family shared his enthusiasm in his work. His societies continue and the original Try Society's Committee of Management has never lacked an active member of the Forster family.

100.a/b. Charles Hugh FRANCIS, AM QC RFD (1924-2009) Champion of the Unborn (with his wife Babette Francis). A Catholic, he was also a descendant, via his mother Constance Mary VARLEY (1898-1972), of the great Australian Protestant evangelist Henry VARLEY.

OBITUARY: Australia loses great champion of the unborn - Charles Hugh Francis AM QC RFD (1924-2009)

News Weekly, September 5, 2009
Charles Hugh Francis AM QC RFD (July 15, 1924 - August 14, 2009).

Distinguished barrister, former parliamentarian and long-time champion of the unborn, Charles Francis AM QC RFD, died at 12 midday, Friday, August 14, aged 85.

Charles Francis AM QC RFD - (1924-2009)

Charles grew up in Victoria's Dandenong Ranges in the township of Belgrave, where his father (Shirley Elliston FRANCIS (1896–1956) was the local doctor. Charles was sent to board at Camberwell Grammar and then to Melbourne Grammar.

After leaving school, he joined the RAAF and served as an air-gunner during World War II. He received a commission and, after the war, rose to the rank of group captain, later serving as deputy judge advocate general.

After the war, as a returned serviceman, Charles studied law, arts and commerce at Melbourne University and graduated in all three. He was admitted to the bar in 1948.

In 1953, Charles set sail for England and met his future wife Babette after she boarded the ship in Bombay. Within a fortnight they were engaged to be married. The wedding took place not long afterwards at the Brompton Oratory in London.

Because of the then White Australia policy and Babette's Indian birth, Charles could only initially obtain a five-year entry visa into Australia for his new bride, who has now been here for over 55 years. Charles and Babette later named their Toorak family home Stratheden after the P&O liner on which they met.

Charles continued a distinguished legal career at the Victorian Bar, which eventually spanned 53 years before he retired from practice at the age of 78. He took silk in 1969, was a member of the Bar Council and served as chairman in 1987-88.

Current chairman of the Victorian Bar, John Digby QC, said of Charles: "The span and success of his practice was enormous, from the Royal Commission into the activities of the Communist Party in 1949, through 46 murder trials, the HG&R Nominees case in 1997 (that set major precedents in contracts, mortgages, guarantees, sureties, professional negligence and indemnity insurance), to a large personal injuries verdict in March and a settlement (of) over a million dollars in August 2002, shortly before retirement."

Charles was also deeply interested in politics. In 1976 he was elected to the Victorian Legislative Assembly as the Liberal member for Caulfield. However, his parliamentary career lasted barely three years. He became disillusioned with the behaviour of the Liberals and refused to compromise on matters of principle. Charles and a fellow Liberal MP, Doug Jennings, criticised their government, under long-serving premier Sir Rupert "Dick" Hamer, for allegedly covering up corrupt land deals by the Housing Commission of Victoria. Charles thereafter aligned himself with the National Party in which he played an active part until the end of his life.

Marriage and family were central to Charles's life. His daughter Prue recalls: "He died happily anticipating his 19th grandchild and two more great-grandchildren all due to be born in the coming months. He greeted the birth of each child with great joy and was a very proud father of eight. My father was a hands-on father in an era when many men were not particularly involved with their children. When we were young, he seemed to prepare a hot breakfast for us, 365 days of the year."

In retirement, Charles was in great demand as a speaker. He was a fine raconteur and loved to entertain his audiences with a story or a joke. He continued to write articles on aspects of law, history and human rights, with his very last article appearing in News Weekly on the very day he died. During the last three years of his life, Charles suffered declining health as a result of cancer. Despite a long illness and increasing disability, he remained remarkably cheerful.

Denise Cameron, president of Pro-Life Victoria, paid tribute to the prominent role he played in the pro-life movement. She said: "Charles was a great supporter of his fellow pro-lifers, keenly interested and encouraging of all they did for unborn children, unselfish in the legal assistance, speeches and advice he gave over many years.

"Two lasting images of Charles were of him, weakened by illness, but cheerfully attending campaign meetings against the legalisation of abortion last year and of him writing opinion pieces while hooked up in hospital to intravenous feeding."

In the months before he died, Charles wrote a series of authoritative articles warning his fellow Australians about the dangers to religious freedom from misguided equal opportunity, racial and religious vilification laws and charters of rights. He believed that citizens' freedoms were best protected, not by increasing the powers of our equal opportunity and human rights bureaucracies, but by re-discovering Australia's Christian heritage.

In 1995, he addressed the Christian Lawyers' Society, Melbourne, observing: "We often ask ourselves today why we have no great leaders. May I suggest the greatest leaders are not produced by political systems but rather by a deep and abiding Christian philosophy? We fail to honour - and risk forgetting - our Christian heritage at our peril.

"We need to remember God and our Christian heritage with humility and gratitude. For a little more than 200 years we have, as compared with the rest of the world, indeed been 'the lucky country'; but if we as a nation fail to serve God and obey his commandments, our civilisation must inevitably wither and fail." (Reproduced in News Weekly, March 1, 2008).

Obituary written by John Ballantyne, editor of News Weekly.

REFERENCE: Charles Francis, "Why Australia's Christian heritage matters", News Weekly, March 1, 2008.

100+. Rev Gotthard Daniel FRITZSCHE [1797-1863] Lobethal SA from Silesia & Posen & Bethanien

101. Phyllis FROST (1917 – 2004) welfare worker, philanthropist
Dame Phyllis Frost’s Christian philosophy of love your neighbour and treat others as you would like to be treated, together with the belief that it is only in helping others that the human spirit can achieve happiness and rest, underpinned her work.

Among many causes she was devoted to, Dame Phyllis chaired the Victorian Women’s Prisons Council for many years, established the Keep Australia Beautiful movement, worked for Freedom from Hunger and raised millions of dollars for charity.

She was appointed as Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire on January 1, 1974, for outstanding service to the community, having been appointed as Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1963.

In 2000, the Victorian government recognised her achievements with women prisoners by renaming the Deer Park Metropolitan Women’s Correctional Centre the Dame Phyllis Frost Centre.

Her Christian philosophy of love your neighbour and treat others as you would like to be treated, together with the belief that it is only in helping others that the human spirit can achieve happiness and rest, underpinned her work.

Educated at Presbyterian Ladies College and the University of Melbourne, where she met her late husband, Glenn, Dame Phyllis trained as a physiotherapist and returned later to university to study criminology in order to better understand the minds of female offenders.

She worked to assist women in prisons with their diets and to keep their babies with them as they served their sentences.

Dame Phyllis Frost dies, aged 87
October 31, 2004
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Tireless welfare worker and philanthropist Dame Phyllis Frost has died, aged 87, in a nursing home in Melbourne's east.

Dame Phyllis, well known for her commitment to unpopular causes, most notably helping women prisoners, died yesterday in Nunawading and will be given a state funeral.

A funeral date is yet to be announced.

Among many causes she was devoted to, Dame Phyllis chaired the Victorian Women's Prisons Council for many years, established the Keep Australia Beautiful movement, worked for Freedom from Hunger and raised millions of dollars for charity.

She was appointed as Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire on January 1, 1974, for outstanding service to the community, having been appointed as Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1963.

In 2000, the Victorian government recognised her achievements with women prisoners by renaming the Deer Park Metropolitan Women's Correctional Centre the Dame Phyllis Frost Centre.

Her Christian philosophy of love your neighbour and treat others as you would like to be treated, together with the belief that it is only in helping others that the human spirit can achieve happiness and rest, underpinned her work.

Educated at Presbyterian Ladies College and the University of Melbourne, where she met her late husband, Glenn, Dame Phyllis trained as a physiotherapist and returned later to university to study criminology in order to better understand the minds of female offenders.

She worked to assist women in prisons with their diets and to keep their babies with them as they served their sentences.

Dame Phyllis, who married Glenn in 1941, also raised three daughters, Elizabeth, Pauline and Christine, two of whom were at her bedside when she died.

Daughter Pauline Osmond said it was a very sad day for her family.

She said her mother saw herself as "just a housewife'' who didn't like to see people oppressed.

"I think she was always someone who liked to be a champion of the underdog,'' she said.

"She wasn't a political person in the party sense, and she wasn't a wealthy woman.

"She was passionate about the causes she believed in, and they weren't the popular causes.

"She would try to put wrongs right.''

Victorian Premier Steve Bracks paid tribute to Dame Phyllis today.

Mr Bracks said through her work with around 47 mainly charitable committees and organisations, Dame Phyllis had devoted her life to speaking up for people who, in many cases, had no voice.

"From a young age, Dame Phyllis was absolutely committed to strengthening and building communities, not just in Victoria, but around the world,'' he said.

"This work marks her as truly one of the great women this state has produced.''

Mr Bracks said in more recent years Dame Phyllis regularly visited prisons despite being confined to a wheelchair.

She is survived by her three daughters, five grandchildren and three great-grandchildren.



Dame Phyllis Frost: Nothing Like A Dame
Bernadette Clohesy :

The Dame Phyllis Frost Centre :


101+. Thomas FULTON & Thomas FULTON Jnr. Christian Employer, Working Conditions Campaigners, Foundry Industrialists, Benefactors
A. Thomas FULTON Senior

Parents: Thomas FULTON & Christina BALDIE
Birth: FIfshire, Scotland

Death: 14 February 1866 At Sandhurst, Bendigo, Victoria @ 78 yrs
Burial: Melbourne General Cemetery

B. Thomas FULTON Junior

Parents: Thomas FULTON & Isabella WHEELWRIGHT
Birth: 10 September 1813 Dundee, Scotland
Died: 18 February 1859 Bendigo @ age 46 yrs

ADB ONLINE - Australian Dictionary of Biography

FULTON Thomas (1813–1859)

by Roslyn Brereton

Thomas Fulton (1813-1859), foundry owner, was born on 10 September 1813 at Dundee, Scotland, son of Thomas Fulton (d.1866), wrought-iron worker, and his wife Isabella, née Wheelwright. He was apprenticed to a machine-maker and did well. Attracted to the Congregational Church by Dr David Russell, he became a dedicated Christian. He decided to migrate to Port Phillip in partnership with Robert Langlands, brother of George and Henry, and arrived at Melbourne with his family in February 1842. With Langlands, Fulton set up an iron foundry on swampy land in Flinders Street. At first they had only a small foot-lathe but built up their business by determination and ingenuity. They erected a steam engine for the first mill in Melbourne and turned rack woolpresses for squatters, Fulton cutting the square-threaded screws by hand as the lathe was too small. When in 1843-44 squatters slaughtered thousands of stock, Fulton developed a technique for boiling them down for tallow. He was in partnership in 1846-55 with George Annand and Robert Smith and then ran the business himself; by 1858 when the gold rush had rapidly increased its output, the firm was employing 150 men. Fulton undertook plumbing and smithy work, made dray wheels, milled flour and was a licensed merchant and insurance agent. That Fulton was well liked by his men as an upright and humane employer is shown by a letter of loyalty and a silver tray they presented him in 1858.

Fulton was the first deacon of the Congregational Church in Victoria. He paid much of the cost of setting up the Lonsdale Street and St Kilda churches and donated £1000 to a £5000 fund to bring ministers from Scotland to cope with the gold rush. In 1858 he attended a church conference in Hobart. As a speaker he was popular for his 'homely and racy eloquence', although he once stood for parliament and was defeated. He was a magistrate and a Melbourne city councillor in 1854-59. A strong advocate of temperance, he also took a prominent part in agitation for separation and abolition of transportation. He formed a land syndicate which invested extensively in Malvern and Gardiner.

On 18 February 1859 Fulton was accidentally thrown to his death down a mine-shaft in Bendigo while checking the installation of machinery. He had intended to open a branch in Bendigo to make quartz-crushing machinery of his own invention. He was survived by his wife Elizabeth, née Black, and seven of eight children. To Garryowen, 'Fulton was the sort of man for an infant settlement; skilful, and industrious, strong of mind, iron in frame, outspoken, and honest to the backbone'. His headstone was erected by his employees. He died intestate but some of his property later passed to his brothers: William (1825-1879), joiner and patternmaker; James, timber merchant; and Robert, who carried on the foundry.

Select Bibliography
J. B. Cooper, The History of St. Kilda: From its First Settlement to a City and After, 1840 to 1930, vol 1 (Melb, 1931)
J. B. Cooper, A History of Malvern (Melb, 1935)
Age (Melbourne), 16, 18 Nov 1854
Argus (Melbourne), 21 Feb 1859
'In Memoriam', My Note Book, 23 Feb 1859, p 907
Southern Spectator, Apr 1859.

102. =Joseph FURPHY, poet, writer, pilgrim Yering VIC – WA

102+. Kapiu Masi GAGAI (c.1894-1946)

Kapiu Masi GAGAI

Birth: 1894 Mabuiag Island, Queensland, Australia
Cultural Heritage: Indigenous Australian
Christianity: Anglican & Methodist
Occupation: carpenter, merchant sailor, pearler, soldier
Character: Courageous, Steely, Intrepid, Faithful, Loyal, Unselfish, kind, patient and wise
Death: 21 August 1946 Thursday Island, Queensland, Australia
Burial: Badu Island cemetery, Torres Strait, Queensland, Australia
Legacy: The Christianity & Self-Respect of his Torres Strait people

From Australian Dictionary of Biography - ADB Online

Gagai, Kapiu Masi (1894–1946)

by Jenny Rich

Kapiu Masi Gagai (c.1894-1946
, pearler, boatman, mission worker, carpenter and soldier, was born about 1894 probably on Mabuiag Island, Torres Strait, Queensland, second son of Newa Gagai and his wife Kubi. Kapiu belonged to the Kodal (crocodile) clan and the Badu tribe, and was later adopted—in the Islander way—by a married couple Nomoa and Kaidai. Taken to Badu Island as a child, he received a basic education at the local school, religious instruction from London Missionary Society and Church of England missionaries, and was trained as a carpenter. From the age of about 15 he worked as a swimmer-diver, sailing in the Islander-owned pearling lugger, Wakaid.

On 22 December 1915 at Bethlehem Church, Badu, Gagai married with Anglican rites a local woman Laina Getawan (d.1923), daughter of Getawan and Dabangai; they were to have three daughters. In June 1921 Rev. James Watson recruited him to join the staff of (South) Goulburn Island (Methodist) Mission, Northern Territory, as a boat captain and lay mission worker. Gagai's wife and children accompanied him there. He later worked at Milingimbi Mission. At Goulburn Island Mission on 26 October 1929 he married Mujerambi (Marjorie), daughter of Alfred Joseph Voules Brown, trepanger and trader, and Mumuludj, an Iwaidja-speaking Aborigine; Kapiu and Mujerambi were to have ten children.

In April 1932 Gagai took his family back to Badu where he was employed as a carpenter and went to sea in another Islander-owned pearling lugger. The anthropologist Donald Thomson hired him in May 1935 to take charge of the auxiliary ketch, St Nicholas, which he sailed off Arnhem Land. Thomson named Kapiu Point, near the entrance to the Koolatong River, in his honour, but this name has not been officially recognized. When Thomson left the Territory in 1937, Gagai resumed his former occupations at Badu before operating a punt for the Queensland Main Roads Commission.

Despite being over-age and classified as medically unfit, he enlisted in the Australian Military Forces on 27 October 1941 and immediately joined the 7th Military District's Special Reconnaissance Unit, commanded by Thomson. Gagai was boatswain of the unit's armed vessel, Aroetta, which patrolled the coast of Arnhem Land in 1942-43. He was twice placed in charge of an outpost at Caledon Bay, became an expert Vickers-gunner and was promoted acting sergeant. In recommending him for a decoration, Thomson praised his sense of responsibility, devotion to duty, leadership, loyalty, unselfishness and the example he set for others. The unit was disbanded in mid-1943 and Gagai was posted to the Torres Strait Light Infantry Battalion on Thursday Island.

In late 1943 he was seconded to the 11th Infantry Brigade and took part in a hazardous expedition led by Thomson in Netherlands New Guinea. Thomson subsequently wrote:

I well remember the quiet, steadfast courage of Sergeant Kapiu . . . [who] was a first-class waterman. He was strong and he had no nerves. He could work and when the tension was over he could sleep like a log. He did not fret and worry and waste nervous energy . . . He was powerful—massive is a better word—impassive; even stolid. But he could laugh—a laugh halfway between the angels and Rabelais.
Thomson, Gagai and another soldier were wounded when New Guineans attacked the party close to Japanese outposts on the Eilanden River. After recovering in hospital at Merauke from a deep machete cut to his neck, Gagai returned to Thursday Island. From January 1944 he was with No.14 Australian Small Ship Company, supervising Islander and Aboriginal soldiers, and occasionally piloting small craft in Torres Strait and around Cape York. He served in the Torres Strait Light Infantry Battalion from March 1945 until he was discharged on 28 March 1946.

Gagai was 'a loyal churchman' and a chorister who loved his people's traditional songs and dances. Big and strong, he was kind, patient and wise, and greatly respected by the Islanders, Aborigines and White Australians who knew him. He spoke Kala Lagaw Ya, English and some Aboriginal languages, and had a detailed knowledge of Torres Strait waters and the coasts of Cape York and Arnhem land. Like other Islanders in the A.M.F., he did not receive the same pay and conditions as his White counterparts. Gagai died of lobar pneumonia on 21 August 1946 at Thursday Island and was buried in Badu Island cemetery. His wife and seven of their children survived him, as did two daughters of his first marriage.

Select Bibliography
* L. Lamilami, Lamilami Speaks (Syd, 1974)
* J. Beckett, Torres Strait Islanders (Canb, 1987)
* Geographical Journal, 119, pt 1, Mar 1953
* J. Rich, Sergeant Kapiu (manuscript, privately held)
* D. Thomson papers (Museum Victoria)
* Methodist Overseas Mission records, Northern Australia papers (State Library of New South Wales)
* AWM 54, item 741/5/9 (Australian War Memorial)
* private information.

103A. Thomas GAINFORD the boxer, gold-digger, preacher and rescuer of men

Rev. Thomas Gainford, Bethel Union, Sydney, NSW

The Boxer-preacher Thomas GAINFORD was born about 1823 in Winscales, Cumberland, England, Great Britain, the son of agricultural labourer William GAINFORD (1786 – 1873) and Jane nee WALKER (1791 – 1827) of Harrington, Cumberland. In early youth Gainford was apprenticed to local shipwight, Thomas Ferry of Workington, Cumberland and young Thomas was living with the Ferry family in 1841.

In his early manhood he took his trade and himself to the Thames Estuary Ports at Sheppey, Kent, and it was there in about November 1850 that he married his girl from back home, Dinah BRIGGS from Workington, Cumberland, born about 1821. She was the daughter of Richard BRIGGS (1796 – 1845) and his wife Mary WILSON (1796 – 1880). The English census of 1851 records them living at Sheerness Mile Town, Kent, England where Thomas Gainford was a Shipwright working at the A.M. Dockyard. Their eldest son, William Richard GAINFORD was born about May 1852 at Sheppey, Kent. He later married Ada Iris 'Eda J.' CAMPBELL in Sydney NSW in 1879 and they had a son. He died 12 March 1916 in Brisbane, Queensland.

-The GAINFORDs as a family of three, emigrated from Gravesend on the ship 'WALMER CASTLE' and arrived Hobsons Bay, Port Melbourne, Victoria, Australia in August 1853.

Though the Gainfords arrived in Mebourne in 1853, and spent most of the next five years on the Victorian Goldfields, their next child Thomas the younger Gainford was born late in 1853 in Sydney, NSW. So the Gainfords crossed between Victoria and NSW, though all but one of their children were born in NSW. John GAINFORD born abt 1856 in Bendigo district, Sandhurst Victoria, – 1915; and the twins Henry GAINFORD (1861 – 1935) and Joseph GAINFORD (1861 – 1861) were born in Newcastle, New South Wales.

Reverend Thomas GAINFORD died 1884, age 61 in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. His wife Dinah, nee Briggs Gainford survived him about ten years, dying 1896 in Parramatta, New South Wales.

The fate of the younger Gainfords: Thomas the younger was married at the Mariners' Church, Sydney in 1879 to Harriet Hobbs. He died 1920 St Leonards, NSW.
John Gainford married Alice A. BARRON at his father's Bethel Union House in Sydney in 1885. He died 1915 in St Leonards, NSW.
Henry Gainford married Bessie Maria Penny in St Leonards, Sydney in 1892. He died 25 September 1935 in Queensland, Australia.

From The Australian Dictionary of Biography online -

Gainford, Thomas (1823–1884)

by Niel Gunson

Life Summary : Thomas Gainford

Birth: 28 February 1823 Workington, Cumberland, England

Death : 5 March 1884 Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

Cultural Heritage : English

Religious Influence: Congregational, Methodist

Occupation: company manager, Congregationalist minister, magistrate, Methodist lay leader, sawmiller, shipbuilder, shipwright social reformer, temperance advocate.

Thomas Gainford (1823-1884), Congregational minister and social reformer, was born on 28 February 1823 on Wythmour Head estate near Workington, Cumberland, England, son of William Gainford, farmer, and his wife Jane, née Walker. Educated at the village school, Gainford at 19 was champion wrestler of Cumberland. Discontented with farm work, he became a shipwright at Workington and studied navigation. In 1842 as a ship's carpenter in the Philomela on the South American run he had a religious conversion. On his return he evangelized as a 'praying sailor' and worked in Sheerness dockyard. Known as the 'Black Preacher', he became a Wesleyan local preacher, chief ruler in the Rechabites, president of the temperance society and an advocate of the peace movement. At Sheerness in 1850 he married Dinah Briggs.

With little chance of promotion, Gainford decided to migrate and in September 1853 arrived in Sydney with his family in the Walmer Castle. He worked for John Cuthbert, shipbuilder, and on his own account built wharves for the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Co.; later he became its superintendent of steamers. Guided by Nathaniel Pidgeon he assisted in the work of the City Mission, especially at the Female Refuge. In 1855 he became coproprietor of a sawmill on the Parramatta River but soon started another on the Richmond River where he also preached to the cedar-getters. In 1857 he went to the Victorian goldfields and preached and did temperance work at Tarrangower (Maldon). He became a magistrate and company manager at Mount Korong (Wedderburn). He was one of the two delegates sent to Melbourne to plead at the bar of the House in protest against the proposed land bill; he was then asked to represent Tarrangower in parliament but refused. In 1859 he left the Wedderburn diggings to become foreman of the patent slip at Stockton, Newcastle, where he preached for the Wesleyans and also served as pastor for the Congregational Church in Brown Street. Next year he was ordained to the Congregational ministry and in 1867 was called to the Ocean Street Church, Woollahra. In 1870 at a much lower salary he became minister of the Mariners' Church. To make it attractive to seamen he renovated the building and grounds and organized a normal congregation. He also ran several benevolent activities particularly in advising the sick poor on hygiene and medical care. The reforms of 'Father Gainford' did much to give the Sydney Bethel Union world-wide repute.

Gainford died at Bethel House, Sydney, on 5 March 1884, survived by his wife and by four of their five sons. An Evangelical, much of his appeal as a preacher lay in his 'transparent goodness'. His repute as a revivalist was enhanced by his influence over such desperate characters as the prize-fighter, Tom Sullivan, a notorious New Zealand goldfield murderer, who confessed at his trial that at the Wedderburn diggings he had been nearly persuaded to reform when Gainford told him he was 'a gem in the rough'. Gainford's conversion of the murderers R. F. Nichols and A. Lester at Darlinghurst gaol in 1872 received much publicity. Besides advocating total abstinence Gainford condemned smoking and had a naive faith in hydropathy and phrenology.

Select Bibliography

J. and W. R. Gainford (eds), Memoir of Incidents in the Life and Labours of Thomas Gainford (Orpington, 1886).

EXTRACT from 'UNDERSTANDING OUR CHRISTIAN HERITAGE VOLUME II CHAPTER 16" which includes a citation from the Dairy of Thomas GAINFORD -

Missionary to the Victorian Goldfields and to Sydney Sailors


Thomas Gainford was born in 1823 in Cumberland, England and by the age of 19 years was the Cumberland champion wrestler. In 1842 Thomas Gainford was converted whilst working on board a ship as a carpenter. He later married, migrated to Australia in 1853, and was employed as a ship-builder.

In 1857 he worked in the Victorian Goldfields, where he also preached and carried out temperance work. Later he was asked to represent the goldmining community in parliament but declined, although he did accept the position of magistrate. Gainford became a Congregational Minister with churches in Newcastle (Stockton) and later Sydney, where he especially became involved in the Mariners or Bethel Church which gained him worldwide recognition. Thomas Gainford died in 1884, having been instrumental in the conversion of many Australians, some of whom were notorious murderers, and of sailors from around the world.

The following excerpts are from the chapter 'On the Goldfields' in his book Memoirs of the Life and Labour of Thomas Gainford published in 1886.


"During the greater portion of my life on the diggings I was engaged in preaching almost every Sunday. Great interest was taken in the services, and the little chapel in which they were held very soon became too small; we accordingly set to work and had its accommodation increased by adding sixteen feet to its length and raising the roof two feet higher.
"A revival broke out in our midst, and many were added to the Church; amongst them were one English and six Scotch families. They were all genuine cases, having before had the theory of religion, but no power. After their conversion they told me that, before they were brought to a knowledge of the truth, they used to think I inquired after the welfare of their souls as I would ask about the state of their bodies, and did not like my questions. They now, however, saw things in a different light, and were ready to reply as to their spiritual state. Not content with being right themselves,they were anxious that those who were near and dear to them should also experience the happiness and comfort of mind they themselves enjoyed, and read over to me some letters they were sending to their parents and friends, in which they warned them against a mere form of religion without any power, and besought them to have the Spirit of God with them and be happy, as they were.
"I used to hold a temperance meeting once a week, and had the pleasure of persuading many of the diggers to sign the pledge, and lead sober, honest lives.

"Notwithstanding all my digging ventures turned out to be what miners call 'duffers', the three years I spent upon the Victorian gold-field I count amongst the happiest days of my life. There is something fascinating in the free-and-easy life of the digger - a certain sort of independence that is not met with in any other class of men. Such a life was congenial to me, and it was through sheer necessity I was compelled to abandon it. The many failures and bad speculations I had made used up my capital to such an extent, that I was compelled to seek other employment. Had I been working purely on my own account, I should have been able to hold out longer, and perhaps, have fallen upon something worth working for; but, unfortunately, my partners were men without capital, and all the losses fell upon me, - losses which it took me years to pay.

"I could look back to my life upon the diggings - to the many happy hours spent in striving to benefit, both morally and spiritually, those with whom I was constantly coming into contact, to the many warm friendships formed, and to their associations - with feelings of unmixed pleasure and satisfaction, were it not for the recollection of one sad, dark day, - the day when I lost my faithful friend and mate, George Ward. George and I came from Sydney together. Through thick and thin we had stuck to each other. He was my 'man Friday', not only on weekdays, but on Sundays also. In the claims he was my factotum; and his cheerful happy countenance and contented disposition went a great way towards lightening our toils, and taking off the keen edges of our many disappointments and failures. On Sundays he was my right-hand man; he used to lead the singing. And such singing it was, would that we had some of its soul-stirring harmony in our churches nowadays! Our little chapel was situated in a valley; and on a still, quiet night George's splendid tenor voice, as he led the singing of some of our favourite hymns, such as 'There is a fountain', 'My God is reconciled', or the Doxology, could be heard upon the hillsides for at least a mile around. It was a picture to see him standing beside the pulpit, singing with all his might and main, while perspiration, and often tears, streamed down his sunburnt face. George needed no hymn-book - he knew all our hymns by heart; indeed, a book would have been of little use, for he invariably sang with his eyes closed, while his body kept time with the tune, rolling from side to side, like, as sailors would say, 'a seventy-four in a gale of wind'. George was a happy Christian, - not one of those long-faced, woe-begone individuals so often met with, and from whom everybody shrinks, but rather one of those joyous cheerful ones who recommend their religion. He was greatly attached to me, and I to him. I believe he would cheerfully have laid down his life to save mine. Our times are in God's hands - when we came into this world, and when we shall depart from it. George's life was cut off suddenly, without a moment's warning; he died in the high day of his manhood, and died, too, in my stead.

"In one of our claims George and I were working together. We had commenced a new drive from the bottom of the shaft, and had carried it about ten feet under what appeared to be solid pipeclay. We were working by candlelight; and as our candle was nearly burnt out, George left for home to get another. As he came back he was swinging the candle round by the wick, and singing merrily. While passing a diggers' tent his happy mood attracted attention, and the remark was made, 'Well, that man must have a good claim and be making lots of money, he seems so happy and contented.' Little did the man who made the remark know that poor George had anything but a good claim, and so little money, it was with great difficulty he could make both ends meet. Yet, for all that, George was rich; he had the 'pearl of great price' and much treasure laid up in heaven, where neither moths corrupt, nor thieves break through and steal. The assurance he had one day of entering into possession of the riches laid up for him in heaven kept him happy and contented whatever his lot might be. His expectation was to be realised far sooner than he expected. "On reaching the top of the claim he called out, 'Tom, you had better come up and let me take your place; there is not enough room for two to work in the drive, and as I am much shorter than you, I can work there better.' 'No,' I replied, 'I am getting on all right, and can manage it very well.' For a few moments I continued my work, when he again called me, saying, 'Tom, come up here; Macfarlane wants to speak to you.' Now, Macfarlane was a young convert in whom I took much interest; and, thinking he might want to see me very particularly, I dropped my pick and came out of the claim. On the top I met George, and we had some conversation regarding Mr. Campbell, the lawyer to whom I have already referred, George remarking, as he went down the shaft, that the new convert would be a great assistance to me at the church, as he was a good speaker, while he himself could only sing, and was very little use in any other way.

"I remained in conversation with Macfarlane about ten or fifteen minutes, and, having occasion to leave with him, I called out to George, saying that I was going away. I received no answer, and called again. There was still no reply, and I became anxious. Quickly descending the shaft, I rushed into the drive, and found, to my horror, that the whole roof had fallen in, and, where George had been working, there lay a large heap of earth which had buried him alive. Seizing a shovel, I dug with all my strength, and quickly had him exhumed; raising his head, I called to him, but received no answer; alas! he was dead. By this time the alarm had been given, and a doctor was in attendance, but nothing could be done; George was far beyond human aid; his happy spirit had winged its flight to those bright realms of which he so often talked and so constantly sang. As there was no clergyman in the district, I was obliged to conduct his burial service myself, and on the following Sunday preached his funeral sermon. "George died almost penniless, and his widow was left totally unprovided for; however, we made a collection amongst his digger-friends and raised sixty pounds, with which we paid her passage and sent her home to her friends in England.

"The death of George Ward was a great blow to me. I felt his loss most keenly. We had been so much together, I now missed him at every turn, and it seemed as though I had lost my right hand. I determined as soon as possible to leave the diggings. "About this time I received a visit from a friend, Mr. James Scott, of Newcastle, New South Wales, who, while in Victoria for a short time, came up to the gold-fields to see me. He was then the proprietor of the Patent Slip at Stockton, and was very anxious that I should accept the position of foreman under him. I agreed to do so, and started as quickly as possible for Newcastle. "When my intention became known there was universal regret amongst those with whom I had been associated. I referred to my intended departure at the next week-night service, and on leaving for home was accosted by one of the diggers, who, after expressing his regret at my going away from them, said, 'I want you, Mr. Gainford, to accept this little present from me; it is six sovereigns to help you on your way. I know how unfortunate you have been, and how much capital you have lost. You have had bad claims all along, while I have had good ones; besides, had I not taken the pledge from you, I should have squandered ten times that amount in drink.' At first I refused the present. I had so far been enabled to preach the Gospel without fee or reward, and gloried in the fact that, whilst I was enabled, by God's blessing, to minister to their spiritual wants, my hands ministered to my own temporal necessities. He persisted in my taking the money, saying, 'Use it now, and some day, when you can afford to do so, buy something by which you can remember me.' At last I consented, remembering how useful it would be to me on my journey to Newcastle, especially as Mrs. Gainford had that very evening told me she had parted with the last penny we had in the world. The digger wept like a child in leaving me, saying, 'Good-bye; may God make you a blessing wherever you go, and thank you a thousand times for stopping me that evening.' By thanking me for 'stopping him that evening,' he referred to the occasion of his conversion. At one of our prayer-meetings I had noticed this man, who was then a stranger to me, leave the chapel, and return again several times, as if he had a desire to go away, but could not do so. Going over to him, I said, 'Well, my friend, Satan has tried hard to get you away from the prayer-meeting to-night, but has not succeeded; do you wish to give your heart to God?' 'Yes, I do wish to do so, and I shall.' 'Very well,' I replied; 'after we have finished this hymn, just kneel down and ask God for that pardon you require, and for strength to set out upon, and continue in, that Christian life you wish to lead.' He promised to do so; but I could see there was a fearful struggle going on in his soul. Every now and then he would look towards the door as if he intended to rush out. When we knelt for prayer I was careful to place myself between him and the door; not that I intended to forcibly detain him, but it occurred to me that my presence there might assist him to overcome the temptation he had to leave.

He kept his promise and prayed, though he trembled to such an extent, the whole form shook again. His prayer was from the heart, having for its burden, 'God, be merciful to me, a sinner;' and, like the publican of old, he went down to his house justified. He often used to thank me for kneeling where I did, saying, 'What a good thing it was you knelt between me and the door! for, had you not been there when you asked me to pray, I should have bolted, and you would have seen no more of me; but, thank God, it was not so.'

"On the eve of my departure the members of the Church and congregation, as well as the public, held a farewell meeting, at which I was presented with the two following addresses, accompanied by a purse of ten guineas:-

"To Mr. Thomas Gainford, of Wedderburn, in the Colony of Victoria.
"Wedderburn, 3rd October, 1859.
"Sir, -
"We the undersigned members of the Mount Corong Total Abstinence Society, having heard with deep regret of your intention of leaving this place for Newcastle, N.S.W., deem the present a fit and proper opportunity of expressing our sorrow at your leaving, and, at the same time, of tendering you our most heartfelt thanks for the very able and efficient manner in which you have advocated the principles of our society, and have so strongly denounced the evil effects of intemperance; and we beg to assure that much good has resulted to familues and individuals in this locality, who were induced by you to eschew the slavish vice of drunkenness and intemperance, and to rally round the standard of total abstinence. And it is further our most anxious prayer that you may be spared to carry out that good work in the place you are now destined for, and that the blessing of God may ever attend you and yours for the many benefits you have conferred upon that portion of God's creatures who were so deluded by the use of intoxicating liquors as to forget the respect due to themselves and their duty to God.

"Meanwhile believe us to be, sir,
"Your obedient servants and well-wishers."
(Signed by forty members of the Wedderburn Total Abstinence Society.)

Wedderburn, 3rd October, 1859
"Dear Brother -
"We the undersigned members of the Wesleyan Chapel, Wedderburn, have heard with much sorrow of your intention to leave this place for Newcastle, N.S.W., and we feel that we cannot permit you to leave without testifying to you the sincere affection and respect which we have and bear towards you as a brother in Christ, and a zealous and devoted labourer in His vineyard. It is now upwards of nine months since it pleased God to send you to dwell amongst us, and during that time we have had frequent opportunities of witnessing your efforts for ameliorating the condition of your fellow-men, not only by inculcating the principles of religion and morality, but by your own good example as a kind and affectionate husband and father, and as an honest, upright, sober, and industrious man; and we feel assured that much good has resulted to many of us from your pious example, kind sympathy, advice, and conversation. We have much pleasure in testifying that during the whole time you have been resident amongst us you have most zealously preached the gospel of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ; and we are happy to say that your preaching has been both powerful and efficacious, inasmuch as it has been the means of bringing many persons to acknowledge their evil ways and turning them from sin and Satan unto Christ, and to whom grace and peace have been so multiplied that they are now enjoying the felicity and happiness of true believers in Christ Jesus, and, as such, are heirs of His Kingdom.

We have also much pleasure in being able to testify to the inestimable value and efficacy of the Bible-class you held here, and the religious instruction and benefits which many derived therefrom who had but imperfect knowledge of the Holy Scriptures; and we can assure you that the time you so ungrudgingly and unsparingly devoted to that class has already been productive of much good in the cause of Christ's Church and Kingdom, inasmuch as private individual inquiries had to be made by members in order to answer you questions; and thus a desire and a thirsting after Scripture knowledge was created, and the seeds of gospel truths sown in many hearts, which it is hoped, by the blessing of God and the influence of the Holy Spirit, may bring forth good and abundant fruit.
"And in bidding you this our last farewell we beg to tender you our most sincere and heartfelt thanks for the many benefits you have conferred upon us as a body and as individuals, and also for your unwearied exertions in propagating and establishing the gospel and the Church of Christ; and we pray that the blessing of God may rest upon you, your wife, and children, and that you may be long spared to each other, and that you may continue to be instrumental in turning sinners from their evil ways unto Christ, until it shall please God, in His infinite wisdom, to take you to Himself.

"Meanwhile believe us to be, dear brother,
"Your affectionate brethren in Christ."
(Signed by upwards of fifty members of the Wesleyan Chapel.)

"When all our arrangements were complete, one of the church members who had a conveyance agreed to drive us to Melbourne. There were no trains so far into the country in those days, and the journey had to be done by coach. It occupied several days and nights, and was no small undertaking. The morning of our departure was beautifully fine, and many of our friends accompanied us some distance along the road. The final halt took place, and we were obliged to say farewell, the scene reminded me much of the account, given in the Acts of the Apostles, of Paul's departure, and of the members of the Church of Ephesus falling upon his neck and kissing him. Our friends fell upon our necks and kissed us; sorrowing most of all because they should see our faces no more. Our final adieu having been said, we knelt for a few moments in prayer, commending each other to God's keeping.

103. Robert Randolph GARRAN

104. George GAWLER

105. Fr. Patrick Bonaventure GEOGHEGAN, (1805–1864) Ireland, Kyneton, Melbourne,

Geoghegan, Patrick Bonaventure (1805–1864) - by Osmund Thorpe

Patrick Bonaventure Geoghegan (1805-1864), Roman Catholic bishop, was born in Dublin and baptized on 17 March 1805. He was orphaned at the age of 8 and relations of his father who were not Catholics arranged for his admission to a Protestant institution. He was rescued by a Franciscan priest and placed in an orphanage. Later the Franciscans sent Geoghegan to school at Edgeworthstown, County Longford, and then to a college in Lisbon. Eager to become a Franciscan priest he was transferred to the Franciscan training school at Coimbra, Portugal. After completing his studies he was ordained priest on 21 February 1830. He was appointed to St Francis's Church, Dublin, where in 1837 he was interviewed by Dr William Ullathorne who was recruiting priests for the Australian Catholic Mission. Geoghegan volunteered to go for seven years. Given £150 for his outfit and passage by the Colonial Office he sailed in the Francis Spaight and arrived at Sydney on 31 December. He was appointed to Bathurst but after four months Bishop John Bede Polding sent him to establish the first Catholic mission in Melbourne.

Some three thousand Catholics were then in the area out of a population of about ten thousand. Geoghegan lost no time in putting up 'almost in the open air … a poor temporary altar' and celebrated the first Mass on Pentecost Sunday, 19 May. A week later he notified his flock that 'a plain commodious church' had to be built and that they were to cultivate 'kind liberable feeling and deportment toward the members of all religious persuasions'. The government gave him a salary of £150 and a land grant at the corner of Elizabeth and Lonsdale Streets where he built a temporary church, a presbytery and a school. On 4 October 1841 he laid the foundation stone of St Francis's Church. In April-September 1842 he was in Sydney and again briefly in 1843. In Melbourne in July he narrowly escaped being hit by a bullet fired in an encounter between members of the Orange Society and Catholics, mostly Irish born, whom he was trying to restrain. He was made vicar-forane by Archbishop Polding. On 23 October 1845 he opened the completed Church of St Francis. On 30 October 1846 he left Melbourne for Hobart Town on his way, it was wrongly thought, for Ireland but was back in April 1847. Rumour then held that he was to be the first Catholic bishop of Melbourne. However, James Goold was appointed to the Melbourne see and on 6 August 1848 chose Geoghegan as his vicar-general. Early that year Geoghegan had visited the new Anglican bishop, Charles Perry, but received what even many Protestants regarded as an an ungracious rebuff. In March 1849 Geoghegan left for Ireland to recruit priests for the Australian mission. He returned in April 1851. In 1852 to the select committee on education in Victoria 'he gave a most complete exposition of Catholic views on the respective roles of the Church, the family, and the state in education'.

When Dr Francis Murphy died in 1858 Geoghegan was appointed bishop of Adelaide. He was consecrated in St Francis's, Melbourne, on 8 September 1859 and enthroned in St Francis Xavier's Cathedral, Adelaide, on 1 November. Deeply troubled by the education system in South Australia he 'exhorted pastors and their flocks to an united effort to establish Catholic schools in their respective localities'. With the help of 30,000 francs from the Propagation of the Faith, several schools were opened. He also built twenty new churches and the chancel and side altars of his cathedral. To recruit dedicated priests for the diocese he left for Europe in February 1862 but in Rome on 10 March 1864 was translated at his own request to the new see of Goulburn, New South Wales. In Dublin he was extremely ill when an old throat ailment became a cancer. He died on 9 May 1864 at Kingstown (Dunleary) and was buried in the old Church of St Francis, Merchants Quay, Dublin.

Father Geoghegan, according to one who knew him in the early days in Melbourne, was 'a round, chubby, natty little man, a perfect picture of health and cheerfulness'. At his best when faced with problems, he admitted to being very sensitive and easily hurt, a disposition which led him into errors of judgment as well as much suffering. An inclination to excessive fault-finding alienated some of the priests in Melbourne and Adelaide.

A portrait in oils is in the dining room of the Archbishop's House, West Terrace, Adelaide.

Select Bibliography
P. F. Moran, History of the Catholic Church in Australasia (Syd, 1895)
F. Byrne, History of the Catholic Church in South Australia (Adel, 1896)
F. Mackle, The Footprints of our Catholic Pioneers (Melb, 1924)
R. Fogarty, Catholic Education in Australia 1806-1950 (Melb, 1959)
Geoghegan papers (Roman Catholic Archives, Sydney, Melbourne and Adelaide).

106. + Pearl GIBBS

107. William GELLIBRAND, South Arm, Hobart Tas & Joseph Tice GELLIBRAND, Attorney-Generalof Van Diemens Land /TAS- Port Phillip Pioneer,

108. Rev. Joseph Tice GELLIBRAND II ~ MA from Oxford; Vicar at Sth Hobart, Missionary to the Maories

109. General John GELLIBRAND

110. = Bishop Mathew GIBNEY

110.a. Fr Thomas GIL O.S.B. (Order of Saint Benedict) - Killed in 27 September 1943 by Japanese Air Raid and Bombing Attack on the Drysdale River Mission, now Kalumburu Community, in The Kimberley, Western Australia.
"In February 1943, Allied signals intelligence suggested that Japanese aircraft would be built up in Timor for attacks on Darwin. Eight Beaufighters from No. 31 Squadron RAAF were despatched to Drysdale River, to prepare for a pre-emptive strike.[1] On 28 February, it was confirmed that the enemy aircraft had arrived at Penfui, near Kupang. An early morning strike destroyed 12 Japanese aircraft on the ground and damaged another 10. Two Beaufighters were damaged by Japanese fighter aircraft but returned to Drysdale River.
On 27 September 1943, the base and settlement were attacked by 21 Japanese Kawasaki Ki-48 bombers, based at Kupang, Timor, with a fighter escort. The Superior of the mission, Father Thomas Gil O.S.B, aged 45 years.and five Aboriginals ranging from the age of 1 year to 45 years were killed. This included a mother and son. All victims were buried together on mission grounds, the Aboriginals on either side of Father Thomas, following the funeral at the damaged Church. Many buildings at the mission were also destroyed or severely damaged during the raid."

[Amanda Smith: Amanda holds Graduate Diplomas in Theology and in Church History from the Melbourne College of Divinity. She is currently finishing her Master of Arts thesis on the life and work of Fr Thomas Gil OSB who was one of the missionary-monks at Kalumburu. Research for this thesis draws on Gil’s writings and other original material held in the Archives at New Norcia.

Fr Thomas Gil Museum

LEGACY: Father Thomas Gil Museum, Kalumburu, Western Australia

Inside the Fr Thomas Gil Museum - The Feast of Our Lady of the Assumption, August 15th 2008, marked the 100th Anniversary of Pago / Kalumburu Mission, known originally as Drysdale River Mission

1. The Koolama incident in the Timor Sea, 1942 Malice or Mutiny? By Bill Loane - Rosenburg Publishing 2004 Kenthurst NSW - also Google Books, online
2. Kalumburu, Western Australia - WIKIPEDIA
3. Kalumburu – 100 Years By Bill Worth - Catholic Diocese of Broome - website
4. SMITH, Amanda - Thesis on Fr Thomas Gil. MCD libraries?

- S T Gill ~ Sunday Camp Meeting, 1852, Victorian Gold Fields

111. Samuel Thomas GILL (1818-1880), Frontier Artist & father Baptist Reverend Samuel GILL (1793-1852)

Samuel Thomas GILL became one of Australia's first recognized artists for the wideley published prints of his very poignantly-human frontier and goldfields vignettes. S T Gill was born 21 Mat 1818 at the Baptist Manse, Perriton, near Minehead, Somerset, England.

Samuel Thomas GILL in about 1854, Castlemaine

112. Rev. Doctor Athol GILL - B

113. GL......

114. Dr Mary GLOWREY


by Robyn Fahy & Fr Dan Strickland MG

When in early January 1920, a brass plate disappeared from the front of 82 Collins St, Melbourne, an extraordinary story remained untold for many years. The plate bore the inscription, Mary Glowrey, M.D. Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Specialist. Mary Glowrey was born in 1887 at Birregurra in Victoria. Of Irish descent, she was the third of nine children born into a loving and prayerful family. Each night the Rosary was said and with it a prayer for priests and doctors. Mary, recalling that practice many years later, wrote: "When my brother and I were respectively priest and doctor, I sincerely hoped that many another mother added that 'trimming' to the Rosary." Mary's outstanding academic achievements would earn her a University Exhibition, an invaluable cash scholarship and, pursuing her literary interests, she began studying for a Bachelor of Arts at the University of Melbourne in 1905. However, after a great deal of prayer and the encouragement of her father, Mary switched over to the medical course and graduated in 1910 with a Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery.

After completing her residency in New Zealand, she returned to build her own successful private practice in Melbourne, later working at St Vincent's Hospital and the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital.

God's call

A chance reading in 1915 of a pamphlet about the appalling death rate amongst babies in India fundamentally changed the direction of her life. Falling to her knees, Mary finished reading the pamphlet and knew God was calling her to help the women and children of India.

Meanwhile, Mary's busy schedule of external commitments continued. In 1916, she was elected as the first General President of the newly formed Catholic Women's Social Guild, now known as the Catholic Women's League of Victoria and Wagga Wagga. Deeply concerned about the economic and social inequities that women faced, this inspired group of young Catholic women sought to change society through prayer and action. This was the first large scale organising of Catholic women in Victoria. During this busy time, Mary also studied for a higher medical degree with a particular emphasis on obstetrics, gynaecology and ophthalmology in preparation for her medical missionary work. She became a Doctor of Medicine in December 1919. In January 1920, Mary left her thriving career as an eye, ear, nose and throat specialist and, surrendering herself completely to God's will, sailed for India to become a medical missionary with the Congregation of the Society of Jesus, Mary and Joseph in Guntur. Pope Pius XI later bestowed a special blessing on her medical work and, as Sister Mary of the Sacred Heart, she became the first nun-doctor missionary. A woman of profound faith and brilliant achievement, she placed the remainder of her life at the service of the medical and spiritual needs of the people of India

In time the small dispensary in Guntur grew into St Joseph's Hospital where Mary, for many years the lone doctor, trained local women to be pharmacists, nurses and midwives to help stem the tide of suffering. Countless patients flocked to see the "gentle Sister Doctor" who often travelled to visit the sick and dying in outlying villages, crouching down to treat patients on the earthen floors of their small straw huts. She also studied and made extensive use of traditional Indian medicines.

Mary was said to radiate Christ by word and example and she never attempted anything without praying to the Holy Spirit, knowing that with such help all things are possible.

Recognising the vital need to promote the Christian use of medicine, Mary founded the Catholic Hospital Association of India in 1943. Her vision was the establishment of a Catholic Medical College in order to train professionals whose medical care would be grounded in an understanding of the absolute inviolability of human life and be placed at the service of life.


For the last two years of her life, Mary shouldered the Cross of excruciating physical pain and suffering which she bore with extraordinary courage and patience. The sisters who witnessed her apostolate of suffering have described the calm, serene joy radiating from Mary's face, which struck all who approached her

On 21 November 1956, the Feast of Our Lady's Presentation, Mary was sent a new and lasting cross. In trying to help her nurse, she grasped the rail of her bed with her 'good' right arm but the bone had become brittle as a result of the cancer that had now spread throughout her body and the arm broke, never to be mended. She just had to lie on her bed bearing her added suffering, accepting God's will as she had always sought to do. Her only regret, in her own words, "I have not done enough. I could have done more." When Mary finally died on 5 May 1957, her last words were, "Jesus, Mary and Joseph" and "My Jesus, I love you". At her requiem Mass, the Bishop of Guntur described Mary as a "special creation of God ... a great soul who embraced the whole world." It was in Bangalore, where Mary Glowrey so courageously lived the final months of her life, offering her suffering to God for her dreams for India, that St John's Medical College was eventually built a little over a decade after her death. One of her fellow sisters was amongst the first intake of medical students. To obtain a copy of the prayer for the cause of Dr Mary Glowrey, please send a self-addressed, stamped envelope to the General Secretary of the Catholic Women's League of Victoria and Wagga Wagga, Mary Glowrey House, 132-134 Nicholson St, Fitzroy, Vic, 3065.

On 21 November 1956, the Feast of Our Lady's Presentation, Mary was sent a new and lasting cross. In trying to help her nurse, she grasped the rail of her bed with her 'good' right arm but the bone had become brittle as a result of the cancer that had now spread throughout her body and the arm broke, never to be mended. She just had to lie on her bed bearing her added suffering, accepting God's will as she had always sought to do. Her only regret, in her own words, "I have not done enough. I could have done more."

When Mary finally died on 5 May 1957, her last words were, "Jesus, Mary and Joseph" and "My Jesus, I love you". At her requiem Mass, the Bishop of Guntur described Mary as a "special creation of God ... a great soul who embraced the whole world." It was in Bangalore, where Mary Glowrey so courageously lived the final months of her life, offering her suffering to God for her dreams for India, that St John's Medical College was eventually built a little over a decade after her death. One of her fellow sisters was amongst the first intake of medical students.

To obtain a copy of the prayer for the cause of Dr Mary Glowrey, please send a self-addressed, stamped envelope to the General Secretary of the Catholic Women's League of Victoria and Wagga Wagga, Mary Glowrey House, 132-134 Nicholson St, Fitzroy, Vic, 3065.

Dr Sr Mary Glowrey JMJ

At the concluding mass for WYD08 in Sydney, Pope Benedict XVI encouraged young people from every nation to be witnesses of life and love in the Spirit: “Do not be afraid to say 'yes' to Jesus, to find your joy in doing his will, giving yourself completely to the pursuit of holiness, and using all your talents in the service of others!"1 Almost a century ago, Mary Glowrey said ‘yes’ to this call, a personal call that she experienced from the heart of Jesus, and in the witness of her very person became a source of life for countless thousands. Shy, gentle and tiny in stature, Mary was initially ‘regarded as something of mouse’ by those around her.2 And yet, she held within her the fire of God’s love for humanity and through the example of her life has become an authentic witness to hope. Her capacity to speak anew to the people of our time, and in particular to galvanize a new generation into action in the service of life and the protection of the weakest in our midst, retains a freshness, a power and a potency which transcends the barriers imposed by culture, time and history.

1. Homily of His Holiness Benedict XVI, Eucharistic Celebration on the Occasion of the 23rd World Youth Day, Randwick Racecourse, Sunday 20 July 2008.
2. Anna T. Brennan, 'Tributes to a Medical Missionary Pioneer', The Horizon, 1 July 195

115. Rev. Joseph Hunter GOBLE, Footscray VIC (Baptist)

Rev. Joseph Goble (1863 – 1932) Baptist pastor
The Mail, Footscray, Saturday 6 February 1932 said of Rev Joseph Hunter Goble, “His life was a period of delightful ingenuousness, touching kindness and healing sympathy. His heart was overflowing with love and good cheer.” Goble practised a personal socialism. He limited his consumption, took a minimal stipend and discreetly distributed most of his money to the poor.

“His life was a period of delightful ingenuousness, touching kindness and healing sympathy. His heart was overflowing with love and good cheer.” – The Mail, Footscray, Saturday 6 February 1932.

When 240 delegates met at the Burton Street Baptist Tabernacle in Sydney on 25 August 1926 to form the Baptist Union of Australia, they unanimously elected Joseph Hunter Goble as the first President of the Union. He was the Minister of the Footscray Baptist Church and initially, along with Dr F W Norwood and later Rev Peter Fleming, he had played a major role in forging Baptist federation.

It was the Baptist Union of Australia (BUA), under Rev Coble’s leadership, that negotiated with the Commonwealth Government for a grant of land on which to build the first Baptist Church in the new federal capital. The BUA appointed Dr Waldock, who was to become the church’s first Minister, to select the site and raise the funds to build the church and the manse.

Rev Goble unveiled the church’s foundation stone on 21 March 1928 and later officiated at the Canberra Baptist Church’s opening ceremonies on the weekend of 23-24 February 1929. It is likely that few people who pause to read the foundation stone today will be aware of the remarkable and saintly man whose name is recorded thereon.

No stranger to poverty

On Sunday 3 March 1895, Rev Goble was to preach his first sermon at Footscray Baptist Church as its new Minister. He intended to make an impression, but a burglar stole the new outfit he had bought for the occasion and he preached to his congregation in “his shabby old suit”. It seems to me that this incident foretold the type of ministry he was to have among the people of Footscray for the next 3 7 years. He was not to be aloof from them. He was to live at their level, experiencing their hardships, their sadness and their joys. He was to share fully in the day-to-day reality of their lives. And as a result there was to emerge a rare and mutual love and respect between Goble and Footscray’s people.

Joseph Hunter Goble was born in Belfast, Port Fairy, Victoria, on 18 February 1862, the son of a prosperous flourmill owner, who apparently abandoned Goble’s mother, Maria Ballantine, and her two children. Goble lived in poverty at Port Melbourne and Fitzroy and had to leave school at a young age to work in factories and on the railways. In his early years unemployment, poverty and charity handouts were very much a part of his personal experience.

In the 1880s he obtained an apprenticeship as a compositor andjoined the Printers Union, later rising to the position of President of the Printers Union.

A true democratic socialist

For fifty years from 1891 onwards, unemployment and poverty were inseparable parts of Australian working class experience. These were Goble’s times. John Lack, in his History of Footscray, says of him:

“He brought with him a worker’s and staunch trade unionist’s ideals of the dignity of labour and the brotherhood of man, and a Christian’s ideal of practical Christianity derived from the example of the Good Samaritan.”

Goble practised a personal socialism. He limited his consumption, took a minimal stipend and discreetly distributed most of his money to the poor. He openly supported the Labor movement’s reform programs and struck a remarkable chord among working men and women, many of whom, during the depression years, associated Christianity with social respectability, demeaning charity and political conservatism. The ideals and brotherhood of unionism remained with him all his life, but neither union office nor the enticement of a political career with the Labor Party could draw him away from his primary calling – Christian ministry.

Converted to Christianity at age 15

Goble was converted to Christianity at the age of 15 years as a result of kindly treatment he had received at the Port Melbourne Seamen’s bethel. He began preaching in Baptist Churches at a young age and built up a reputation as a preacher. He began his pastorate at the Paisley Street Baptist Church in Footscray on 3 March 1895. The congregation soon outgrew the church, and during his 37 years there it had to be extended twice. By the early 1900s he was attracting a congregation of 2,000. In its heyday the Paisley Street Church had an orchestra of 20 people and a large choir. Apparently if the faithful did not get to the church by 6.30 at night for the 7.00 pm service they did not get in to the evening service.

A stirring and dramatic preacher

He was described as a “stirring and dramatic preacher totally devoid of self importance” and he attracted workers normally indifferent to formal religion. Dr J F Wilkin, in a tribute in the Australian Baptist of 9 February 1932, said of him:

Not in abstruse speculations, not with excellency of speech or of wisdom, but in simple forceful words he urged on the notice of men the unchanging truths of divine love, and of the sacrifice of the Cross. Because he loved the saviour he loved men for whom the saviour died.

Another of his contemporaries, Rev Robert Helmore (who “lost [his] faith in the war” and who Goble later nevertheless convinced to go to Whitley College) described Goble as “a big man, about 18 stone … a magnificent man”.

Rev C J Tinsley wrote of the first sermon he heard Goble preach:

Mr Goble’s text was Hebrews 7:25 and [it] was a rich, warm-hearted, gripping exposition of the Gospel he loved, that went home to the hearts of the congregation. It revealed the qualities that have endeared him to the people of Footscray and made his ministry there so successful. Whenever I have thought of him it has been with the background of that sermon in my mind.
Goble of Footscray

His name became synonymous with self-denial, charity and good hum our. He loved Footscray and its people and was an avid supporter of the Footscray Football Club. He said that when they opened up his heart there would be engraved on it the word “Footscray” and he was referred to locally as “Goble of Footscray”. In some circles he was called the “Bishop of Footscray”.

Although he had suffered much during his life, those who knew him say that he was always cheerful and uncomplaining.

By the early 1930s he was an exhausted man, having given himself fully to his calling, and an accident accelerated his physical decline. His death on 31 January 1932 shocked both Footscray and Baptist circles and his funeral was the biggest seen in Footscray. The local newspaper reported that the city of Footscray “was immediately plunged into mourning and “Flags were flown at half mast throughout the district”. The newspaper went on to say: “The body laid in the church from 10 am on Tuesday, and all day there was a constant stream of citizens paying homage to a great and loving man. The Mayor and councillors were the first to pay their respects, and from then on folk from every church, from every public and semi-public body and from all sections of the business and sporting life of the city paid their last tributes”.

Hundreds of returned soldiers led the hearse followed by hundreds of cars. Thousands lined the route, including a thousand from Paisley Street Sunday School. The list of pallbearers at his funeral provides evidence of the esteem in which he was held in the wider community. They were the Commonwealth Postmaster-General (Mr Fenton), State Education Minister (Mr Lemmon), Mr Prendergast MLA, the Mayor of Footscray (Cr. E. Hanmer), Mr J Hicks (Church Secretary), Mr W Ellingworth (Baptist Home Mission Committee) and Mr A C Joyce (Vice-President of the Baptist Union of Victoria). The last named provides another link between Rev Goble and Canberra Baptist.

Footscray raised a monument to Rev Goble, financed by public donations, and placed it near his home and church. The statue remains today and is located on the side of Geelong Road close to the intersection with Barkly Street in Middle Footscray.

116. = Pastor Matthias GOETHE, Melbourne, Waldau, Doncaster VIC

116.a. William of the Aborigines GOODALL (1846-1923) & Julia Elizabeth WALKER GOODALL (1843-1912) Framlingham Aboriginal Station, Hopkins River, Warrnambool + Coranderrk, Healesville

William GOODWALL -b.3 May 1846 Evandale, Van Diemens Land (Tasmania) -d.7 June 1923 @ 'Evandale,' 62 Moreland Rd, Brunswick, Vic.
Julia Elizabeth Walker GOODALL, -b.abt 1843 -d.2 Feb 1912 @ 'Evandale,' 62 Moreland Rd, Brunswick, Vic.

The Goodalls @ Coranderrk
- from "A Peep at the Blacks: A History of Tourism at Coranderrk Aboriginal Station" - By Ian Clark, 2015

117. Thomas GOODWIN ?

? Thomas Goodwin, Convicted at: Warwick Assizes, Sentence term: Life. One of 184 convicts transported on the Woodford, departed 29 April 1828 to arrive Van Diemen's Land 25th August, 1828

? Thomas Henry Hall Goodwin (11 December 1848 – 1 July 1921) was an Australian politician. He was born at Scone to medical practitioner John Goodwin and Elizabeth Russell. He worked as a pastoralist and surveyor, and was involved in the discovery and settlement of Broken Hill. In 1887 he was elected to the New South Wales Legislative Assembly as the Protectionist member for Gunnedah, but he resigned in 1888. He returned to the Assembly in 1895, winning re-election in 1898 before retiring for good in 1901. He died in Sydney in 1921.[1]

118. Miss 'Annie' Mary Ann Christina GORDON, from Ipswich, Brisbane, Queensland, China Inland Missionary. Killed by the 'Vegetarian Fanatics' in Kucheng, CHINA on the 1st August 1895. MARTYR at Age 30.
Annie Gordon was born 13 September 1864 and was baptised at St Paul’s Anglican Church, Ipswich, Queensland on 30 October 1864. Her parents were Charles John Gordon, a veterinarian) and Mary Anne Devine. Annie arrived in
China in 1892, a year before the Saunders sisters, Nellie and Topsy, to work with the Church of England Zenana Missionary Society, a society organised by women to serve women abroad.

119. 'Wongamar' Pastor Cecil GRANT & Soldier, preacher, on of the 'Rats of Tobruk', Albury, NSW

& Flo GRANT Condobolin

Pastor Cecil 'Wongamar' GRANT

Born: about 1934 Condobolin, New South Wales.

Died: 23 September 2005 Albury, @ age 71 (late of Wagga Wagga) New South Wales

Christian Aboriginal pastor - excluded from The Encylcopaedia of Aboriginal Australia 1994 (Ed Horton, David)

[Newspapers: - Border Mail (Albury) 28 & 29 September 2005; Gundagai Independent- 29 September 2005; The Koori Mail; The Voice of Inigenous Australia, Lismore NSW) Wednesday 19 October 2005 page 15 - "His brother, Stan Grant said: "Pastor Cec was responible for the 'Welcome to Wiradjuri Country' signs across the region and much more... Cec was responsible for the Wiradjuri language programs around Wagga Wagga and Albury areas, working with some young people there and getting it all going.]

CECIL GRANT ‘I am a Wiradjuri Christian.' ... - ‘I belong to the Koori Church in Albury, NSW. About 1975 we started meeting together in small groups. We are supported by the Church of Christ. We ought to be developing local fellowships. The universal church consists of local churches with the ministry and the administration looked after by the local elders.

‘I was brought to the Lord by Aboriginal men and I try to maintain my Aboriginal connections and regain as much of the Aboriginal language as I can. ‘I am very much into Aboriginal philosophy and theology, and I am not in favour of following blindly in the mould of failed European Christianity.

‘All the attempts by government bodies, like the old Aboriginal Protection Board of NSW, was to assimilate Aboriginal people and destroy Aboriginality. At the moment I am reading a book by Peter Read about the hundred years’ war of the Wiradjuri people. It is about the struggle of the Wiradjuri people against the system of both Church and State to destroy the culture of the Wiradjuri people. Now I’m still trying hard to contextualise my faith to communicate it through my culture."

" ‘Jesus is a tribal man, He was of the tribe of Judah, and His lifestyle was similar to that of my people. His life-style and ministry were itinerant and, when He went walkabout, His tribe went with Him. He suffered rejection, “He was despised and rejected of men”. He also knew the pain of disposession because, although He was the Creator of the world— “the earth is the Lord’s and the fullness thereof”—yet He said, “Foxes have holes and the birds of the air have nests, but the Son of man has nowhere to lay his head”. ‘I believe these things relate our Lord very much, not only to Aboriginal people, but to all people." Cecil Grant

From' A STORY OF FIRE- Aboriginal Christianity By MAX HART - Online PDF File

Pastor Cec Grant Memorial Speech : - The Indigenous Church. Towards a Better Future. - Inaugural Lecture to Honour the Work of Pastor Cecil Grant, OAM, Wongamar. by Rev. Ray Minniecon. Canberra. April 18th 2008 - Isaiah: 65: 19-23. New Heavens and a New Earth - There is a vision of the ideal community in the Book of Isaiah 65: 18-24. A vision that feeds the faith of those willing to strive for the best that they could imagine for their families and communities. I encourage you to join with me in listening to the words of this vision in the context of our social and political struggles as Aboriginal people. Housing. Health and wellbeing. Employment. Pride. Education. Culture. All are included in this vision. I am convinced that this is a vision that Pastor Cec Grant had for our people. - For Pastor Cecil Grant, this vision meant that there would be:
1. No more premature deaths of Aboriginal babies.
2. No more young Aboriginal men or young women dying before their time from ill health, deaths in custody, alcohol and drug abuse. And all the symptoms of a broken spirit.
3. Aboriginal People will enjoy living in good homes. (How long have we waited for proper housing?)
4. Aboriginal People who are sharing and caring for each other
5. Aboriginal People who are full of pride and dignity.

It is a vision worth fighting for. It’s a vision that Pastor Cecil Grant saw for his people and was willing to put his hand to the plough in order to make this vision a reality. This vision is based on the principles, which Jesus articulated in his ministry. In fact, it is a vision that we all share in and desire because our Lord taught his disciples to pray for this vision, “Your kingdom come, your will be done on earth as in heaven.”… Pastor Grant fought for this vision because it reflected the principles of God’s kingdom among us. He prayed for it. He preached it. And he believed that it was possible to achieve this vision in his lifetime.

For Pastor Grant, the instrument he believed that would deliver the reality of this vision into our community was the development of the Indigenous Church. This is God’s instrument to display His love and presence among us. Without this instrument, Pastor Grant could see the virtual destruction of Aboriginal people and our culture. He set about early in his life, with other young Aboriginal men of like mind to make this vision a reality by pioneering and establishing the first ever, Indigenous church in Australia. It was a big vision and an even bigger task. They called that first movement, the Aboriginal Evangelical Fellowship of Australia.

Sister Flo GRANT

From: The Encylcopaedia of Aborinal Australia 1994 (Ed Horton, David) Vol 1.

GRANT, F : - by FCG

Florence Catherine Eunice (Flo) GRANT - b. 1936

born on the Willow Bend Aboriginal reserve at Condobolin, NSW of Wiradjuri descent. Grant left Griffith school, NSW at 15 to take up domestic work and left home at 17 to work in the Leeton cannery, then worked as a lady's companion on a farm. At 19 she became a Christian.

At 21 she went to Sidney where she began a career as an assistant nurse, which have her the opportunity ti fulfil her childhood ambition of travelling around Australia and then the world. In 1965 she went to the Illwawarra Bible College for a year, then to the Retta Dixon children's home in Darwin as a cottage mother. After her father's death in 1968 she returned to Bible college and graduated in 1970. In 1971 she worked for the Office of Aboriginal Affairs in Canberra.

Seeing her people's struggle against paternalism, especially in the church, made her question and for 12 years reject Christianity. For a time she travelled; then, in 1980, she returned to Canberra to undertake matriculation studies at the TAFE college. She later worked as an information officer for the federal Department of Social Security, where she became involved in radio and writing.

Having committed herself to Christ in 1984, she moved to AIATSIS (Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies) as a trainee research offficer in 1986, working on the development of Christianity in Australia and its effects on Aboriginal people. She has been secretary of the Canberra Aboriginal Church, publicity officer for the Canberra-based Hope of the People Christian Outreach, secretary of the training centre of Wiradjuri Christian Development Ministries in Wagga Wagga, NSW, and producer of the community journal Waradjuri Bawamarra. FCG

120. + Jim GRAY, Gullargambone

121. John GREEN & Mary Benton GREEN,
John GREEN & Mary Benton GREEN from Aberdeen Scotland - Missionary & Pastor to the Kulin Aborigines, Lilydale> Acheron -Healesville, Vic. and
The Greens had the gift of a timeless 'knack' or abiding 'charism,' of gaining the Aboriginal peoples trust in relational confidence and respect. Diane Barwick wrote in Chapter 4 Mr Green's Way, of her book 'Rebellion at Coranderrk' ' He (Green) disapproved of coercion and insisted that the only effective method of bringing about change was by example and explanation.' pp.68. Green was a champion of Aboriginal dignity. Green wrote: "They are very proud and sensitive, and you can work a great deal upon their pride: in that way you can make them see that it is disgraceful to take what they have not earned.' John Green conducted a Court which laid down the rules of conduct in which the Aborigines were the effective deciding jury. Barwick writesL "Green chaired these assemblies when he was at home. When he spoke and argued he usually relied upon his moral authority as a respected leader, in the traditional manner of the ngurungaeta, rather than his externally imposed powers as manager." (pp.68) Barwick continues: "The sophistication of the Kulin at Coranderrk and their determination to manage their own affairs amazed and annoyed other officials. And it impressed visitors, notably the Royal Commissioners who visited in 1877: their report commented that the Coranderrk residents' 'bearing and demeanor form a contrast with those the natives on all the other stations.' Green's methods of management had made the difference; but it roused the antagonism of other Europeans determine to impose their notions of discipline on the Kulin." pp.69. John Green and his wife Mary Green are buried in unmarked unmemorialised graves in the Protestant section of the Healesville Cemetery. One public feature remains that does memorialise their early boon and significance; Green Street traverses the centre of Healesville, being at the main traffic-lighted crossroads across the Mooroondah Highway at the heart of the town.
Further Reference: 1. Diane E. Barwick 'Rebellion At Coranderrk' Editors: Laur E. Barwick & Richard E. Barwick. Published 1998 Aboriginal History Monograph 5., Aboriginal History Inc., Canberra.
2. Shirley W. Wiencke 'When The Wattles Bloom Agian: -The Life and Times of William Barak, Last Chief of the Yarra Yarra Tribe. Published 1984 by Shirley W. Wiencke, Woori Yallock.

122. John GREEN Jnr d. 14th January 1897 Mabere, New Guinea

John GREEN jnr - Martyr 1897. Murdered as an act of violent disdain against his high Christian principles in British New Guinea. Champion of the 'The Godlike Image' in indigenous people.
John Benton Green was born in 1865 in the Yarra Valley of Victoria at Coranderrk Aboriginal Station, Healesville, the eldest surviving son of missionaries John Green and Mary Benton. His father, Missionary Green, had a Scots Highlander's tribal way of seeing Christian egalitarianism and treated the Aborigines in a way similar to modern 'community development' techniques." In her acclaimed work "Rebellion at Coranderrk" Diane Barwick writes: 'Green (senior) never would treat the Kulin (Yarra Valley Aborigines) as anything but free men and women equal to himself in all but knowledge of European ways. He eventually lost his job (white-anted and dismissed from his post by the meddling of avaricious and self-serving rogues) because he upheld this principle; his son, and namesake, later died in New Guinea because he shared his father's beliefs. Diane Barwick footnotes her comment as follows: "John Green Jr.(1865-1897) was Assistant Resident Magistrate commended by his superior Monckton, as the best man the New Guinea administration ever possessed, was renowned for his fearlessness, linguistic skills, and 'faculty of gaining the native people's confidence.' He was killed in 1897 by Binandere tribesmen who had asked him to disarm his police to show his trust." Green suffered violent death as a victim of other's evil, in part for the sheer devilment of violence on the part of the leader 'Dumain, who had no pity, and jumped for joy at the thought of fighting'; and in part as the Mambare Native's terrible act of revenge against an act where, before Green's time, the policemen guarding a party of white miners had shot four local men namely, Tage, Mendura, Ade and Nongori. Mr Green's martydom was an evil act of deliberate treachery in an attempt to foment mischief and further Bloodlust, by violent men who were targeting his seeming 'weakness' in trusting them, by way of Green's being a champion of the existence of 'The Godlike Image' in all people, including savage indigenous peoples. A Newspaper of the day reported: "Mr. Green was warned that mischief was brewing, but the warning was unheeded ; and so on the fatal day, while the party were at work, the attack was made at a time when Mr. Green was working on the roof of the house. Two spears were thrown, hitting him in the left side, when he was dragged down to the ground and there tomahawked to pieces." John Green Jnr died on the 14th January 1897 at Mambare River, in Oro Province, Papua New Guinea. But the blood of young John Green in murder and martyrdom eventually brought about good fruit. Once the fighting ceased a disquiet of hiatus reigned till Mr. Monckton came in with words of instruction against violence to the Mambare people. Monckton was able to get to the bottom of the story and many of the people then repented of their propensity violence and became Christians. Father Copland King even baptised Isaac Petari, one of the murderers.
Diane Barwick includes the following in her footnote as a 'Personal Communication from Mr John Waiko. "His (John Green's) reputation as a just man was not forgotten: in 1976 the Doepo Clan of Datama village, Ioma, Northern Provence, named their progress association 'Misi Giriri (Mr Green) Association.
Some physical commemoration of the life and sacrifice John Green was made at the Ela United church, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. Further Reference: 1. Diane E. Barwick 'Rebellion At Coranderrk' Editors: Laura E. Barwick & Richard E. Barwick. Published 1998 Aboriginal History Monograph 5, Aboriginal History Inc. Canberra.
2. Stephen BAREREBA "A Barereba Family Oral Tradition Concerning The Death of Mr.John Green, Government Agent at Tamata Junction in 1897" republished online as in Papuaweb: Documents and Readings in New Guinea History 1975- -section: 'Living Voices Of The Past' pp.12-14. First published as "How My Grandfathers Killed Mr. John Green" in 'SOUTH PACIFIC,' 1959, Vol. 10. pp.129-132;
3. Version Two: Stephen BAREREBA "How My Grandfather Killed Mr. Green" republished online as View Topic : at Ex-Kiaps Network Forum. First published as "How My Grandfathers Killed Mr.John Green" in the journal 'SOUTH PACIFIC,' 1959, Vol. 10. pp.129-132.
4. Newspaper Reports: a. b. MASSACRE BY SAVAGES OF A HEALESVILLE GENTLEMAN. - Healesville Guardian Friday 5 March 1897 – Page 2 c. The Mercury, Hobart - Wednesday 3 March 1897 d. The West Australian, Saturday 27 February 1897. e. Healesville Guardian, Friday 10 September 1897 .

123. John Brown GRIBBLE NSW, WA, QLD b.1848 Cornwall Eng; Ordained 1883 d. 3 June 1893 Age 45 Sydney & Mary Ann GRIBBLE (née BULMER) Mrs J B Gribble

124. Ernest Richard Bulmer GRIBBLE
Ernest Richard Bulmer GRIBBLE Yarrabah, QLD, Forest River, WA /
born: 23 Nov 1868 Geelong, Victoria
Ordained 1 Jan 1899/
Married: 18 April 1895 Queensland
Wife: Emilie Julia WRIEDE
1. John Wriede Bulmer Gribble born 15th January 1896 Yarrabah, QLD ;
2. Eric Livingstone Bulmer GRIBBLE - born 17th March 1898Yarrabah, QLD;
3. Ernest Yarrabah GRIBBLE - born 24th July 1901 Yarrabah, QLD

Died. 18th October 1957 Yarrabah, Queensland, Australia

125. Mary Harriett GRIFFITH (1849-1930), philanthropist, Congrationalist,

Griffith, Mary Harriett (1849–1930)

by Aline Gillespie

This article was published in Australian Dictionary of Biography, Supplementary Volume, (MUP), 2005

Mary Harriett Griffith (1849-1930), philanthropist, was born on 4 November 1849 at Portishead, Somerset, England, third of five children of Rev. Edward Griffith, Congregational minister, and his wife Mary, née Walker, and older sister of (Sir) Samuel Griffith. After Edward accepted a call from the Colonial Missionary Society to found a Congregational Church at Ipswich, New South Wales (Queensland), the family reached Moreton Bay on 6 March 1854. In a pioneer region, they endured harsh conditions.

Life was hardly easier at West Maitland, where Griffith was appointed in 1857. Their home was flooded three times—on one occasion Mary and her father narrowly escaped drowning. In 1860 he was called to Wharf Street Congregational Church, Brisbane. The family home was Weymouth, opposite the church, where Mary was a Sunday School teacher for over fifty years. She was, as well, a life deaconess.

At first educated by their aunt Lydia Walker, after her return to England in 1865 Mary and two younger sisters attended the Misses Rhodes' School. The eldest daughter, Mary did not marry but cared for her parents. In 1885 she accompanied them on a year-long trip to Britain. Their health failing, they and she moved to Strathmore at New Farm, a Brisbane river suburb. Edward died in September 1891 and his wife the following April.

Mary immersed herself in good works. She joined the Woman's Christian Temperance Union and became founding secretary of the Brisbane Benevolent Society, which helped people in distress following floods in south-east Queensland in 1893. She was honorary secretary (vice-president 1912-28) of the committee of Lady Musgrave Lodge, a home for nurses and single female immigrants. As Queensland representative for the Travellers' Aid Society, she maintained contact with the British Women's Emigration League. She served on the ladies' management committee of the Hospital for Sick Children in 1894-1924.

In 1899 the Young Women's Christian Association of Brisbane was re-formed; Mary was president (1902-12), honorary president to 1921, then honorary life president. She was vice-president of the Queensland division of the British (Australian) Red Cross Society during World War I and in 1921 patroness of St David's Welsh Society of Queensland—Sir Samuel had been founding patron in 1918. Other organizations to which she contributed her intelligence and energy were the National Council of Women, the Brisbane City Mission, the Queensland auxiliary of the London Missionary Society, the British and Foreign Bible Society, the Queensland Women's Electoral League, the Protestant Federation, the United Sudan Mission and the Charity Organisation Society. In 1911 she was appointed a lady of grace of the Order of the Hospital of St John of Jerusalem and was invested at Government House, Brisbane.

Miss Griffith was a well-known figure in Brisbane, walking to engagements dressed in a long, black gown, with sleeves to her wrists, wearing a bonnet tied with ribbons under her chin, long out of fashion. Her hair was rolled into a neat bun. 'She was never idle. Whether in public or on short train journeys, or in private, she was always knitting or sewing.' A small woman, she appeared frail, but pursued her ideals with determination and strength. She was a gifted writer who contributed articles to church magazines, often anonymously, and compiled a tribute to her father, Memorials of the Rev Edward Griffith (Brisbane, 1892). She disapproved of the worldly ways of her brother.

In 1922 Mary moved into the Aged Christian Women's Home, at New Farm, that she had helped to establish. In 1927 she laid the foundation stone for the new hall at Wharf Street Congregational Church. She had been healthy all her life and only complained of feeling unwell shortly before she died on 27 July 1930 at New Farm. She was buried with Congregational forms in Toowong cemetery.

Select Bibliography
* R. B. Joyce, Samuel Waker Griffith (Brisb, 1984)
* A. Gillespie, Widening Horizons: The YWCA in Queensland 1888-1988 (Brisb, 1995)
* Brisbane Courier, 13 Dec 1911, p 11, 10 July 1925, p 17, 2 May 1927, p 14, 29 July 1930, p 18
* . Lassell, Miss Mary Griffith (manuscript, 1950, copy held in ADB file)
* L. Cazalar, The Other Griffith--Mary Harriett (manuscript, no date, copy held in ADB file)
* Griffith family papers (State Library of Queensland).

126. James GRIFFITHS, Tea Merchant, Philanthropist


127. Fr Francis Xavier GSELL Western Australia

128. =Jennie GUNN (Mrs Aeneus GUNN) NT-VIC

129. James GUNTHER, CMS nsw

130. = Reverend Friedrich August HAGENAUER (1829–1909)
Born 10 March 1829 at Hohenlüben, Sachsen
Mission; Ebenezer Mission, Lake Boga & Dimboola; Ramahuack & Lake Tyers, Gippsland
Died. 28 November 1909 Lake Tyers, Victoria, Australia

- From Australia Dictionary of Biography - ADB Online : -
Hagenauer, Friedrich August (1829–1909)

by L. J. Blake

Friedrich August Hagenauer (1829-1909), Moravian missionary, was born on 10 March 1829 at Hohenleuben, Saxony, of Lutheran parents. He left school at 14, worked for two years with his father and then on railway construction. Influenced by Pastor Lohe and Dr Schmid at Greiz, he applied in 1850 to study at Herrnhut, Ebersdorf, where the Brotherhood of Moravian priests accepted him as a missionary trainee in 1851. On 27 November 1856 he was instructed to go to Victoria with F. W. Spieseke who had returned to Europe after the Lake Boga Mission, established with Charles La Trobe's help in 1851, was abandoned.

Hagenauer and Spieseke arrived at Melbourne in May 1858. By December, following Governor (Sir) Henry Barkly's suggestion, they had selected a Wimmera River site on Antwerp station, where the squatter, Horatio Spencer Ellerman, gave material assistance and the Ebenezer mission school was opened next January. In 1858 several missionaries including Spieseke and Hagenauer had given evidence to a select committee on the alleviation of Aborigines' 'absolute wants'. The Central Board appointed to watch over the interests of the Aborigines, which first met on 7 June 1860, set up two stations and planned more government depots and missions financed by various churches. In February 1862 after negotiations between the Moravians and the Presbyterian Church of Victoria Hagenauer and his wife arrived in Gippsland where the Presbyterians hoped to secure two large reserves on Green Hills station with support from the central board. Objections by squatters led the board of land and works to change the site and in August 1863 some 2356 acres (953 ha) were secured at Lake Wellington on the River Avon. The Hagenauers moved to this reserve calling it Ramahyuck. Hagenauer believed in 'kind, firm, just and business-like treatment', and used the 'patriarchal principle' to control the Aboriginals. Thanks to generous subsidies and continuous assistance by a trained teacher, Ramahyuck was described in 1877 as the most successful of all missions. The Aborigines had well-constructed homes, learned rural tasks, cultivated crops, vegetables and fruit and tended sheep and cattle. In 1872 the school, taught in 1864-66 and 1870-76 by Rev. Carl Kramer, was the first in the colony to secure 100 per cent in marks under the results system introduced in 1862-63. After the 1877 royal commission on Aborigines, Hagenauer and Kramer were asked to tour the Murray area and persuade nomads to move into the reserves and mission stations. Hagenauer was also successful in training half-castes for rural work; and the number at Ramahyuck rose to 85 but dropped to 63 in 1888 as the half-castes became independent of the mission. For the Moravian Board in Saxony Hagenauer travelled in 1885 to North Queensland investigating Aboriginal needs and his report led to new government reserves and the Mapoon mission.

Tireless in his devotion to Aboriginals Hagenauer became religious superintendent for Anglican missions at Lake Tyers and Lake Condah and for two Presbyterian missions. As director of four of the colony's six stations he had much influence but often quarrelled with the board over supervision of the secular side of the missions and complained of the 'iron rule' of the secretary, Robert Brough Smyth. On 1 July 1889 Hagenauer became acting secretary and general inspector for the board at a salary of £450. Hagenauer resigned as secretary in 1906 and died aged 80 at Lake Tyers on 28 November 1909. On 15 June 1861 at St Paul's Church, Melbourne, he had married Christiana Louisa Knobloch, a missionary from Saxony; she died on 23 October 1917. Of their nine children, seven were born at Ramahyuck. A son was acting secular manager at Ramahyuck until it closed in 1908.

A conscientious and effective administrator, Hagenauer was 'wise in counsel, patient in effort and resolute in action'. In addition to material on Aboriginal language included in Brough Smyth's Aborigines of Victoria (Melbourne, 1878), he published papers on Mission Work Among the Aborigines of Victoria (1880), Report of the Aboriginal Mission at Ramahyuck, Victoria (1885), and Notes of a Missionary Journey to North Queensland (1886).

Select Bibliography
S. L. Chase (ed), The Moravian Mission at Lake Boga (Melb, 1856)
A. Massola, Aboriginal Mission Stations in Victoria (Melb, 1970)
M. Manning, ‘Life of Ernest Albert Le Souef’, Journal and Proceedings (Royal Western Australian Historical Society), vol 6, part 4, 1965, pp 75-93
L. J. Blake, ‘Education at Ebenezer’, Educational Magazine, vol 24, no 1, Feb 1967, pp 37-48
The Gap, 7 (1969)
private information.

Rev. Friedrich August HAGENAUER was married to Christiane Luise KNOBLOCH in Melbourne, Victoria in 1861.

Their children were : -
1. Augustus Theophilus Hagenauer b. 1862 Stratford/Sale, Gippsland;
2. Marie Luise Hagenauer b. 1863 Bundalong, Vic (later Mrs Disher);
3. Ida Emilie Hagenauer b. 1865 Stratford (later Mrs Hartung);
4. Johannes Friedrich Hagenauer b. 1867 Ramahyuck, Stratford;
5. Gustave Alfred Hagenauer b. 1869 Ramahyuck, Stratford;
6. Georg Hermann Hagenauer b. 1871 Ramahyuck, Stratford;
7. Ellen Grace Hagenauer b. 1873 Ramahyuck, Stratford (later Mrs Le Souef);
8. Friedrich August Hagenauer b. 1875 Ramahyuck, Stratford; and
9. Heinrich Alexander Hagenauer b. 1878 Ramahyuck, Stratford.

1.Robert KENNY - The Lamb Enters The Dreaming: Nathaniel Pepper & the Ruptured World 2007 Scribe. Carlton North, Victoria

Friedrich August & Luise Christiane (née Knobloch) HAGENAUER by Tom Humphrey

131. Dirk Meinertz HAHN, Sea Captain,

Dirk Meinertz HAHN b. Altona, Denmark, [Captain of the 1838 religious refugee ship 'ZEBRA', Counsellor, Conciliator, self-confessed reluctant agent of God & Champion of Pilgrim Religious Refugees in the legacy of Hahndorf, South Australia] Died of disappointment in alcoholic depression, Denmark.

Extract from 'Hahndorf and It's Academy' by Dr F.J.H. Blaess

- "Captain Dirk Meinetz Hahn was born on 28 January 1804 at Westerland, on the Island of Sylt, then under Danish rule. In his Diary he says that he seriously thought of studying theology, but yielding to his father's wishes he became a sailor. At the age of 15 (1819), he had his first taste of life at sea on the 'Leitium' under Captain Dokker, but illness sent him home after seven weeks at sea. In 1820 he again joined the crew of the 'Leitium' and spent three years on the ship, trading mainly with Mediterranean ports. In 1823 he transferred to the 'Dido' (Captain Schmitt) and made his first voyage to America. From 1824 to 1833 he sailed on the 'Neptunus' under Captain Felix, from 1826 on as second mate. The 'Neptunus' was wrecked off the Dutch coast in August 1833. In 1827 he had made one unhappy trip on the 'Alwine'. In 1836 he was engaged as first mate on the 'Zebra' under Captain Stelting. When the latter died at Havana in the West Indies, Hahn was appointed to take the ship home to Altona. Here the owner, Mr Dale, engaged him as captain. On the 'Zebra' he made several voyages to North America with emigrants, also a trip to Bahia in South America, where his ship was caught up in a civil war and delayed with serious danger to itself and its captain. In the same year (1838) the 'Zebra' was chartered by Sloman & Co. to transport Lutheran emigrants to South Australia.

These Lutherans came from the eastern provinces of Prussia and were emigrating to escape the religious persecution they suffered because of their staunch Lutheran convictions and their refusal to join the Prussian king's Union Church. On 8 June 1838, they had embarked on river barges at Tschicherzig and then had travelled down the Oder, along connecting canals, and down the Elbe to Hamburg, where they boarded the 'Zebra' on 29 July. On 12 August they, 106 adults and 91 children, had left Hamburg. After a voyage of 129 days, the 'Zebra' reached Holdfast Bay, 28 December 1838, but on account of low water, did not reach Port Adelaide until 2 January 1839. Captain Hahn had become deeply concerned about the welfare of his passengers and during his stay in Adelaide exerted himself to procure for them land for a settlement and means of earning their livelihood.

He left South Australian shores on 14 February 1839 for Batavia and for the return voyage to Altona. Here the 'Zebra' was laid up for repairs. In 1841 he took command of the 'Apollo' on a voyage to South America. From 1842 to 1852 he was in charge of the 'Zodiacus', trading mainly with the West Indies. After thirty-one years at sea, he retired to spend his remaining days with his family at Westerland on Sylt. On 24 December 1831, he had married Hedwig Jens Nicolaison. His family consisted of one son and three daughters. He died on 13 August 1860."

Translation of Article 'Kapitan der Nachstenliebe' by Wolkgang Wegner ('Horzu' - German Weekly -
" It was the year 1838, and Altona belonged still to Denmark. In the harbour the 3-masted 'Zebra' was being loaded. Provisions were to last 6 months - for a journey to the end of the world: to Adelaide in South Australia. Thirty four year old Captain Dirk Meinertz Hahn from Westerland had the command. Both his mates came from the neighbouring village of Keitum: Boy Dierksen and Ingwer Lorenz Petersen.

On 28th July the passengers went on board: 35 families, altogether 199 persons. They were fugitives, Old Lutherans from Silesia and Brandenburg. Heavy-hearted they decided on emigration, because they had had to suffer many years of persecution in Prussia because of their faith.

"They were very religious", Captain Hahn describes the passengers in his journal. "An address (service) was held on deck morning(s) and evening(s) and prayers and singing, their song (singing) sounded very beautiful over harbour and town."

Hahn felt sympathy for his charges (protegees), who were so different from other emigrants he had taken on earlier voyages to America. Much gentler, more helpless, full of vehement hope for the future.

On the 12th August the 'Zebra' untied the ropes. On the shore of the Elbe stood countless people, because this was something New: the first departure of a non-English ship with German migrants to South Australia.

It was a hard journey. A dozen passengers died of typhus; as by a miracle the others were not infected.A storm east of the Cape of Good Hope shredded the 'Zebra' of five sails within a few minutes. They were mended by day and night shifts.

On 2nd January the ship ran (entered) into the harbour of Adelaide. At last after 84 days no land had been more (wecomingly) seen.

Captain Hahn's contract had been fulfilled. Yet instead of setting sail, he concerned himself further with his passengers. In the first place, he the trouble to lease land for them near Port Adelaide. By chance he came to know a Mr Dutton, who offered him 100 acres of land. The captain visited the land, and himself worked out a contract. With this the basis of subsistence for the Immigrants was assured.

But Hahn helped further. He travelled from place to place, cleared (smoothed) difficulties with the authorities on the way, 'cut down' prejudices against new comers. He was even successful in obtaining advances for future harvest returns (products) and in return to buy work tools and equipment. From ship's captain he had turned into Speaker and Leader for the Immigrants. So then they unanimously decided to name their new settlement Hahndorf.

Attempts to persuade the captain into staying, all to no avail (very loose translation!). When his charges (protegees) had their houses and fields, he considered his mission fulfilled, and sailed back to Altona. Australia never saw him again.

Hahndorf operates still today as a German smalltown. In the brewery (hotel?) there is German beer, and once a year a 'Schutzenfest (shooting match/festival). On the shop signs there are German names. In the middle of the town there is (erected) a memorial to the Captain.

Dirk Meinertz Hahn died in 1860. His grave in Sylt has long since been leveled, but the (head)stone leans on the wall of the St Niels Church in Westerland. The people of Hahndorf in distant Australia would subscribe to the epitaph on it:

Dust it is, what we are and will be,
And he (turned) became it, Oh! too soon;
But his memory lives on earth,
For his good works never die."

132. =Mathew HALE

133. Bishop HALE WA catholic

134. William HALL, Prahran 1875-1899” [Melbourne City Mission]

REFERENCE: 1. Missionaries’ Diary Journals Prahran and surrounding districts: Missionary William Hall - Melbourne University archives: MELBOURNE CITY MISSION [ACCESSION NO: 89/90; 97/129 and single item accession 95/129] 1856-1974; one item 1981; one item 1995 [In the context of the goldrush social disruption, the MCM was founded in
1855, with impetus from the philanthropist Dr John Singleton and from Mrs Hornbrook's Ladies' City Mission. With the motto "Need not Creed", it is governed by a committee comprising Church, business and professional people, and describes itself as 'an inter-denominational (or unsectarian, Christian) Institute ... operating amongst the poor outside the Churches'. In 1900 it became obvious that the Melbourne City Mission could render much more effective service to the community if it could
establish homes suited to the needs of various types of people contacted by visitation. Subsequently the Brunswick Pre-Maternity Home, Toddlers’ Home, The Haven of Hope (1926-1954), Swinborn Lodge, Pilgrims’ Rest and Judge Book Memorial Village were established. Sources: Melbourne City Mission 1855-1949; Loving Service in our
Community 1855-1962, being the story of the work of the Melbourne City Mission, by Percival Dale
2. Dr Roslyn Otzen, (1986). Charity and evangelisation: the Melbourne City Mission 1854 - 1914. PhD thesis, Arts, History, The University of Melbourne. [
It has become so commonly held as almost to be axiomatic among recent Australian historians, that the act of evangelising and giving charity to people, is essentially an act of control and discipline by powerful people in a society over those who have little power. This thesis, in making a detailed examination of the Melbourne City Mission from 1854 to 1914, along with a smaller study of the Elizabeth Fry Retreat in the late 1880s, offers a substantial challenge to any over-simple application of this concept. In addition, it provides a new assessment of the roles of women of all classes, as they are revealed in acts of charitable evangelism. The introduction establishes the state of historiography in Australia and to a lesser extent, overseas, in the field of evangelical and charity history. Chapters 1 and 2 make a general survey of the rise of evangelical charity in Great Britain and in Melbourne in the nineteenth century, and provide a detailed introduction to the City Mission movement, and the Melbourne City Mission in particular. Chapters 3, 4 and 5 offer a close investigation of the personnel involved in MCM work in Melbourne: the men and women who founded and administered the Mission, its missionaries, and its clients. Chapters 6 and 7 look at the MCM at work. Chapter 6 follows its history in the suburb of Collingwood as a succession of missionaries worked there, while Chapter 7 concentrates on the career of one missionary, William Hall in Prahran. Chapter 8 and 9 look particularly at prostitution and the lot of women who served gaol sentences. Chapter 8 describes and assesses the efforts of City Missionaries to help prostitutes in the 1870s. Chapter 9 looks at charitable responses in the 1880s, to women coming out of gaol, in the work of Sarah Swinborn and her institution, The Elizabeth Fry Retreat, and of a public charity, the Victorian Discharged Prisoners Aid Society. The conclusion offers revision of current ideas in many key aspects of charity history. PhD thesis © 1986 Dr. Roslyn Otzen]

135 & 135A.  - WALTER & ELIZA R HALL


Hall, Eliza Rowdon (1847 - 1916)

26 November 1847
Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
14 February 1916
Potts Point, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia


In 1912, Eliza Hall used her inheritance to establish the Walter and Eliza Hall Trust. Funds were distributed in New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland. A significant proportion of Victoria's share went toward the establishment of the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute in Melbourne.


Eliza Rowdon Kirk was born in Melbourne, the eldest daughter of George Kirk (a Yorkshire-born butcher) and his wife Elizabeth, née Wippell. In 1874 she married Walter Russell Hall. Walter was born in Herefordshire, England, and arrived in Sydney with little money. He became an agent for Cobb & Co., taking over the firm with James Rutherford and others in 1861. By the time he left Cobb & Co. in the mid-1880s he was a wealthy man. 
From here his wealth grew via an investment in the Mount Morgan Gold Mining Co. Ltd., registered with a capital of £1 million in 1886. Walter Hall made many anonymous donations to institutions and individuals including a gift of £1,000 to charities when his horse Reviver won the Metropolitan in 1900. He gave £5,000 to the Patriotic Fund during the war in South Africa and £10,000 to the Dreadnought Fund.

Walter and Eliza had no children, but took care of two orphaned cousins. When Walter died in 1911 his estate was valued at £2,915,513 with Eliza his principal beneficiary. Shortly afterwards she put aside £1 million to benefit the community in commemoration of her husband. She was persuaded to link her own name with her husband's in this endeavour, and the terms of the trust deed for the Walter and Eliza Hall Trust were made public in May 1912. 
The income was distributed according to the derivation of Walter's wealth: half went to New South Wales, one quarter to Queensland, and one quarter to Victoria. The deed was drawn up under Eliza's instructions and stipulated that income be used for the relief of poverty, advancement of education, advancement of religion (Church of England), and general benefit of the community. In each state, one third of the income was to be used for the benefit of women and children. A large share of Victoria's allocation went to the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Research in Pathology and Medicine in 1916.

On her death in 1916, Eliza bequeathed her estate - valued at £1,180,059 - to relations, friends and servants, with a number of pictures and statues left to the Melbourne and Sydney art galleries.

Sources used to compile this entry: 'Hall, Eliza Rowdon (1847-1916)', in Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, 2006,

Archival resources

State Library of New South Wales

  • King family further papers, being mainly of Dr Hazel King regarding Kelso King, ca. 1841-1982, c. 1841 - 1982, MLMSS 8842; King family; State Library of New South Wales.

136.   =David HAMMER, Pastor, Carnavon WA

136.A  -  A.J HAMILL, C of C evangelist, Prahran, 1869 Berwick, VIC

137. William HAMILTON, Presbyterian

137+. Robert HARKNESS - musician, hymnwriter & evangelist

Robert HARKNESS - musician, hymnwriter & evangelist

Parents: Abraham HARKNESS and Jane Elizabeth NOBLE - married 1864 Victoria
Place in Family: youngest - equal tenth, or eleventh child with his twin
Born: 2 March 1880 Bendigo, Victoria - [his twin brother Joseph died at 10 weeks old]

Death: 8 May 1961 London, England


HARKNESS, Robert (1880-1961)
Keith Cole


(b. Bendigo, Vic, 2 March 1880;
d. London, 8 May 1961).
Hymnwriter and evangelist.

Robert was the son of Abraham and Jane Elizabeth Harkness, two staunch Methodists and deeply committed Christians. He was educated at Bendigo, worked for a short time in a printing firm and then in his father's foundry. At a very early age he displayed a remarkable musical ability on the piano and organ, and soon began to compose hymns. The whole direction of his life changed in 1902 when the Torrey-Alexander Mission team visited Bendigo. His brilliant piano playing immediately caught the attention of Charles M Alexander, the mission's song leader, who arranged for him to join the mission group. Several months later he dedicated his life completely to Christ during a mission at Dunedin, New Zealand. From that time onwards, for the next sixty years, he devoted the whole of his many talents, energy and expertise to the presentation of the gospel through music, song and the spoken word.

Harkness was the accompanist and composer with Alexander from 1902-16, from 1902-09 as a member of the Torrey-Alexander team and from 1910-6 with the Chapman-Alexander group. He travelled with them around the world on numerous occasions and took part in all their major missions.

During the 1909 Chapman-Alexander Mission in Australia he became engaged to Adela Ruth Langsford, and the couple were married on 16 Feb 1912 on the team's next visit to Australia. Ruth was a trained singer and after their marriage often sang at missions at which Harkness played. They had no children.

During the 1909 Australian tour Alexander used his very popular Alexander's hymns Not for the First time. This hymn book had been compiled at Alexander's Birmingham home during a break in their mission program. Harkness wrote the tunes for 61 and the Lyrics for 14 of the hymns in this book, 9 other lyrics being written by Fred P Morris, another Bendigonian.

Harkness and his wife moved to the United States after World War One where they spent the remainder of their lives giving sacred concerts and composing sacred songs. He composed, in all, over 2500 gospel hymns. They lived at Pasadena near Los Angeles on the west coast. Here he formed the Harkness Music Co by which he published three very popular correspondence courses for hymn playing; founded and edited a very popular monthly music magazine called The Sacred Musician, compiled a slender hymn book called New Harkness Hymns and Sacred Hymns; and wrote a 127 page book called Reuben Archer Torrey: the Man and his Message.

During their forty years in the United States Harkness and his wife conducted many sacred concert tours throughout North America, England, Scandinavia and the Continent. He returned to Australia and his home city of Bendigo seven times. On each occasion he gave sacred concerts and played hymns tunes on his father's foundry whistles. A feature of the concerts was his invitation to the audience to suggest a text to which immediately he would compose and play a tune.

Ruth died in the United States in 1958 and he died in a London clinic on 8 May 1961. He was buried in the Alexander family plot in Birmingham, England.

REFERENCE: Keith Cole, Robert Harkness: the Bendigo hymnwriter (Bendigo, 1988)

KEITH COLE - Electronic Version © Southern Cross College, 2004

FROM: Biography and Gospel music of Robert Harkness (1880-1961)

Robert Harkness


Born: March 2, 1880, Ben­di­go, Aus­tral­ia.
Died: May 8, 1961, Lon­don, Eng­land.
Buried: In the Al­ex­an­der fam­i­ly plot, Birm­ing­ham, Eng­land.

After at­tend­ing a re­viv­al meet­ing by Ru­ben Arch­er Tor­rey and Charles M. Al­ex­and­er, Hark­ness be­came Al­ex­and­er’s pi­an­ist. He came to Christ short­ly ther­ea­fter (“on a bi­cy­cle,” he said), and made sev­er­al round the world tours with Tor­rey and Al­ex­and­er. Hark­ness was es­pe­cial­ly well known for his prog­ram “The Mu­sic of the Cross,” and as the au­thor of cor­res­pond­ence courses in hymn play­ing. He wrote over 2,000 hymns and Gos­pel songs in his life­time.

His works in­clude: Music

At the Foot of the Cross
Carry Your Bi­ble
Far from God, Away from Jesus
He Wants a Poor Sinner Like Me
He Will Hold Me Fast
Hide God’s Word in Your Heart
I Have a Savior
I Need to Be Filled
I Would Draw Nearer to Jesus
In Jesus
Meet Me in the Homeland
Memories of Mother
No Longer Lonely
Old Time Way, The
Somebody Came and Lifted Me
Soon Will Our Savior from Heaven Appear
Such Love (© 1928)
’Tis Jesus
Traveling Home
Trusting Jesus, Wonderful Guide
When I See My Savior
When the Shadows Flee Away (© 1923)
Why Should He Love Me So (1924)
Wonderful Love (1922)

138. James HAROLD (1744-1830) banished Catholic Priest, Convict, Sydney, Norfolk Island
Father James HAROLD, banished Catholic Priest, Convict,
Sydney, Norfolk Island

Birth: 1744 Ireland
Cultural Heritage: Irish
Religious Influence: Catholic
Cross: Accused of Treason, taken Political Prisoner, Transported, Banned from Ministry
Arrived: January 1800 Sydney, NSW in the 'Minerva'
Occupation: Catholic priest, convict (political), schoolteacher
Pardon: by Governor Macquarie in June 1810,
Death: 15 August 1830 Dublin, Ireland

From ADB ONLINE - Australian Dictionary of Biography

Harold, James (1744–1830)

by Harold Perkins

James Harold (1744-1830), Catholic priest, was a member of an old family of Wicklow, Ireland, said to have been descended from King Harold of England, one of whose sons settled in the Dublin Hills. He was ordained in 1774, studied at Antwerp till 1779 and became parish priest of Rathcoole in 1794. A United Irishman, he wrote propagandist verse, but in March 1798, in obedience to Archbishop Troy, he preached restraint and bade his parishioners surrender arms and swear allegiance. However, he clashed with officers enforcing the disarmament and sheltered a wounded prisoner, Felix Rourke. When the rebel plot for the seizure of Rathcoole was discovered, Harold went to Drogheda for a written 'protection' from the commanding general. In his absence he was blamed before a military court for the treason of parishioners and his house was burned. On his return, 'protection' notwithstanding, he was arrested and imprisoned in June, and in November placed on a hulk. Thrice his friends obtained habeas corpus writs, which were ignored by his keepers. He petitioned for a trial on 28 February 1799, but whether his petition was rejected or whether he was banished under the amnesty of 22 August 1798 is not clear. Writing to relations he denied the published allegations against him, but spoke of an apostleship and of his 'persecutors' as instruments of providence.

He arrived in Sydney in the Minerva in January 1800, but as he was not permitted to minister in New South Wales he sought leave to depart. Governor John Hunter sent his petition to London. Meantime unrest among Irish convicts exposed him to suspicion, though he claimed that he 'tried at all times to prevent any disturbance and to preserve the peace of the community'. His refusal to incriminate others angered the inquiring magistrates. Several Irishmen were flogged, and Harold with others was banished to Norfolk Island. There he conducted a school when his health permitted, and lived near John Drummond, beach-master. He repeatedly petitioned Governor Philip Gidley King for permission to minister but was ignored. When Father James Dixon was released, Harold succeeded to his private ministry at Parramatta in 1808. He was among the Irishmen pardoned by Governor Macquarie in June 1810, and left the colony in the Concord in July.

In March 1811 he was with his nephew, Rev. W. V. Harold, vicar-general at Philadelphia, and became a pastor and trustee of the cathedral, but the other trustees, at variance with his nephew, never accepted him. He was old, a nervous wreck, temperamental, irrepressible. Under episcopal pressure both Harolds resigned. At the election for trustees in April 1813 only Haroldites were elected, and the notorious Trustee Schism began. Later that year the Harolds returned to Ireland. In 1815-16 James Harold served at Kilcullen, and in 1818-20 at Fairview-Clontarf. He died on 15 August 1830 and was buried in Old Richmond cemetery, Dublin.

Select Bibliography
Historical Records of New South Wales, vol 4
Historical Records of Australia, series 1, vols 2-4
P. F. Moran, Spicilegium Ossoriense. Letters and Papers Illustrative of the History of the Irish Church from the Reformation … to 1800 (Dublin, 1874-84)
P. F. Moran, History of the Catholic Church in Australasia (Syd, 1895)
T. J. Kiernan, Transportation from Ireland to Sydney: 1791-1816 (Canberra, 1954)
M. I. J. Griffin, ‘Rev James Harold’, American Catholic Historical Researches, 17 (1900)
Diocesan archives (Dublin)
Bonwick transcripts, biography (State Library of New South Wales).

139. Charles HARPUR, poet, NSW
Charles Harpur (1813-1868), poet and critic, was born on the 23rd January 1813 at Windsor on the Hawkesbury River, New South Wales, the third child and second son of Joseph Harpur, emancipist and government schoolmaster and parish clerk, and his emancipist wife Sarah, née Chidley. Both parents had been transported as convicts; his father, a native of Kinsale, County Cork, Ireland, arrived at Port Jackson, Sydney Cove in 1800, and his mother, from Somerset, in 1806.

Harpur is famous for works written from 1843 to the mid-1850s, such as 'The Dream by the Fountain', 'Glen of the White Man's Grave', 'Sonnets to Rosa', 'The Creek of the Four Graves', 'A Poet's Home', 'A Basket of Summer Fruit', and especially 'Midsummer Noon in the Australian Forest.' J. Normington Rawling writes (in ADB Online): 'Besides being a poet, Harpur saw his role as that of a patriot, not a chauvinist, whose task it was to help make his country worthy of esteem, and to lead and to warn and to strike at wickedness in high places and in low, and like some Hebrew prophet to thunder judgment. While, he said, nothing could shake his belief in God, he rejected all Christian sects, Unitarianism coming nearest to his conception of religion. But his standards were high, his standards for individual righteousness and for collective and governmental morality. He could not keep silent, whether it were friend or foe who offended. There was much to thunder about in mid-century Sydney and much to sadden a sensitive poet with the outlook of a seer and prophet.'

140. = Jack HARRADINE, Adelaide

140.a. - Senator Brian HARRADINE, (1935 – 2014) Tasmania

141. + Charles Enoch HARRIS (1931–1993) Uniting Aboriginal and Islander Christian Congress, Aboriginal and Islander community leader and Uniting Church minister

Birth: 8 July 1931 Ingham, Queensland, Australia
Death : 7 May 1993 Townsville, Queensland, Australia
Cause of Death : kidney disease
Cultural Heritage : Indigenous Australian, Malayan (Malaysian), Spanish
Religious Influence : Assemblies of God, Methodist, Uniting
Education : Victoria Plantation State School (Qld), Commonwealth Bible College (Brisbane), Alcorn College (Brisbane), Nungalinya College (Darwin)
Occupation : Methodist lay leader, Uniting lay leader, Uniting minister
Key Events : 1988 March for Freedom, Justice, and Hope,
Key Organisations : Uniting Aboriginal and Islander Christian Congress
Workplaces : Urban Aboriginal Mission (Brisbane)
Harris, Charles Enoch (1931–1993)

by Thom Blake

This article was published online in 2017

Charles Enoch Edward Harris (1931–1993), Aboriginal and Islander community leader and Uniting Church minister, was born on 8 July 1931 at Victoria Estate, near Ingham, North Queensland, fifth child of Murray Island-born Golgay Harris, labourer, and his Queensland-born wife Allie, née Wyle. Charles’s father was of Torres Strait Islander and Spanish descent and his mother, Aboriginal and Malay. Growing up in the Pentecostal tradition, he became a member of the Assemblies of God in Australia. After attending (1937–44) Victoria Plantation State School, he found labouring jobs in the sugarcane fields and on the railways.

Realising a commitment to ministry and evangelism, Harris studied at the Commonwealth Bible College in Brisbane (1957–59), then worked as a travelling evangelist in northern New South Wales. On 29 June 1963 at Pastor Frank Roberts’s Cubawee Church, Lismore, he married Dorothy Jessie Ruth Roberts, a Bundjalung woman; she would actively support him in his ministry throughout their married life. The couple moved to Ingham, where Harris worked as a canecutter while continuing to spread the gospel in his spare time.

In the mid-1960s Harris came under the influence of Rev. Ed Smith at the Ingham Methodist Church. At Smith’s invitation, in 1967 he became part of the ministry team at the church, with responsibility for the Aboriginal and Islander community in the town and district. A year later, when Smith was transferred to the Hermit Park circuit at Townsville, Harris followed and was appointed as pastor to the newly established Mission to Aborigines and Islanders in Queensland.

Harris moved to Brisbane in 1973 as pastor to a predominately Aboriginal and Islander congregation at Paddington. Formed by Pastor Don Brady, it was part of the Central Methodist Mission under the leadership of Rev. George Nash. Harris’s ministry enjoyed Nash’s keen support and focused increasingly on the spiritual and physical care of the people who frequented Musgrave Park, South Brisbane. In the mid-1970s the congregation was renamed the Urban Aboriginal Mission. Although his work was extremely demanding, Harris managed to undertake further theological studies at Alcorn College in Brisbane and, externally, at Nungalinya College, Darwin, to fulfil the requirements for ordination in the Uniting Church in Australia. On 27 November 1980 he became the denomination’s first Indigenous minister in Queensland.

Returning to Townsville in 1981, Harris was appointed to the West End parish. In the same year he undertook a study tour to New Zealand to observe Māori congregations and investigate their distinctive theology and organisational structure within the mainstream Protestant denominations. Harris saw a need to generate a similar model for Aboriginal and Islander congregations. He organised meetings of leaders to discuss how a theology encompassing matters of concern to Australia’s first peoples could be formulated and how greater autonomy could be achieved for them in the Uniting Church. The most significant gathering was in 1983, at Galiwinku in the Northern Territory, where the participants decided to set up a national organisation.

The assembly of the Uniting Church accordingly endorsed the establishment of the Uniting Aboriginal and Islander Christian Congress (UAICC) in 1985. Harris was appointed president, based in Sydney. In this capacity, he worked tirelessly to support and encourage Aboriginal and Islander congregations throughout Australia. He also spoke regularly to a wider audience on the role of governments and churches in the history of injustice towards the first Australians. An important campaign that he initiated was the Long March for Freedom, Justice, and Hope, which culminated on 26 January 1988 in Sydney. Harris laboured unflaggingly to organise the event, the most significant assembly of Aboriginal and Islander peoples and their supporters during Australia’s bicentennial year, with some fifty thousand in attendance. The march attracted national and international attention and emphasised that, for Aboriginal people, the bicentenary represented no cause for celebration, but marked two hundred years of oppression.

In 1989 Harris retired from active ministry owing to ill health. Acknowledging his contribution as head of the UAICC, the president of the Uniting Church, Sir Ronald Wilson, praised his `vision … determination and keen sense of justice’ (Emilsen). Harris was a short, slender man with a quiet, unassuming manner. He died of renal and heart diseases on 7 May 1993 in Townsville and was buried in Belgian Gardens cemetery. His wife and their three sons and three daughters survived him. More than five hundred people attended his funeral. The Indigenous-rights campaigner Charles Perkins, a long-time friend, described Harris as one who helped set ‘the moral and ethical standards for relationships between Aboriginal, Islander and white Australians. A man of principle, whose impact will never be forgotten’ (Foster 1993, 5).

Research edited by Darryl Bennet

Select Bibliography

* Busch, David. ‘Pastor Harris Fights On: Church Wins Black Cleric.’ Telegraph (Brisbane), 21 November 1980, 10

* Dingle, Adele, comp. ‘Rev Charles Harris, 1931–1993.’ Journey (Uniting Church in Australia, Queensland Synod), June 1993, 14-15

E* milsen, William W. ‘Charles Harris: Faithful Servant.’ In A Calendar of Other Commemorations. Uniting Church in Australia. Accessed 12 June 2014. Copy held on ADB file

* Foster, Michael. ‘High Praise for an Aboriginal Legend.’ Townsville Bulletin, 14 May 1993, 5

* Gordon-Harris, Dorothy. Interview by the author, 10 June 2014

* Woodley, John. Interview by the author, 16 June 2014

142. = Len HARRIS NT

143. = G. R. Dick HARRIS QLD

144. Norm HARRIS, Surf-lifesaver & evangelist Woolongong NSW

144+. Fr Patrick Joseph HARTIGAN, (1878–1952)aka the poet John O'BRIEN

Poet 'John O'Brien - Fr Patrick Joseph HARTIGAN

Fr Patrick Joseph HARTIGAN, (1878–1952)

From: ADB ONLINE - Australian Dictionary of Biography

Hartigan, Patrick Joseph (1878–1952)

by G. P. Walsh

Patrick Joseph Hartigan (1878-1952), priest and poet, was born on 13 October 1878 at O'Connell Town, Yass, New South Wales, eldest surviving son of Patrick Joseph Hartigan, produce merchant, and his wife Mary, née Townsell, both from Lisseycasey, Clare, Ireland. After attending the convent school at Yass, he entered St Patrick's College, Manly, in February 1892 but, uncertain of his vocation for the priesthood, left for St Patrick's College, Goulburn, where he studied under the noted classicist Dr John Gallagher, later bishop of Goulburn.

145. Gwen HARWOOD, hymnist, poet, Qld & Tas.

146. C.L.M. HAWTERY, church historian WA

146+: "PITJIRI ’ Sister Ruth - Ruth Sabina HEATHCOCK (1909-1995) (M.B.E.) Nurse, Sister, Midwife & Missionary in South Australia & Northern Terrotory
Ruth Sabina HEATHCOCK -
Name: Heathcock, Ruth Sabina.
Also known as: Rayney, Ruth Sabina.
Date of Birth: 11 January 1901.
Place of Birth: Murray Bridge (South Australia)
Occupation: Nurse
Biographical notes: Nursed the aboriginal victims of leprosy when it was illegal to do so. Was awarded an MBE for rowing 145 km to save a man who shot himself accidentally.
Ruth was convinced that her work would amounted to nothing had it not been for the aborigines who worked with her.
Honours and Awards: The Order of the British Empire - Member (Civil) 1951.

Related link: Baldwin, Suzy, and Australian Bicentennial Authority. Unsung Heroes & Heroines of Australia. Elwood, Vic.: Greenhouse, 1988.

Carment, D. 1949-. Northern Territory Dictionary of Biography. Rev. ed. ed. Darwin: Charles Darwin University Press, 2008.

The Order of the British Empire - Member (Civil)
Subject: Women -- Northern Territory.

BIOGRAPHY: - HALL, Vic (1968). Sister Ruth. Neville Spearman, London.

HUGHES, Karen. Outskirts online journal - ‘I’d grown up as a child amongst natives’: Ruth Heathcock (1901-1995) – disrupting settler-colonial orthodoxy through friendship and cross-cultural literacy in creolised spaces of the Australian contact zone ' Karen Hughes = PUBLICATION DETAILS Volume 28, May 2013

147a. * Miss Eliza Mary HEAYSMAN - Missionary to China with CIM. Murdered as a Martyr in September 1900 in Shan-shi, China.

-Eliza Mary HEAYSMAN -b.1874 East Grinstead, Sussex, England - of Torrens Road, Ridleyton, Hindmarsh, Adelaide, SA - daughter of of Dairyman & Assurance Agent John Heaysman (1844–1923) & Eliza Cheshire (1843–1883). The family appear to have been connected with the Quakers as well as the Baptist Church for two of her brothers afterwards married at the Friends Meeting House in North Adelaide, and her brother Frederick, who taught Chinese in Adelaide, was married in Baptist Church in Norwood on 28 Sept 1905, at about the five year anniversary of his sister's death.

147. Captain Mary Jane-HENDERSON, Mildura Victoria, Salvation Army, Hospital,

148. =Nicholas HEY, German moravian, Mapoon QLD

149. =Mary Ann HEY,(née Barnes), Mapoon, QLD

150. Ernst Bernhard HEYNE (1825-1881)-botanist, Thomastown VIC- Adelaide SA

151. Hans HEYSEN, artist, SA

152. Abel HOADLEY - The Violet Crumble Man (10 September 1844 Willingdon, Sussex, England - 12 May 1918 at his home, Bella Vista, Kew, Victoria) Orchardist, Jam-maker, Manufacturer, Methodist, Philanthropist

"...the Rising Sun Preserving Works, were built in 1895: jams, jellies, preserved fruits, candied peels, sauces and confectionery were made by a workforce as large as 200...Hoadley adopted a paternal attitude to his workers. The premises were praised for their cleanliness, airiness and well-equipped dining rooms. He supported wages boards, but after Federation the intensely competitive nature of business made him favour industry rather than occupational boards, and a State-wide and ultimately uniform Federal system. As a devout and active Methodist, he supported the establishment of the Central Mission in 1893, was its treasurer in 1895-1906, and an executive member thereafter. He was remembered as a prudent, independent committee-man, 'conservative without being retrogressive'. In 1903 when the mission decided to extend its boy rescue work by establishing a country home, Hoadley offered his 38-acre (15 ha) Burwood orchard for £1000, some £500 less than the market price; with another property purchased on similar terms it became the nucleus of the Boys' Training Farm at Tally Ho (East Burwood).'

153. Robert HODDLEExplorer, Surveyor-Designer of Melbourne, Visionary Born 20 April 1794 in Westminster, London ~ died 24 October 1881 Melbourne.
'His designs were an innovation for Australian cities, as Melbourne and its inner suburbs were planned in the grid style.'

A younger Hoddle, maybe had some lens even more 'visionary' than his telescope, one that seemed give him a view into the future with clarity, so that he could design ahead of his time.
"After the separation of the colony in 1851 he became Victoria's first surveyor-general. To a select committee on roads and bridges he advocated the provision of three-chain (60 m) roads and the widening of all existing main roads from one (20 m) to three chains (60 m). His outspoken criticism of the manner in which streets and highways had been allowed to develop was not well received...

"...he spent his long years of retirement, tending the trees and garden he loved and enjoying the books and pictures he had collected. He played the organ and flute, and made translations from the Spanish. He was actively interested in the Old Colonists' Association of Victoria, and sometimes attended the Anglican Cathedral. His energy and resourcefulness, technical accuracy and imagination had been invaluable attributes in the pioneer conditions which he had to face, and the difficulties of his personal relationships perhaps arose because he was more able and far-sighted than his colleagues."

Robert Hoddle, painted by his daughter

154. "KAMOTO" George Hubert HOLLIS (1877~1955)South Wandin > Nyassaland-Malawi / South Africa
"KAMOTO" George Hubert HOLLIS was the son of Hubert John Hollis, who had arrived in Melbourne in 1852 at age 9 as the eldest child with his family, but who was orphaned before maturity first by the death of his father in January 1854 and then of his mother in 1860. Though an orphan in Australia, Hubert Hollis was the grandson of a yeoman Grandee and Gentleman farmer in the fertile Thames valley, northeast of Reading, Oxfordshire. In 1867, about when two cousins, his Aunt Pearman's English sons, had graduated from Oxford University to became Anglican Clergymen, and another cousin, William Pottinger Hollis, was at the Royal College of Surgeons in London, Hubert Hollis married in a Registry Office in Gertrude Street, Fitzroy to a fellow orphan, the lately arrived, Eliza SUCKLING, whose parents had died in 1848 in the epidemic about Ware, Hertfordshire. The young couple went to pioneer the rainforested wilderness of Wandin Yallock, in the Yarra Valley of Victoria. George Hubert Hollis was born on the 21st November 1877 at South Wandin. Notwithstanding his gentrified antecedants, he lived with loss and difficulty from early years. His father died when he was eleven, but his mother fought on to raise he six surviving children, and keep the hard-won selection on her own. At that time the Hollis family changed their historical connnection with the Church of England to join in fellowship with their neighbouring largely Methodist settlers, and so made many missionary connections to the Healesville Aboriginal people the Yarra valley. Maybe, as a result of suffering poverty and hardship, Hollis was later to show an 'Australian Attitude' to English Class prejudice, of independent mind awhen he became a champion of the indigenous, the poor, and the marginalised, even if it was against the Force, Conceit and Grand Assunption of Colonial British Rule, as it eventuated, in 'British' Africa.

Hollis volunteered in about 1901 for the campaign of the Boer War, where he joined up with his brother Edward Hollis, in the Bushveldt Carbineers, along with 'Breaker Morant' and co. After a period up country in the veldt of South Africa, Hollis and his brother joined the Urban Police, in Cape Town. At this time his eyes were opened and his faith quickened to the point where he felt a Divine call on his life for the African people. In 1907 he became the pioneer Churches of Christ missionary in the British territory of Nyassaland, now Malawi, central Africa. The African people of Nyassaland soon called him 'KAMOTO' (Little Fire). Hollis made friends and converts, and from the beginning encouraged the formation of an Indigenous church with Indigenous Leaders, among them, John Chilembwe, of the Baptist Providence Industrial Mission, who led an uprising against the Nyasaland government in 1915. As the First World War broke out, the neighbouring State of German East Africa, was suspected officially in enmity, Hollis refused the demand of the Authorities to give him the names of leaders who lived and moved across the borders. He was then jailed in the 'Laager' by the British, with his wife and family and their fellow missionaries. The Authorities erected gibbets in the village and began to hang the rebels. "He (Hollis) believed... that the Christian missionary must be prepared to `live rough', and had arrived at one of Booth's old stations at Chikunda with his wife (Helen née Bowles), with nothing more than an African-style mud hut to live in at first. As a European `living native' he was, from the outset of his Nyasaland experience, therefore, an object of scorn for many of the Europeans of the Shire Highlands. His pronounced outspokenness on African affairs, furthermore, was not likely to overcome their attitude." Then Hollis, like his German-Australian brother-in-law, became a pacifist, and did not join in the inimical attitude to projected 'Enemies.' "Hollis was indulgent toward the African point of view, and he gave the Africans greater responsibility in the running of mission work than many Europeans. He also had opened up some small stores and was prepared to trade at close quarters with Africans.

'Kamoto' or 'Little Fire' George Hubert & Helen Hollis

"Hollis had known Baptist Booth, and when the Chilembwe revolt took place the British authorities ordered the Hollis's, Philpotts, and Mary Bannister into laager in Zomba. The confinement continued for seven miserable weeks, ending in Hollis being deported. The authorities thought Hollis knew of the revolt, maybe even helped plan it, and had refused to inform them. The fact is, rumors had gone around, but Hollis knew no more than the British authorities themselves. And, also, the charges did not fit his character: he was a confirmed pacifist." Hollis wrote: ' I now look upon war more as a relic of barbarism than anything else. I do not see how I could take up a gun with the intention of shooting my fellow man man now I am a disciple of Him who is the Prince of Peace.
In the patriotic atmosphere of Nyasaland at that time, pacifism was the last thing to make a man popular ! Hollis, and his family, were deported and banned from returning to Nyassaland.
Thus, from the beginning, the personality of Hollis and the background of association with Booth were calculated to bring the Churches of Christ Mission in Nyasaland into disfavour.
The Church of Christ was banned by the Nyassaland government from 1915 to 1924, but the brethren continued to meet in secret for worship and baptized converts in the streams at night. Hollis lived out the rest of life involved in the church in South Africa, only visiting family in Australia, accompanied by his wife, for about a year in 1934. He died on 23 February 1955 at 'Bullwood,' Cape Town, South Africa and is buried nearby.

155. Alec Derwent HOPE -"THE VISITANT",(21 July 1907 –13 July 2000) 'A.D.HOPE' - poet, New South Wales, Tasmania, Canberra
" A D Hope was born in Cooma, New South Wales in 1907 and was educated at Sydney and Oxford Universities. He lectured at the University of Melbourne from 1945 to 1950,eventually moving to Canberra, where he was foundation professor of English at Canberra University College, later to become the Australian National University, until 1969. He was instrumental in launching the first full university course in Australian literature."

A younger Alec Hope

...'From 1929 to 1930 Hope read English at Oxford University; his teachers for language included the novelists J. R. R. Tolkien and C. S. Lewis. ' His poems include many full of the Judeo-Christian substance and hope.

... 'Hope saw the role of poetry as a means of creating new being. He saw the poet as an actor who entered a part and explored possible answers to those questions offered up by the human condition. Central to his vision is an ironic stance that teases the reader to submit to the provisional nature of knowledge though simultaneously affirming the relentless search for truth.'

'Such poems as "Imperial Adam" and "Lot and His Daughters" (The Bible), "Ascent into Hell" and "The House of God" (Boyhood), "Pyramis or The House of Ascent" (Archaeology), "The Brides" and "Toast for a Golden Age" (Society and Its Ironies), "Return of Persephone" and "The End of a Journey" (Reinvention of Myth)' join the literature of Judeo-Christian striving. ... They show 'Hope's attempt to find a principle of transcendence, reconciliation, and grace in a world that in the Nietzschean sense had lost its God.'

'Hope enjoyed taking on the scientists--whether physicists, astrologists, or biologists -because of their inability to accept the provisional nature of know-ledge. Scientific concepts themselves often served as a source of inspiration for his work. He writes of how he has never lost sight of the "awareness of the narrowness of the bases of knowledge of the world" and the way "that what we are aware of gets in the way of what we are totally unaware of...' He wants us to and feel our own longing, to see the luminous 'otherness' in a numinous actuality that we might call fact or reality is only a part, and to which death is a final entry, a bridge: -

The Gateway - by Alec Derwent Hope

Now the heart sings with all its thousand voices
To hear this city of cells, my body, sing.
The tree through the stiff clay at long last forces
Its thin strong roots and taps the secret spring.

And the sweet waters without intermission
Climb to the tips of its green tenement;
The breasts have borne the grace of their possession,
The lips have felt the pressure of content.

Here I come home: in this expected country
They know my name and speak it with delight.
I am the dream and you my gates of entry,
The means by which I waken into light.

'A. D. Hope died on 13 July 2000 in Canberra. He believed that poetry was philosophical music, and his work dramatizes the ways in which a philos-ophical argument is best represented by analogy. He believed that all great poems include within their music an argument of some kind. His preference for analogy is in line with his distrust of arguments based on the assumption that certain facts are fundamental, elemental, and axiomatic and that, in knowledge, no other facts have to be brought into consonance with them.'

"Despite Hope's scholarly engagement with metaphysics, mythology, psychology, and cultural movements, and despite his antagonism toward aspects of modernism and his fierce views about the need for the poet's personal detachment when entering into an argument of a poem, he always expresses an element of play and disinterested contemplation of the world. When questioned about if and how he might write an autobiographical work, Hope said he "would write it as a travel book under the title 'A Visit to Earth.' It would involve no pose or artifice, since I have always felt that detachment travellers feel, no matter how well they know and feel at home in their countries they visit. No matter how immersed in the life of a foreign country they may become, their first impressions are always from the outside looking in--and that has been my attitude to the world I live in and still is." In "Visitant," from Orpheus, he writes,

Yet much that I saw became dear;
Some few were close to my heart;
Although it was perfectly clear
I was a stranger here
Standing aloof and apart.'

156. Widow Hester HORNBROOK Ladies' City Mission, Melbourne
Widow Hester HORNBROOK -
Born: about 1785 Jamaica, West Indies
Work: Melbourne Ladies' City Mission. Melbourne City Mission
Died: 27th August 1862 at age 77 Melbourne
Probate: to Josselyn Forbes Forgeur of Wahgunyah

From Melbourne City Mission Website -
Hester Hornbrook
Hester Hornbrook was Melbourne Citymission's president from 1856 until her death in 1862, and one of its founders. Born in the West Indies, she had arrived in Victoria in 1849.
Among her many charitable works was her involved in establishing a 'Protestant Refuge' for prostitutes who wished to begin new lives. She was best known for founding a system of 'ragged schools' - basic education, particularly 'instructing the word of God', for children who were too poor, dirty or otherwise marginalised to attend any other type of formal education.
After her death she was remembered with respect and love by fellow committee members of Melbourne Citymission: 'In meetings of committee her firmness of purpose, purity of motive, simplicity of aim, unwavering trust in the Divine promises, prayerful dependence on God, fearlessness in encountering difficulty, excellency of wisdom, and her spirited, joyous and hopeful manner - all rendered her an invaluably councillor and guide'.
Mrs Hornbrook had worked tirelessly to raise funds for Melbourne Citymission - visiting house to house to collect money and writing letters when poor eyesight and general infirmity restricted her movements.
"This is the last Will and Testament of me Hester Hornbrook of Melbourne in the colony of Victoria, Widow. In the name of Jesus I commit my soul and body to the one living and true God, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, who has redeemed them from Death and Hell and has provided my daily wants all my life long, I give and bequeath all my real and personal Estate whatsoever and wheresoever situate to my dear Grandson Josselyn Forbes Forgeur, his heirs, executors, administrators and assigns according to their several natures and qualities thereof absolutely. And I appoint my said Grandson Josselyn Forbes Forgeur sole Executor of this my Will In Witness whereof I have to this my last Will and Testament set and subscribed my hand this thirteenth day of May, One thousand eight hundred and sixty two. From: LAST WILL and TESTAMENT of Hester Hornbrook.

Legacy: - 1. Petition Tabled in Parliament of Victoria on Tuesday 18th October 1853 coutesty of Mr. E. Parker - to move that the petition presented to him on the 13th Inst (October 1853) - from Hester Hornbrook, Isabella Singleton, and 2097 females, on the subject of Intemperance, be printed. [The Argus< Melbourne - Tues 18th October 1852 page 5] 2. Three Inner City HORNBROOK RAGGED SCHOOLS, Byron Street, St Kilda - Hornbrook ragged Schools Association 1872 3. HORNBROOK MISSION SCHOOL existing in 1911 4. HORNBROOK FREE KINDERGARTEN, Prahran - 1910-194? 5. Hester Mary FORGEUR - daughter of Josselyn Forbes FORGUER & Maria SANGER FORGEUR (who married 1865 Albury), born 1867 at Albury, NSW,- died 1938 at Corowa, NSW 6. Josselyn Hornbrook FORGEUR - son of Josselyn Forbes FORGUER & Maria SANGER FORGEUR, born 1872 at Wahgunyah, Victoria - died 1945 Liverpool, NSW REFERENCE & SOURCE: - LAST WILL and TESTAMENT of Hester Hornbrook, Widow. Probate Granted 19 Sept 1862 File No.4/077 to J.F.Forgeur

“… From squalor and vice to virtue and knowledge …”: the rise of Melbourne’s Ragged School system’, Provenance: The Journal of Public Record Office Victoria, issue no. 14, 2015. ISSN 1832-2522. Copyright © Amber Graciana Evangelista

In 1859, Hester Hornbrook, an elderly Evangelical philanthropist, established Melbourne’s first Ragged School on Cambridge Street, Collingwood. At first glance, Hester was an unlikely founder for what was perhaps Australia’s most focused and tightly organised Ragged School system. She was an aged woman ‘without riches, without position, without influence, without a party’, yet strong, determined devotion to her religion motivated her to establish Melbourne’s Ragged School system. Hornbrook was elderly; at the time of the establishment of her first school she was 74 years-of-age, and was considered to have ‘attained an age far beyond that ordinarily allotted to mankind’.[1] She was also not particularly wealthy. A woman of ‘slender means’,[2] Hornbrook’s total estate did not exceed £500.[3] Although this appears to make her an unlikely philanthropist, as a devout Anglican and disciple of Melbourne’s Evangelical movement, Hester’s zealous involvement in Melbourne’s voluntary charity movement was to be expected.

"...the Hornbrook Ragged School Association were often very sincere in their compassion. The children of the schools received regular provisions. Aside from bibles and scripture training, on several occasions the children received clothing, boots, blankets and weekly bread.[94] Several of the HRSA teachers also sought to re-introduce play into the lives of children who often adopted adult roles in their households. The association threw annual parties and picnics, Christmas concerts and other play-dates, which were reportedly the source of great pleasure.[95] It is important to note, however, that accounts of these kindnesses were only given by the HRSA itself – there exists no record of these acts of welfare from the perspective of students or families.
While religious education was first and foremost, the Hornbrook Ragged Schools played an important role in improving the lives of their students, and their families. More significantly, the Hornbrook schools exerted considerable influence in Melbourne’s charity and education movements. However, it is important to bear in mind that the schools were the result of Evangelical beliefs. The members of the HRSA were not motivated primarily by kindness or compassion as we understand these concepts today, but by an unwavering belief in their Christian duty to provide religious education in order to relieve the symptoms of poverty and address an underlying spiritual corruption.

156+. Rev William HORTON, Hobart

157. Pastor Gottfried HOUSMANN, Grovedale VIC

158. =William HOWITT

158+. Sir William HUDSON (1896–1978) Civil Engineer, Anglican Christian, Structural Genius of the Snowy Mountains Scheme
Sir William HUDSON (1896–1978)
Civil Engineer, Anglican Christian, Genius of the Snowy Mountains Scheme

Australian Dictionary of Biography ADB ONLINE

Hudson, Sir William (1896–1978)

by Eric Sparke

Sir William Hudson (1896-1978), civil engineer, was born on 27 April 1896 at East Nelson, New Zealand, seventh of eleven children of James Hudson, a medical practitioner from London, and his New Zealand-born wife Beatrice Jane, née Andrew. Dr Hudson kept a tight rein on his family and expected Bill to study medicine. Bill enraged him when, in his matriculation year at Nelson College, he said that he wanted to be a civil engineer. In a classic case of parental misjudgement, the father told the son destined to become a world leader in his profession, 'Bill, that is about all you are bloody well good for'.

In 1914 Hudson left New Zealand to enter University College, University of London. A brilliant student, he won the Archibald Head medal, gained the college diploma with distinction and in 1920 graduated B.Sc.(Eng.) with first-class honours. His studies had been interrupted by service in World War I. A second lieutenant in the London Regiment, he was wounded in the thigh at Bullecourt, France, in April 1917. He emerged from hospital with a slight limp in his right leg, a limp which only became pronounced when he was tired. To further his interest in hydro-electric engineering, he took a postgraduate course at the University of Grenoble, France.

Hudson's first job was with Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. Ltd, London, but he returned to New Zealand in 1922 to join the Public Works Department as an assistant-engineer. He was initially employed on railway construction and then on the Mangahao hydro-electric scheme. Between 1924 and 1927 he again worked with Armstrong, Whitworth as engineer-in-charge of construction of the Arapuni Dam. At St Columba's Presbyterian Church, Fairlie, on 28 December 1926 he married 21-year-old Annie Eileen Trotter.

In 1928 Hudson crossed the Tasman to work first for the New South Wales Department of Public Works and then for the Sydney Metropolitan Water, Sewerage and Drainage Board. Appointed an assistant-engineer, he later took charge of construction of the Nepean Dam. In 1931 the Depression abruptly halted the project and he found himself unemployed. 'Not a man to remain idle', he moved his family to New Zealand and set off to try his luck in Britain. He was instantly rewarded. Sir Alexander Gibb & Partners offered him the post of engineer-in-charge of construction on the Galloway hydro-electric scheme in a remote corner of south-west Scotland. The largest project of its kind in Britain, the undertaking was challenging and presented, albeit on a minor scale, some of the problems he was to face in the Snowy Mountains of Australia.

Hudson notified his wife of his success in typical fashion—by a telegrammed directive, 'Come to Scotland'. Arriving at Tilbury, England, with a child in hand, she found another summons, 'Can't get away. Come to Galloway'. Husband and wife finally met at a small railway-station in Scotland. The five years he spent on the Galloway scheme (which he completed a year ahead of schedule) enhanced his growing reputation as an efficient and dedicated leader. With J. K. Hunter, he presented a paper on the scheme to the Institution of Civil Engineers in London and won the Telford premium.

Returning to Sydney in 1937, Hudson was again recruited by the water board as resident engineer for the Woronora Dam project. By 1948 he was the board's engineer-in-chief. In the following year he applied for the post of commissioner of the newly established Snowy Mountains Hydro-electric Authority. Nelson Lemmon, the Federal minister for works and housing, was attracted by Hudson's reputation for building dams on time and at fixed prices, and by the opinion of union officials that, although a 'bit of a slavedriver', Hudson was decisive and fair. When cabinet demanded the usual three nominations, Lemmon handed Prime Minister J. B. Chifley a slip of paper which read 'Hudson, Hudson, Hudson'.

Appointed on 1 August 1949, at 53 he reached the pinnacle of his career as manager of the Snowy Mountains scheme, responsible for the biggest civil engineering project ever undertaken in Australia and one which the American Society of Civil Engineers would call an engineering wonder of the world. His starting salary was the princely sum of £5000 a year and he was given considerable powers, including direct access to the responsible minister.

Although classed as a statutory body, the S.M.H.E.A. had, to a substantial degree, the freedom of private enterprise, a necessary concomitant of the great task that lay before Hudson. That task, to be performed in a harsh terrain and climate, was to direct operations which would trap the seaward-flowing waters of the Snowy and Eucumbene rivers and drive them westward through long trans-mountain tunnels to irrigate the dry inland plains. In falling through the tunnel systems, the waters would generate electricity for the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales and Victoria. Ultimately, the workforce (which peaked at 7300 in 1959) built 16 dams, 7 power stations, 50 miles (80 km) of aqueducts and 90 miles (145 km) of tunnels. Completed in 1974, ahead of schedule, and at a cost close to the 1953-54 estimate of £422 million, the scheme had a generating capacity of 3.74 million kilowatts of hydro-electric power and provided an annual average of 2.36 million megalitres of water for irrigation and other purposes.

To head this vast undertaking, Hudson was the ideal man. While reserved and even shy, he was driven by ambition, and knew how to choose men, how to inspire and how to lead them. Of middle height, lean and sharp featured, he had a full mouth, a prominent nose, bushy eyebrows and alert, steely eyes. He shouldered the responsibility with a crusading zeal which left no doubt that he saw it as the opportunity for which he had waited and prepared all his life.

Engineers and technical staff were in short supply in 1949. Hudson began at once to 'search the world' for skilled workers and found numbers of them in refugee camps in Europe. Two-thirds of all Snowy personnel were to come from overseas. The S.M.H.E.A. employed people of thirty-two nationalities on the job, some of whom had fought against each other in World War II. Hudson imbued them with an esprit de corps by extolling the overriding importance of the project—'You aren't any longer Czechs or Germans, you are men of the Snowy'. He won their respect by taking practical measures for their well-being, by ensuring that they had good pay, food and quarters, by providing housing for their families and by showing concern for their safety. To stir their pride and sense of camaraderie, he kept them informed, published a staff magazine and even promoted a song, Snowy River Roll. Alive to the problems likely to arise with an isolated army of men cut off from normal life, he encouraged sporting activity and camp concerts, and allowed wet canteens.

He ensured that, in the allotment of houses and in all else, the immigrants were given equal opportunity and status with the Australian born. His constant aim was to pre-empt anything that might impede the work. Wary of politicians, he nevertheless made strenuous efforts to keep them on side and to avoid political interference. He found a powerful ally in (Sir) Robert Menzies who had been critical of the scheme before becoming prime minister in December 1949. In addition, Hudson moved to prevent industrial troubles. One short strike, which he admitted was mainly the fault of management, taught him a valuable lesson. Instead of resorting to the industrial courts, he secured a private arbitrator Stanley Taylor who quickly settled disputes. Each month supervising engineers sat round the table with local union representatives to identify matters liable to cause unrest.

Industrial safety was another vital concern. To reduce the number of accidents causing serious injury and loss of life, Hudson initiated a joint safety campaign which resulted in a dramatic reduction in the accident rate among the authority's and contractors' personnel. He stipulated that no one would be employed unless he signed a statement agreeing to observe prescribed safety precautions and in 1958 he ordered seat belts to be worn in the S.M.H.E.A. vehicles. Failure to do so, after one warning, meant dismissal.

Everything was judged by its 'usefulness to the scheme'. Acting on this key tenet, Hudson was a hard and demanding taskmaster. 'He expected complete loyalty, complete devotion and hard work'. On the other hand, he was fair and always ready to listen to people. Good performances were rewarded with incentive payments. World tunnelling records were broken. But any sign of slackness or idleness roused his quick temper. He once approached a group of workers who appeared to be taking an unauthorised tea-break and sacked them on the spot. The men looked puzzled. One of them said: 'We don't know who you are, but we work for the Main Roads Department'.

Hudson loved work and led from the front, showing stamina, drive and extraordinary industry. He toiled seven days a week, with lights shining in his office at Cooma until the early hours of the morning. He rarely took holidays and relaxed, when he felt the need, by bushwalking. There was something evangelical about his approach to the Snowy project, which may help to explain the success of his public-relations programme. People in the media found him pleasant, quiet and direct. Thousands of Australians came on tours arranged by the authority and the 'Snowy' became a household word. The project grew to be a source of national pride, a symbol of the burgeoning Australia of the 1960s.

In 1955 Hudson had been appointed K.B.E.; in 1964 he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society, London. Sir William's tenure as commissioner was extended twice and Menzies promised that he would be allowed to finish the task, provided his health held. Menzies' successor Harold Holt did not honour the pledge and Hudson was retired in 1967, on the eve of his 71st birthday. He moved to the suburb of Garran in Canberra. In 1974 he attended a ceremony to mark the twenty-fifth anniversary of the project which had changed the face of Australia.

Among many distinctions, Hudson received the (W. C.) Kernot memorial medal (1958), the James N. Kirby medal (1962), and the James Cook medal (1966) of the Royal Society of New South Wales. He was elected a fellow (1961) of University College, London, and was a foundation fellow (1975) of the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences. Accorded honorary memberships of the Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (1961) and of the Institution of Engineers, Australia (1962), he was also an honorary fellow (1967) of the Royal Australian Institute of Architects. He was awarded an honorary LL.D. by the Australian National University (1962) and an honorary D.Eng. by Monash University (1968). The Returned Services League of Australia conferred honorary life membership (1968) on him and the Braille Library of Victoria made him a life governor (1976).

Other countries sought Hudson's guidance on water-control undertakings. He gave advice on the Volta River project in Ghana and assisted the United Nations in deciding what money to allot for similar works elsewhere. The first chairman of the Australian committee of the International Commission on Large Dams, he had attended an executive-conference in Moscow in 1962. Such a man never retires. After leaving the Snowy, he held numerous engineering consultancies and presided over organizations whose concerns ranged from inland development and research into welding to combating drug dependence. He headed the National Safety Council of Australia and the New South Wales Road Safety Council (from 1968), and served as a Commonwealth arbitrator on disputes involving engineering.

Through it all, Hudson never forgot the Snowy. He loved attending meetings of the 'Old Hands'—those who had worked on the scheme from the first year—to whom he was known as 'King Billy' or simply 'the Old Man'. Grimly fighting the pain of arthritis as he grew older, Hudson walked the hills behind Garran every day until illness overtook him. Survived by his wife and two daughters, he died on 12 September 1978 at Red Hill, Canberra, and was buried with Anglican rites in Cooma cemetery, close to the project of which he had been 'the heart, soul and inspiration'.

Select Bibliography
S. McHugh, The Snowy (Melb, 1989)
M. Unger, Voices from the Snowy (Syd, 1989)
B. Collis, Snowy (Syd, 1990)
Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society (Lond), 25, Nov 1979
Canberra Times, 14 Sept 1978
Sydney Morning Herald, 14 Sept 1978
M. Pratt, interview with William Hudson, (transcript, 1971, National Library of Australia)
M. Murphy, interview with William Flynn, (transcript, 1974, National Library of Australia)
private information.

159. Hamilton HUME - Explorer

160. + Denzil HUMPHRIES, Kimberleys WA -Pastor, Aboriginal Evangelical Fellowship of Australia (AEF)

Left to Right: Lyle Browning, Wali Fejo, Cecil Grant, Cedric Jacobs, David Kirk, Sonny Graham, Jack Braeside, Ossie Cruse, Ben Mason, Denzil Humphries, Bill Bird, Ron Williams.

Pastor Denzil Humphries was living on the Aboriginal Reserve Mission at Kellerberrin, in Western Australia when he converted to Christianity at the age of nineteen. Humphries went to Bible College at Gnowangerup before beginning missionary work. He has served as pastor for the Aboriginal Evangelical Fellowship in Perth. - AUTHOR -Pastor Denzil Humphries "Denzil Humphries", 1985 life story -— Appears in: National Aboriginal Day Magazine 1985; (p. 21

160.a. Captain, John HUNTER, 1st Fleet, NSW later Governor HUNTER, NSW

161.Rosa Zelma HUPPATZ (1906-1982), Lutheran, Nurse, army matron, army nurse, hospital matron (general)

Huppatz, Rosa Zelma (1906–1982)

by Sally-Anne Nicholson

This article was published in Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 17, (MUP), 2007

Rosa Zelma Huppatz (1906-1982), nurse, was born on 20 July 1906 at Peters Hill, near Riverton, South Australia, fourth of eight children of Friedrich Carl Huppatz, farmer, and his wife Annie, née Smith. Zelma’s Lutheran family valued compassion, duty and education. With a quiet but happy disposition, she tried to respect the feelings of others and to `discuss’ but not `argue’, believing it `a mark of a superior mind to disagree and yet be friendly’. At Riverton High School she was awarded a prize for the student who had the best influence on others. From 1929 to 1932 Zelma trained as a nurse at the (Royal) Adelaide Hospital. She then studied (1932-33) at the Metropolitan Infectious Diseases Hospital, Northfield. After her return to the Adelaide Hospital she became a senior nurse in charge of a ward in 1934. She undertook a midwifery course (1938-39) at the Queen Alexandra Hospital for Women, Hobart.

Having joined the Australian Army Nursing Service Reserve, Huppatz began full-time duty in the Australian Imperial Force on 9 February 1940. She sailed for the Middle East in April and disembarked in Egypt next month. At first she worked in a British military hospital at Alexandria, nursing soldiers, sailors, airmen and merchant seamen of many nationalities. From August she was with the 2/2nd Australian General Hospital at El Kantara. She was given responsibility for assisting junior staff to adjust to their hazardous work and living conditions. Her spare time and money were spent visiting Palestine. Back in Australia in March 1942, Huppatz was matron of the 101st AGH at Katherine, Northern Territory, before her promotion to temporary lieutenant colonel and appointment as matron of the 105th (Adelaide) Military Hospital in July 1945. Her loyalty and devotion to duty impressed her superiors. She was transferred to the Reserve of Officers on 2 August 1946.

Huppatz was then appointed assistant-matron at the Royal Adelaide Hospital; she obtained her infant welfare certificate in 1947 at Torrens House. In order to promote better nursing education she helped to establish (1949) in Melbourne the College of Nursing, Australia, of which she became a fellow and later president (1959-60). In 1950 she studied nursing administration there. Concerned that schools of nursing sometimes operated as service units rather than places of education, she advocated the `block system’ in which students would have several weeks out of the hospital to attend lectures and study. She was appointed matron of RAH in 1955, a post that she held until her retirement in 1966.

A member (1957-65) of the Nurses Board of South Australia, Huppatz was also State councillor (1948-65) and State president (1962-65) of the (Royal) Australian Nursing Federation. She was an active member of the Returned Sisters sub-branch of the Returned Sailors’, Soldiers’ and Airmen’s Imperial League of Australia. In retirement she served (1967-79) on the board of the Home for Incurables and pursued her interests in theatre and music. She was awarded the Florence Nightingale medal by the International Committee of the Red Cross in 1963 and was appointed MBE in 1966. Never married, she died on 13 December 1982 at the hospital where she had nursed so many others, and was cremated.

Select Bibliography
* J. Durdin, They Became Nurses (1991)
* J. Durdin, Eleven Thousand Nurses (1999)
* Advertiser (Adelaide), 4 May 1955, p 5, 11 Aug 1959, p 14, 30 May 1963, p 29, 15 Dec 1982, p 9
* Australasian Nurses Journal, Jan-Feb 1983, p 8
* Series B883, item SX1490, and series A463, item 1965/5831 (National Archives of Australia).

162. 'Matron' Ruby May HYDE
'Matron' Ruby May HYDE was Missionary at Oodnadatta, Quorn and near Adelaide, South Australia. Ruby grew up on the old Bendigo goldfields. She was born on the 25 July 1891 Hotham East, North Melbourne, VIC and died on the 1st Jan 1982 in Adelaide, SA, having given her life as a Missionary to Aboriginal children, at Colebrook Home, first at Oodnadatta, then at Quorn and lastly at Eden Hills, near Adelaide, South Australia.

Matron Ruby-May Hyde, MBE, was born in Victoria in 1891 and studied at the Melbourne Bible Institute. After graduating in 1923, Matron Hyde studied children’s work at Bomaderry Children’s Home, New South Wales.

In December of 1925, Matron Hyde traveled to Oodnadatta and graciously replaced Miss Annie Lock and Miss Iris Harris as matron of the United Aborigines Mission (UAM) Children’s Home. In May 1927, Matron Hyde, accompanied by Sister Rutter, MBE, and the twelve Aboriginal children in their care traveled more than 600km to Quorn where they officially established the Colebrook Children’s Home; named as such in honor of South Australian UAM president, TE Colebrook. For the first 6 years of the Colebrook Home, Matron Hyde, with assistance of the UAM rented a small cottage, however due to insufficient water supplies the Colebrook Home was moved to another location within Quorn in May of 1933.
The original Quorn site for Colebrook Home was chosen because the South Australian Government refused to allow the children any closer to Adelaide. Fortunately, in 1944, the Australian Government agreed to allow Colebrook Home to be relocated to Eden Hills. Arrangements were made by the Commissioner of Public Works to secure the lease of a building and 10 acres of land for the home to be established on.

Matron Hyde’s affection for the children at Colebrook Home was only matched by her dedication to her faith. Many of the children looked back fondly on the time they spent in Quorn and Eden Hills, commonly saying they felt more like a family with two parental figures in Matron Hyde and Sister Rutter.

Matron Hyde continued as caretaker and guardian of the children at Colebrook Home until 1952. A split in the UAM caused both Matron Hyde and Sister Rutter to resign. Not long after that, the sisters open Tanderra Hostel for Girls.

In 1971, Matron Hyde and Sister Rutter were made Members of the Order of the British Empire (MBE) for their services and dedication to the care of Australian Aboriginal children. Matron Hyde died in 1982 at the age of 91.' from South Australian Museum.

"In 1944 the Home moved to Eden Hills, Adelaide. In 1952 she retired and with Sister Rutter established Tanderra Hostel for older Aboriginal girls, in Parkside, later in Torrensville, Adelaide. Colebrook children, many now professionals in high positions, witness to her faithful loving service. Her appointment as MBE (1971) was public recognition of that work."

Reference and Source : 1. Christobel MATTINGLEY - Ruby May Hyde (1891-1982) - Australian Dictionary of Evangelical Biography.

2. South Australian Museum : Provenance - AA 148 Matron Ruby-May Hyde []

- Colebrook Home, Eden Hills, South Australia -

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